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Long-term Effects of Inclusion (November 2003)

What does research say about the long-term effects of inclusion?

"During the twenty-two years between the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act's (IDEA) first enactment (1975) and its most recent reauthorization (1997), which strengthened its inclusion provisions, extraordinary progress has been made toward including students with disabilities in schools and in the general curriculum. Many teachers and parents have found ways to implement the least restrictive environment principle and to move from mere mainstreaming to authentic inclusion. In general, students with disabilities in inclusive settings have shown improvement in standardized tests, acquired social and communication skills previously undeveloped, shown increased interaction with peers, achieved more and higher-quality IEP goals, and are better prepared for postschool experiences. There is also evidence that inclusive settings can expand a student's personal interests and knowledge of the world, which is excellent preparation for adulthood. The positive effects of inclusive education on classmates without disabilities have been well documented. Both research and anecdotal data have shown that typical learners have demonstrated a greater acceptance and valuing of individual differences, enhanced self-esteem, a genuine capacity for friendship, and the acquisition of new skills. Low-achieving students also benefited from the review, practice, clarity, and feedback provided to students with disabilities. When inclusive education is implemented appropriately, all students benefit." (From Inclusive Education: Practical Implementation of the Least Restrictive Environment by Power-deFur and Orelove. Aspen Publishers, Inc., 200 Orchard Ridge Drive, Suite 200, Gaithersburg, MD 20878)

Following are links to ERIC digests, minibibliographies, frequently asked questions (FAQs), related Internet resources, and Internet discussion groups, as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the citations.

You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:

ERIC Citations

The full text of citations beginning with an ED number (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:

  • In microfiche collections worldwide; to find your nearest ERIC Resource Collection, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm.
  • For a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com, service@edrs.com, or 1.800.443.ERIC. (no longer available)

The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:

ERIC Search Terms Used

inclusive schools


program effectiveness OR outcomes of education

EJ552080 EC617219
Are Inclusive Programs for Students with Mild Disabilities Effective?
Manset, Genevieve; Semmel, Melvyn I.
Journal of Special Education, v31 n2 p155-80 Sum 1997
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJMAR98
This paper compares eight inclusive models for elementary students with mild disabilities, described in terms of curricular innovations and organization of personnel and classrooms. Results suggest that inclusive programming can be effective for some, but not all, students with mild disabilities and that organizational and instructional changes associated with inclusive programming had a positive effect on nondisabled students' achievement.
Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Classroom Environment; Educational Change; Educational Innovation; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Mild Disabilities; *Models; *Program Effectiveness; Theory Practice Relationship

EJ547354 EC616017
Using Nondisabled Peers To Support the Inclusion of Students with Disabilities at the Junior High School Level.
Staub, Debbie; And Others
Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, v21 n4 p194-205 Win 1996
ISSN: 0274-9483
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC97
A study of a junior high school inclusion program that provided four students with disabilities with nondisabled student aids found the students with disabilities experienced growth in levels of independence, social networks, academic skills, and in behavior. Describes beneficial outcomes for the student aids and contributing successful program characteristics.
Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Behavior Change; *Disabilities; *Inclusive Schools; Junior High Schools; Peer Influence; *Peer Teaching; *Personal Autonomy; Program Design; *Program Effectiveness; *Social Networks; Tutoring

EJ544438 EC616462
Academic Effects of Providing Peer Support in General Education Classrooms on Students without Disabilities.
Cushing, Lisa Sharon; Kennedy, Craig H.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, v30 n1 p139-51 Spr 1997
ISSN: 0021-8855
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT97
A study of three children (ages 11-13) without disabilities who served as peer supports for students with disabilities in general education classrooms found that serving as a peer support had positive academic effects on the students without disabilities. Follow-up probes demonstrated that the positive benefits regarding academic engagement endured over time.
Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Disabilities; *Helping Relationship; *Inclusive Schools; Intermediate Grades; Peer Relationship; *Peer Teaching; Program Effectiveness

EJ540977 EC615649
An Exploratory Study of Mainstreamed Seventh Graders' Perceptions of an Inclusive Approach to Instruction.
Summey, Heidi K.; Strahan, David B.
Remedial and Special Education, v18 n1 p36-45 Jan-Feb 1997
ISSN: 0741-9325
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJAUG97
Eleven seventh-grade students with mild disabilities in a general language arts classroom participated in a study that examined the effects of an instructional approach based on Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Results found the students were more engaged in classroom activities and that eight of the students demonstrated more consistent reading strategies.
Descriptors: Grade 7; *Inclusive Schools; Junior High Schools; Language Arts; *Mainstreaming; *Mild Disabilities; *Program Effectiveness; *Reading Instruction; Reading Strategies; Student Attitudes; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Multiple Intelligences

ED408745 EC305616
The Impact of Inclusion of Students with Challenging Needs.
Bang, Myong-Ye; Lamb, Peg
1996 17p.; Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps (TASH) (New Orleans, LA, November 1996).
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (ED), Washington, DC. Div. of Personnel Preparation.
Contract No: H0023R20010
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Michigan
Journal Announcement: RIENOV97
This study examined the impact of 3 years of full inclusion of students with severe disabilities in a Lansing (Michigan) high school. Teacher and parent surveys as well as observations of student interactions and classrooms were used to evaluate inclusion of seven students with low-incidence disabilities (autistic impairment, trainable mental impairment, severe mental impairment, and severe multiple impairments). In general, parents reported positive changes in family life with increased interactions with family friends and neighbors, decreased behavioral problems, but increased parenting stress. Both special and general education teachers reported that information sharing, development of instructional materials, and support from consultants and paraprofessions were effective. Similarly, both groups of educators reported that in-service programs, staff development activities, and technical assistance from the district were ineffective. Parents and teachers agreed that students' in-school opportunities for interaction with nondisabled students were enhanced in the inclusive setting. Observation of classrooms found interactions between included students and nondisabled peers to be overwhelmingly accepting. Classroom observations also indicated that paraprofessionals assisted the included students in understanding directions but tended to dominate the student's interactions. Implications for improved staff development in the future are discussed.
Descriptors: Autism; High School Students; High Schools; *Inclusive Schools; Inservice Teacher Education; Interaction Process Analysis; Interpersonal Relationship; Mainstreaming; Moderate Mental Retardation; Multiple Disabilities; Paraprofessional School Personnel; *Parent Attitudes; Peer Acceptance; Program Effectiveness; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; Secondary School Teachers; *Severe Disabilities; Severe Mental Retardation; Special Education Teachers; Staff Development; *Teacher Collaboration
Identifiers: *Lansing School District MI

ED400148 RC020744
A Field Test of A Full Inclusion Project.
Din, Feng S.
Mar 1996 26p.; Presented at the Center for the Study of Small/Rural Schools Creating the Quality School Conference (Oklahoma City, OK, March 28-30, 1996).
EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Kentucky
Journal Announcement: RIEFEB97
An experimental project was implemented to test the effectiveness of full inclusion of students with learning and behavioral disorders at a rural middle school within the Appalachian region of Kentucky. Thirteen students with behavioral disorders or learning disabilities were placed in four regular classrooms for 3 months. Five teachers participated in the project and received training prior to the project. Adapted curriculum and instructional procedures, and classroom behavior management strategies were applied. Routine collaborative activities were organized during the process. It was found that students with behavioral disorders or severe learning disabilities could not benefit academically and behaviorally from the full inclusion service provided in the project, and the learning of students without disabilities was affected because instructional plans could not be accomplished. However, full inclusion appears to be appropriate for students with mild learning disabilities. This study addresses a basic issue: the necessity for schools to provide quality educational services to students with and without disabilities in inclusion practice.
Descriptors: Behavior Disorders; Classroom Techniques; Disabilities; *Inclusive Schools; Junior High Schools; *Learning Disabilities; Mainstreaming; Middle Schools; *Program Effectiveness; Program Evaluation; Regular and Special Education Relationship; *Rural Schools; *Special Education
Identifiers: Kentucky (East)

ED395418 EC304812
The Process of Including Elementary Students with Autism and Intellectual Impairments in Their Typical Classrooms.
Downing, June E.; And Others
Apr 1996 49p.; Paper presented at the Annual International Convention of the Council for Exceptional Children (74th, Orlando, FL, April 1-5, 1996).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; California
Journal Announcement: RIEOCT96
A qualitative case study methodology was used to examine the process of including three students with autism, intellectual impairments, and behavioral challenges in age-appropriate typical classrooms and home schools. Data were obtained over a 9-month period from field notes of a participant researcher and three paraeducators, structured observations, samples of student work, and pre/post interviews with 17 key individuals. Findings describe a process requiring ongoing modifications and adjustments to meet individual needs and expectations. All three students demonstrated considerable progress in the areas of social interactions with peers, increased self-control, and ability to follow class rules and directions, as well as academic skill development. However, by the end of the year all three students still required considerable support, were not performing on grade level, and were still having difficulty socially interacting and controlling their inappropriate behavior. Adult reactions were mixed. Although seven adults stated they were neutral about inclusion at the beginning of the project, only two reported this position in May. However, the number of people indicating a negative view of inclusion increased from one to three. The number of respondents who believed that a major benefit of inclusion was teaching nondisabled students to appreciate differences increased from 8 to 14. Interview questions and a classroom observation form are appended.
Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Attitude Change; *Autism; Behavior Disorders; Case Studies; Classroom Observation Techniques; Elementary Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Interpersonal Competence; *Mental Retardation; Multiple Disabilities; Outcomes of Education; Parent Attitudes; Peer Relationship; Qualitative Research; Self Control; Severe Disabilities; Social Integration; Student Educational Objectives; *Teacher Attitudes

ED389102 EC304387
Effects of Inclusion on Academic Outcomes.
Willrodt, Ken; Claybrook, Shirley
Aug 1995 41p.; Research Paper, Sam Houston State University.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Texas
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR96
This study compared math and reading achievement in the fifth grades of two suburban elementary schools, one which utilized a traditional approach of pull-out special education classrooms and the other which utilized an inclusion program for special education services. The Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) was used to measure the math outcomes of 98 fifth graders and the reading outcomes of 80 fifth graders at the inclusion school, and the math outcomes of 143 fifth graders and the reading outcomes of 129 fifth graders at the traditional school. Chi square analysis reflected no significant difference in passing rates on the TAAS in math and reading between the two groups. The study concluded that the decision as to which program is more beneficial cannot be made based solely on expected academic improvements. Appendixes include a student attitudes survey instrument, data tables, and a paper on inclusion.
Descriptors: Academic Achievement; *Disabilities; Grade 5; *Inclusive Schools; Intermediate Grades; Mainstreaming; *Mathematics Achievement; *Outcomes of Education; Program Effectiveness; *Reading Achievement; Standardized Tests

ED385090 EC304124
Proof Positive...Inclusion Works. Topic Area: Learning Disabilities.
Beckers, Gerlinde G.; Carnes, Julia S.
Apr 1995 26p.; Paper presented at the Annual International Convention of the Council for Exceptional Children (73rd, Indianapolis, IN, April 5-9, 1995).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Louisiana
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC95
This paper describes the successful implementation of an inclusion program which placed students with mild disabilities in regular education classes in a rural Louisiana school system. A unique quality of this program is that it utilized only existing staff. Advantages and disadvantages of such a program and the seven-step program development and implementation process are itemized. A brief teacher survey to determine attitudes toward students with disabilities is included. Also outlined are criteria for student selection; criteria for student performance; an example of an individualized education program (IEP) objective; an example of an IEP goal; and job responsibilities of the special education teacher, the paraprofessional, and the general education teacher. The program has served 17 students in its first year of operation. Substantial academic and social progress was observed by the end of the school year, parental support had increased, and more general education teachers wanted to be involved in the inclusion program. An attached form identifies both mandated and recommended instructional modifications. Also attached is a handbook of instructional modifications used in the program. Modifications address assignments, content, tests, instructional activities for different learning styles, alternatives to written reports, alternative approaches to student grading, notebook organization, color-coding textbooks and assignments, and peer tutors.
Descriptors: Classroom Techniques; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; Individualized Education Programs; Individualized Instruction; *Learning Disabilities; *Mild Disabilities; *Program Development; Program Effectiveness; Program Implementation; Regular and Special Education Relationship; *Rural Education; Teacher Attitudes; Teacher Role
Identifiers: Louisiana

ED385054 EC304087
Observations of Parents, Teachers, and Principals during the First Year of Implementation of Inclusion in Two Midwestern School Districts.
Turner, Nancy D.; Traxler, Maryann
Apr 1995 33p.; Paper presents at the Annual Convention of the Council for Exceptional Children (73rd, Indianapolis, IN, April 5-9, 1995).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Indiana
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC95
Two suburban school districts in Indiana were designated as inclusion pilot sites by the state legislature during the 1992-93 school year. Twenty-one students with moderate or severe disabilities and sensory impairments were integrated into their neighborhood schools. Observations of parents and general education teachers of these students were assessed using surveys, and principals in the schools were interviewed. As perceived by these groups, the greatest success of the program was the social benefit to the included students. Critical factors in the program's success included training in modification of curriculum, collaboration among colleagues, and approaching the inclusion process with a positive attitude.
Descriptors: *Administrator Attitudes; *Demonstration Programs; Educational Change; Elementary Education; Hearing Impairments; *Inclusive Schools; Interpersonal Relationship; Junior High Schools; Middle Schools; *Parent Attitudes; Program Effectiveness; Program Evaluation; Program Implementation; School Districts; *Severe Disabilities; *Teacher Attitudes; Visual Impairments
Identifiers: Indiana; Moderate Disabilities

ED385042 EC304075
The Evaluation of Inclusive Education Programs.
Lipsky, Dorothy Kerzner; Gartner, Alan
City Univ. of New York, NY. National Center on Educational Restructuring and Inclusion.
NCERI Bulletin, v2 n2 Spr 1995
9p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: SERIAL (022); REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC95
This bulletin summarizes research on the benefits of inclusive education programs; provides data on the current status of special education; and considers studies of individual inclusion programs, state and district studies, and the effects of inclusion on students without disabilities. The research and evaluation data on inclusion indicate a strong trend toward improved student outcomes (academic, behavior, and social) for both special education and general education students. It is suggested that the drive for upgrading standards and the inclusion of all students in these reforms has created tension for educators. A point of congruence between the school effectiveness efforts and those promoting inclusion is that a new approach must become part of a restructured educational system. Districts conducting successful restructuring programs that include all students have identified the following key factors: visionary leadership; collaboration; refocused use of assessment; supports for staff and students; funding that is sufficient and "follows the student," and effective parent and family involvement.
Descriptors: Academic Achievement; *Disabilities; Educational Improvement; Educational Research; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; Mainstreaming; *Outcomes of Education; *Program Effectiveness; Program Evaluation; School Effectiveness; Social Integration; Special Education; Student Behavior

EJ632525 EC628100
Title: Facilitating General Education Participation for Students with Behavior Problems by Linking Positive Behavior Supports and Person-Centered Planning.
Author(s) Kennedy, Craig H.; Long, Terry; Jolivette, Kristine; Cox, Jennifer; Tang, Jung-Chang; Thompson, Travis
Source: Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, v9 n3 p161-71 Fall 2001
Publication Date: 2001
ISSN: 1063-4266
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAR2002
The effects of combining positive behavior supports and person-centered planning on the problem behavior and general education participation of three students (ages 6-8) were examined. Two of the students increased or maintained high levels of general education participation and showed decreases in problem behavior. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
Descriptors: *Behavior Modification; *Behavior Problems; *Educational Planning; Elementary Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Positive Reinforcement; *Program Effectiveness; Student Participation; Teamwork

EJ627750 CS760959
Title: Inservice Training To Facilitate Inclusion: An Outcomes Evaluation. Author(s) Johnson, Lewis R.
Source: Reading and Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, v16 n3 p281-87 Jul-Sep 2000
Publication Date: 2000
ISSN: 1057-3569
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Descriptive (141); Reports-- Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC2001 Describes a training program implemented by the Arkansas Department of Education- Special Education designed to assist schools in developing and implementing inclusive policies and practices within a school. Finds that the program is having a positive influence in creating more inclusive programming for students with disabilities. Offers recommendations. (RS)
Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Inservice Teacher Education; Learning Disabilities; Professional Development; Program Descriptions; *Program Effectiveness
Identifiers: Arkansas

EJ623193 EC626992
Title: Understanding Coteaching Components.
Author(s) Gately, Susan E.; Gately, Frank J., Jr.
Source: TEACHING Exceptional Children, v33 n4 p40-47 Mar-Apr 2001
Publication Date: 2001
ISSN: 0040-0599
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJSEP2001
This article describes components of co-teaching and gives examples of what the teacher interactions of that component may resemble at each developmental stage of co- teaching: the beginning stage, the compromise stage, and the collaborative stage. The Coteaching Rating Scale is presented for examining the effectiveness of co- teaching classrooms. (CR)
Descriptors: *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; Informal Assessment; *Program Effectiveness; Program Evaluation; Rating Scales; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; *Teacher Collaboration; *Team Teaching

EJ614728 EC625923
Title: Promoting Social Competence in Deaf Students: The Effect of an Intervention Program.
Author(s) Suarez, Maria
Source: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, v5 n4 p323-36 Fall 2000
Publication Date: 2000
ISSN: 1081-4159
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJAPR2001
Target Audience: Researchers
This study evaluated a social skills training program with 18 deaf children (ages 9 to 13) in mainstream settings in three elementary schools in the Canary Islands. It found the intervention improved students' social problem solving skills and their assertive skills. However, no significant differences in social or academic integration as judged by peers in a sociometric questionnaire were found. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)
Descriptors: Assertiveness; *Deafness; Elementary Education; Foreign Countries; *Inclusive Schools; *Interpersonal Competence; Intervention; Mainstreaming; Problem Solving; *Program Effectiveness; Program Evaluation; Questionnaires; *Social Integration; Sociometric Techniques
Identifiers: *Canary Islands; Social Skills Training

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