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Visual Processing

"The role of the optometrist in the multi-disciplinary approach is to assess the child's visual abilities. Attempting to function in the academic environment with poor visual abilities may result in fatigue, short attention span, avoidance of near work, slower performance, and reversals or transpositions. Deficient eye-hand coordination can result in sloppy or tedious handwriting which will interfere with a child's ability to express thoughts in writing." Parents Active for Vision Education (PAVE)

See also ...
bulletAD/HD and Executive Function
bulletAsperger's Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism
bulletAuditory Processing (APD / CAPD)
bulletDyslexia, Dysgraphia and Dyscalculia
bulletOppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
bulletNonverbal Learning Disabilities
bulletOppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
bulletSensory Integration (SI)
bulletTwice Exceptional
bulletTwice Exceptional in College
bullet2e Products and 2e Books
bullet2e = Exceptional Squared!

Vision Therapy is controversial...
The next few articles and research references present two sides of the controversy: that of doctors of optometry, and that of doctors of ophthalmology.  Both sides claim scientific research supports their position. The research is only clear on certain vision difficulties responding to therapy, specifically Convergence Insufficiency; there is no research to show vision therapy helps with ADHD, autism, or developmental delays.
Care of the Patient with Accommodative and Vergence Dysfunction American Optometric Association
The situation: Accommodative and vergence dysfunction comprises a group of neuromuscular disorders that may occur at any time after the normal development of binocular vision (6 months of age). These anomalies may cause a host of symptoms, including, but not limited to, blurred vision, headaches, asthenopia, diplopia, loss of concentration, motion sickness, and fatigue. Such symptoms may interfere with school or work performance and thus decrease a patient's quality of life. Most accommodative and vergence dysfunctions respond to the appropriate use of lenses, prisms, or vision therapy... 
Pediatric Eye And Vision Examination American Optometric Association
Evaluation: If a binocular vision disorder or an ocular motility problem is suspected, consultation with an optometrist or ophthalmologist who has advanced clinical training or experience with this population may be warranted...
Care of the Patient with Learning Related Vision Problems American Optometric Association (AOA), 2008
The therapy: The goal of the management of learning related vision problems is to prepare the individual to take full advantage of the opportunities for learning. Optometric intervention directed toward improving visual function to its appropriate level has been shown to be efficacious. It does not replace conventional educational programming but is a necessary complementary intervention to maximize the learning environment and the effectiveness of pedagogy. ...visual efficiency deficits should be treated aggressively, using lenses, prisms, and vision therapy...
Learning Disabilities, Dyslexia, and Vision: A Subject Review American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), 1998
The con: Learning disabilities are common conditions in pediatric patients. The etiology of these difficulties is multifactorial, reflecting genetic influences and abnormalities of brain structure and function. Early recognition and referral to qualified educational professionals is critical for the best possible outcome. Visual problems are rarely responsible for learning difficulties. No scientific evidence exists for the efficacy of eye exercises ("vision therapy")...
New York Times: Concocting a Cure for Kids With Issues New York Times, 2010
Through a practice referred to as vision therapy a combination of in-office and at-home eye exercises many of these optometrists claim they can offer significant help for problems that go far beyond the headaches, neck aches, eyestrain and poor posture typically associated with vision problems.

At base, the dispute comes down to the fact that behavioral optometrists and pediatric ophthalmologists define what constitutes a diagnosable level of problems like convergence insufficiency differently. ... The studies came out in favor of in-office exercises for convergence insufficiency...
College of Optometrists in Vision Development (COVD)
Professionals answer questions including "What is Vision Therapy?" and "Vision and Learning"
Parents Active for Vision Education (PAVE)
20/20 vision is not enough!  Current research indicates that approximately 1 out of 4 children have vision problems which interfere with their ability to achieve
Professionals compiled by Carolyn K.
Need an audiologist, educational therapist, developmental optometrist for your gifted child?  These professionals have been recommended by other parents and professionals...

Last updated December 01, 2020

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