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Inclusive Settings (updated November 2003)

What are effective methods for accommodating students with disabilities in inclusive settings?

"When IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) was implemented in the 1977-1978 school year and until sometime in the mid-1980's, the term that described the education of students with disabilities with those who did not have disabilities was mainstreaming, defined as the educational arrangement of placing handicapped students in regular classes with their nonhandicapped peers to the maximum extent appropriate'. Typically, mainstreaming was implemented by having students with disabilities participate in the nonacademic portions of the general education program, such as art, music, and physical education. Most of those students were, however, still enrolled in self-contained special education classes; they "visited" general education classes for a relatively small portion of time. For many educators and parents, mainstreaming provided far too little and came much too late for the students. Sometime in the mid-1980's, their impatience became evident in a movement known as the "Regular Education Initiative" (LRE). The debate centered around five key issues which included: the exclusion of many students who needed special educational support; the withholding of special programs until the student failed rather than making specially designed instruction available earlier to prevent failure; no support for promoting cooperative, supported partnerships between educators and parents; and using pull-out programs to serve students with disabilities rather than adapting the general education program to accommodate their needs. Ultimately, the regular education initiative caused significant changes in the entire approach to special education. A new term, inclusion, and a new technique, collaboration, evolved." (From Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Today's Schools, 2nd Edition. Turnbull, Turnbull and others. Merrill Publishing, Prentice Hall, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458)

Following are links to ERIC digests, minibibliographies, frequently asked questions (FAQs), related Internet resources, and Internet discussion groups, as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the citations.


You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:

ERIC Citations

The full text of citations beginning with an ED number (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:

  • In microfiche collections worldwide; to find your nearest ERIC Resource Collection, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm.
  • For a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com, service@edrs.com, or 1.800.443.ERIC. (no longer available)

The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:

ERIC Search Terms Used

inclusive schools

EJ537643 EC615343
Accommodating Students with Special Needs in General Education Classrooms.
Arllen, Nancy L.; And Others
Preventing School Failure, v41 n1 p7-13 Fall 1996
ISSN: 1045-988X
Language: English
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); POSITION PAPER (120)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUN97
This article discusses the process and structures of teacher collaboration; the collaborative tools available to educators for accommodating students with disabilities in regular settings; and the instructional, curricular, and contextual factors in designing more inclusive educational programs. It proposes a decision network that collaborating teachers can use in planning and implementing mainstream instruction.
Descriptors: Cooperative Programs; Decision Making; *Disabilities; Educational Cooperation; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Instructional Development; Mainstreaming; *Teacher Collaboration
Identifiers: *Academic Accommodations (Disabilities)

ED412689 EC305889
The Co-Teaching Manual: How To Successfully Include Special Needs Students in the Classroom.
Basso, Dianne; McCoy, Natalie
1996; 79p. Available From: Twins Publications, P.O. Box 6364, Columbia, SC 29260-6364;
telephone: 803-782-1781; fax: 803-787-8508 ($23.95).
Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055); TEST, QUESTIONNAIRE (160)
Geographic Source: U.S.; South Carolina
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR98
Target Audience: Practitioners; Teachers
This manual offers step-by-step guidance for implementing a secondary level co-teaching program to provide mild to moderately impaired learning disabled students with maximum inclusion time through a combination of co-teaching, resource room programs, and consultation. Individual sections include definition of co-teaching and reasons for its use; starting a co-teaching program; principles of co-teaching; tips for co-teaching (do's and don'ts); classroom modifications (instructional, testing, and other modifications) and other related topics.
Descriptors: Classroom Techniques; Consultation Programs; Definitions; *Inclusive Schools; *Learning Disabilities; Mainstreaming; *Mild Mental Retardation; Program Development; Records (Forms); *Regular and Special Education Relationship; Resource Room Programs; Secondary Education; *Teacher Collaboration; Teaching Models; *Team Teaching

EJ533413 SP525510
Using a Spectrum of Staff Development Activities to Support Inclusion.
Beninghof, Anne M.
Journal of Staff Development, v17 n3 p12-15 Sum 1996
ISSN: 0276-928X
Language: English
Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055); PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAR97
Discusses ways for school districts to implement successful inclusion using various staff development methods that can be tailored to individual needs. The paper explores issues unique to inclusion that demand individualized approaches, offers a model for developing staff development activities, and presents an example of one district's successful staff development efforts.
Descriptors: Change Strategies; *Disabilities; *Educational Change; Elementary School Teachers; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; Secondary School Teachers; *Staff Development; Teacher Improvement

EJ526042 EC613869
Preventing School Failure for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities through Responsible Inclusion.
Cheney, Doug; Muscott, Howard S.
Preventing School Failure, v40 n3 p109-16 Spr 1996
Theme issue: Inclusion and the Education of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.
ISSN: 1045-988X
Language: English Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141)
Journal Announcement: CIJNOV96
This article summarizes a process model designed to help schools include students with complex social, emotional, and behavioral needs in general classroom settings. Challenges to inclusion of these students are identified, and the seven-step model is explained and illustrated through examples of systems change projects throughout New Hampshire.
Descriptors: *Behavior Disorders; *Change Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; *Emotional Disturbances; High Risk Students; *Inclusive Schools; *Models; Prevention; Systems Approach
Identifiers: New Hampshire

EJ542178 CE530694
Inclusion: Developing Collaborative and Cooperative School Communities.
Cross, Lee; Walker-Knight, Donna
Educational Forum, v61 n3 p269-77 Spr 1997
ISSN: 0013-1725
Language: English
Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJSEP97
Supportive methods such as peer tutoring and cooperative learning, and co-teaching by special and general educators, can improve inclusion of students with diverse academic and social needs. Teachers, students, and parents must become part of a learning community that recognizes each member's unique gifts.
Descriptors: *Cooperative Learning; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Peer Teaching; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; *Teacher Collaboration; Team Teaching; Tutoring

ED413290 SP037569
Changing Tactics: Research on Embedding Inclusion Reforms within General Education Restructuring Efforts.
Ferguson, Dianne L.
1997; 19p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, March 24-28, 1997).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141); CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Oregon
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR98
This paper summarizes what one research team learned when examining three issues related to inclusive education and general education reform in collaboration with schools in three rural districts in Oregon. The issues were: (1) how does special education becomes an integral part of public schooling; (2) how will higher education, research organizations, educational labs, institutes, and other research organizations need to change; and (3) how should families, community members, community agencies, and businesses participate in large scale school change. There is increasing certainty among growing numbers of educators that inclusive reforms in special education must be pursued in terms of general education restructuring and improvement. The Oregon collaborations have focused on helping schools and districts: to develop the comprehensive information systems necessary for school improvement planning and action; to access needed professional development; and to support individual and collective action research efforts. The research team learned that to achieve a broad perspective encompassing all teachers, curricular reforms, teaching reforms, support personnel, policies, and strategies for student assessment it is necessary for research to emphasize change in three action arenas: move from a focus on teaching to one on learning; move from reliance on individual teacher practice to reliance on group practice; and move from an effort to "deliver service" to one of "providing learner supports."
Descriptors: *Change Strategies; Diversity (Student); *Educational Change; *Educational Objectives; Educational Policy; Elementary Secondary Education; *Faculty Development; Higher Education; *Inclusive Schools; Inservice Teacher Education; Public Education; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; Rural Schools; School Districts; School Restructuring; Teacher Collaboration
Identifiers: *Oregon

ED405718 EC305442
From "Special" Educators to Educators: The Case for Mixed Ability Groups of Teachers in Restructured Schools.
Ferguson, Dianne L.; And Others
1996; 53p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120); RESEARCH REPORT (143)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Oregon
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG97
This analysis of the changing role of the special educator to that of the inclusion specialist reviews the logic of these changes, presents results of research on the role of the inclusion specialist, analyzes the limitations of these changing roles, and presents an alternative view of professional roles in which teachers share the teaching of a mixed-ability group. The changing role of the special educator is examined and contrasted to the new role of the inclusion specialist in theory and in practice. Results of interviews with 19 inclusion specialists are summarized. Limitations of the specialist role are identified, including logistical problems, the personal loss of less contact with children, and the negative effects of the "expert" role.
Descriptors: Change Strategies; *Disabilities; Educational Change; Educational Trends; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; Mainstreaming; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; School Restructuring; *Special Education Teachers; Teacher Collaboration; *Teacher Role; *Team Teaching

EJ517850 EA531583
What Do I Do Now? A Teacher's Guide to Including Students with Disabilities.
Giangreco, Michael F.
Educational Leadership, v53 n5 p56-59 Feb 1996
ISSN: 0013-1784
Language: English
Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUN96
Successful classroom teachers have the skills to teach students with disabilities. Teachers should consult with colleagues and specialists; welcome disabled students; accept full teaching responsibility; facilitate students' belonging; clarify expectations with team members; adapt activities and arrangements; provide active, participatory learning experiences; use support services; and evaluate teaching practices.
Descriptors: *Classroom Techniques; Cooperative Learning; *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; Teacher Effectiveness; Teacher Expectations of Students; *Teacher Responsibility; *Teaching Methods; *Teamwork

EJ523891 SP525085
Grappling with Inclusion Confusion?
Golomb, Kristen Girard; Hammeken, Peggy
Learning, v24 n4 p48-51 Jan-Feb 1996
ISSN: 0090-3167
Language: English
Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJSEP96
Examines six issues that can make or break an inclusion program (commitment, flexible scheduling, working as a team, making modifications, classroom setup, and believing in the students). Information is provided on statistics on inclusion by state, percentages of students with various disabilities in regular classrooms, and resources and organizations.
Descriptors: Curriculum Development; Disabilities; Elementary Education; Elementary School Students; Elementary School Teachers; *Inclusive Schools; *Mainstreaming; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; Scheduling; Secondary School Students; Secondary School Teachers; Teaching Methods; Teamwork

EJ542837 EC616574
Research on Inclusive Educational Programs, Practices, and Outcomes for Students with Severe Disabilities.
Hunt, Pam; Goetz, Lori
Journal of Special Education, v31 n1 p3-29 Spr 1997
Special Issue: "Research in Severe Disabilities." For reactions of Respondents, see EC 616 575.
ISSN: 0022-4669
Language: English
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
Journal Announcement: CIJSEP97
A review of 19 investigations of inclusive educational programs, practices, and outcomes for students with severe disabilities groups the research into five categories: (1) parents' attitudes toward educational placement; (2) issues and practices; (3) costs; (4) educational achievement outcomes; and (5) social outcomes. Six themes were identified across the studies and offer guidelines for research and practice.
Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Educational Practices; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Instructional Effectiveness; Interpersonal Competence; *Outcomes of Education; Parent Attitudes; Peer Relationship; Program Costs; *Program Effectiveness; *Severe Disabilities

EJ546013 EC616557
Best Academic Practices for Inclusive Classrooms.
King-Sears, Margaret E.
Focus on Exceptional Children, v29 n7 p1-22 Mar 1997
ISSN: 0015-511X
Language: English
Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJNOV97
Target Audience: Practitioners
Discusses strategies for successful inclusion of children with disabilities in general education classrooms. Describes necessary components and practices, including cooperative learning, strategy instruction, differentiated instruction, self-determination, explicit instruction, curriculum-based assessment, generalization techniques, collaboration, proactive behavior management, and peer supports.
Descriptors: *Cooperative Learning; Curriculum Based Assessment; *Disabilities; *Educational Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; Generalization; *Inclusive Schools; *Individualized Instruction; Intervention; Peer Relationship; *Program Effectiveness; Self Determination; Teacher Collaboration

ED403708 EC305273
Handbook for Successful Inclusion.
Kochhar, Carol A.; West, Lynda L.
1996; 220p.
ISBN: 0-8342-0709-5
Available From: Aspen Publishers, Inc., P.O. Box 990, Frederick, MD 21704 ($39).
Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: BOOK (010); NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Maryland
Journal Announcement: RIEJUN97
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
This manual is intended to help regular and special educators and related professionals to better serve special learners in inclusive settings through identifying practical strategies for the classroom and school, and techniques for overcoming barriers to inclusion. The manual is written in a question-and-answer format. Chapters addresses the challenge of inclusion, strategies for overcoming barriers to inclusion, the continuum of placement options, assessment of student needs for instruction, assessment of readiness for inclusion, staff development needs, planning for inclusion, class size, curriculum modifications, support services, interdisciplinary teams, the role of technology, promotion of parent participation, the transition from school to work, and the future of inclusion.
Descriptors: *Classroom Techniques; Delivery Systems; *Disabilities; Educational Philosophy; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; Program Development; Program Evaluation; Program Implementation; Regular and Special Education Relationship; Student Placement

EJ518001 EC613016
Learning Together in Inclusive Classrooms: What about the Curriculum?
Stainback, William; And Others
TEACHING Exceptional Children, v28 n3 p14-19 Spr 1996
ISSN: 0040-0599
Language: English
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); TEACHING GUIDE (052)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUN96
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
This article suggests strategies to make classroom curricula adaptive, flexible, and challenging to all students, including those with disabilities. Descriptions of eight sample learning activities illustrate the multiple adaptations possible. Principles such as the importance of the team approach, peer involvement, development of functional skills, and the values transmitted in an inclusive classroom are stressed.
Descriptors: *Classroom Techniques; *Curriculum Development; *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; Individualized Instruction; *Learning Activities; Student Educational Objectives

ED396502 EC304884
Teaching Kids with Learning Difficulties in the Regular Classroom: Strategies and Techniques Every Teacher Can Use To Challenge and Motivate Struggling Students.
Winebrenner, Susan
1996; 237p.
ISBN: 1-57542-004-X
Available From: Free Spirit Publishing, Inc., 400 First Avenue, North, Suite 616,
Minneapolis, MN 55401-1730 ($27.95).
Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: BOOK (010); NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Minnesota
Journal Announcement: RIENOV96
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
This book offers principles and practical suggestions for effectively teaching students with a variety of learning difficulties in the regular classroom, contains tips for helping all students feel welcome in the classroom,suggests ways to get all students involved in all learning activities, describes categories of students with learning difficulties, and focuses on matching teaching to individual student learning styles. Also included are a variety of methods to improve reading and writing, describes several alternative methods of assessing student learning, addresses behavior issues and offers suggestions for involving parents as part of the learning team.
Descriptors: Behavior Problems; Classroom Environment; *Classroom Techniques; Cognitive Style; Educational Methods; Educational Principles; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Learning Disabilities; *Learning Problems; *Learning Processes; Mainstreaming; Parent Participation; Reading Instruction; Slow Learners; Social Integration; Student Evaluation; Student Participation; *Teaching Methods; Writing Instruction

EJ623199 EC626998
Title: Making Learning Easier: Connecting New Knowledge to Things Students Already Know.
Author(s) Deshler, Donald; Schumaker, Jean; Bulgren, Janis; Lenz, Keith; Jantzen, Jean-Ellen; Adams, Gary; Carnine, Douglas; Grossen, Bonnie; Davis, Betsy; Marquis, Janet
Source: TEACHING Exceptional Children, v33 n4 p82-85 Mar-Apr 2001
Publication Date: 2001
ISSN: 0040-0599
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJSEP2001
This article discusses the challenge that students with disabilities face in high-school settings in trying to succeed within the general education curriculum. The Concept Anchoring Routine is profiled as a way to help adolescents connect new information they are expected to learn to information that is already familiar to them.
Descriptors: Adolescents; *Concept Teaching; *Disabilities; High Schools; *Inclusive Schools; *Learning Strategies; *Teaching Methods

EJ625502 SE565054
Title: Inclusive Classrooms.
Author(s) Alexakos, Konstantinos
Source: Science Teacher, v68 n3 p40-43 Mar 2001
Publication Date: 2001
ISSN: 0036-8555
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Classroom--Teacher (052); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT2001
Presents five standards-based strategies that science teachers can employ to address the particular needs of students with learning disabilities in order to work effectively in inclusive classrooms.
Descriptors: Classroom Techniques; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Learning Disabilities; *Science Education; Standards; *Teaching Methods

ED457163 SP040267
Title: Best Practices for High School Classrooms: What Award-Winning Secondary Teachers Do.
Author(s) Stone, Randi
Pages: 244
Publication Date: 2002
ISBN: 0-7619-7730-9
Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Availability: Corwin Press, Inc., A Sage Publications Company, 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320-2218 (paperback: ISBN-0-7619-7730-9, $27.95; hardbound: ISBN-0-7619-7729-5, $65.95). Tel: 800-818-7243 (Toll Free); Fax: 800-499-5323 (Toll Free); e-mail: order@corwinpress.com; Web site: http:// www.corwinpress.com.
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Collected works--General (020)
Geographic Source: U.S.; California
Journal Announcement: RIEFEB2002
Target Audience: Administrators; Practitioners; Teachers
This book provides guidance on high-impact teaching practices, offering first-hand accounts of award-winning teachers. Nine chapters include: (1) "Award-Winning Words of Wisdom," with topics: "High School Teaching Tips" (Jenny W. Holmstrom); "What Is a Good Teacher?" (Carey Jenkins); "Student Creativity" (Ronald W. Poplau); "Breaking Stereotypes through Interactive Role Planning" (Debra D. Peppers); and "The Doer of Good Becomes Good" (Ronald W. Poplau); (2) "Succeeding with Reading and Writing Instruction," with topics: "Graphic Organizers and Their Enhancement of Reading Comprehension at the Secondary Level" (Norma Butler May); "The Hero in Literature and in Life" (Terrie Saunders); "The Newspaper and the Novel" (Terrie Saunders); "Performance Assessment: Mixed Media in the Literature Class" (Jean E. Keppel Baldikoski); "Language Arts" (Debra Calvert); "The Multicultural Independent Study" (Terrie Saunders); "Chinese Literature and Culture, Lesson 1" (Wanda Jones Thomas); and "Succeeding with Reading and Writing Instructions and Learning Tolerance by Studying Another Culture through Literature: Chinese Literature and Culture, Lesson 2" (Wanda Jones Thomas); (3) "Succeeding with Mathematics Instruction," with topics: "What's Your Sport? A Statistical Challenge" (Linda E. Hains); "Using Boxes, Philosophy, and Art To Explain Limits" (Jenny W. Holmstrom); "Integrating Instructional Video in the Classroom" (Jenny W. Holmstrom); "Factoring Fiesta" (Eileen Stewart); and "Growing, Growing, GROWING!!! A Statistical Journey" (Linda E. Hains); (4) "Exploring Science, Math, and Technology," with topics: "Students as Teachers" (Douglas L. Bailer); "The Science Learning Center" (Shirley Newton); "Physics and Technology" (William Ennis); "Educational Stories" (Douglas L. Bailer); "The 'Peer Celebration'" (Carmen Gumina); "Building and Flying Remote- Controlled Model Airplanes" (Douglas L. Bailer); and "Determining the Brain's Processing Time Using Two Different Methods" (Roy Coleman); (5) "Threading Technology through the Curriculum," with topics: "Living Textbook Project" (Linda E. Hains); and "Keeping Rural South Dakota Students in Touch with the World" (Brenda Lynch); (6) "Considering Special Needs," with topics: "Integrating Inclusion in the Classroom with the Help of Technology" (Rebecca Kelly); and "The I CAN Work Program" (Nancy Barnett); (7) "Teaching Social Studies and Geography in the High School Grades," with topics: "Reading Books Instead of Book Reviews" (James Wade D'Acosta); "Teacher for a Day" (Janine A. Jellander); and "Scenario Groups" (James Wade D'Acosta); (8) "Looking at Visual Arts and Physical Education," with topics: "Visual Arts Standards and Creativity" (Diana W. McDougal); and "Choose Adventure" (Nancy J. Pudas); and (9) "Topic Smorgasbord: Sharing More Key High School Issues and Perspectives," with topics: "Making Community Connections" (Karla Mullen); "Teenage Parents and High School: A Partnership for Success" (Debbie Kelley); and "Field Trips" (James Wade D'Acosta).
Descriptors: Adolescent Literature; Athletics; Brain; Chinese Culture; *Classroom Techniques; Computer Uses in Education; Creativity; Cultural Awareness; Disabilities; Early Parenthood; Educational Technology; Field Trips; Geography; High Schools; Inclusive Schools; Information Technology; Language Arts; Mainstreaming; Mathematics Instruction; Multicultural Education; Newspapers; Novels; Performance Based Assessment; Physical Education; Physics; Reading Comprehension; Reading Instruction; Role Playing; School Community Relationship; Science Instruction; Secondary Education; *Secondary School Teachers; Social Studies; Statistics; Stereotypes; Student Participation; *Teaching Methods; Teaching Skills; Videotape Recordings; Visual Arts; Writing Instruction
Identifiers: Graphic Organizers; Heroes

EJ640991 EC629106
Title: Grading Students in Inclusive Settings.
Author(s) Salend, Spencer J.; Duhaney, Laurel M. Garrick
Source: TEACHING Exceptional Children, v34 n3 p8-15 Jan-Feb 2002
Publication Date: 2002
ISSN: 0040-0599
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUL2002
Target Audience: Practitioners
This article offers guidelines for determining equitable, accountable, and effective grading practices and policies for all students that balance the need for a common set of standards and the individual needs of the students. Purposes of grading, grading systems, and effective instructional practices that support grading processes are discussed.
Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Academic Standards; Achievement Rating; *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; *Grading; *Guidelines; *Inclusive Schools; Individual Needs; *Student Evaluation; *Teaching Methods

ED461962 EC308813
Title: Characteristics of and Strategies for Teaching Students with Mild Disabilities. Fourth Edition.
Author(s) Henley, Martin; Ramsey, Roberta S.; Algozzine, Robert F.
Pages: 484
Publication Date: 2002
Notes: For a previous edition, see ED 370 309.
ISBN: 0-205-34069-5
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Availability: Allyn & Bacon, 75 Arlington Street, Suite 300, Boston, MA
02116 ($70). Tel: 800-666-9433 (Toll Free); Web site: http:// www.ablongman.com.
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Guides--Non-classroom (055); Information Analysis (070)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Massachusetts
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG2002
Target Audience: Practitioners; Students; Teachers
This text is intended to introduce undergraduate or graduate general or special education majors to student characteristics and teaching strategies with students who have mild disabilities (mild mental retardation, behavior disorders, and learning disabilities). Part 1 addresses the characteristics of students with mild disabilities. Chapter 1 explains the basic principles of special education, including its history, legal mandates, and descriptions of various types of disabling conditions. Chapters 2 through 4 present detailed information on each of the three mild disabilities, including practical teaching strategies for each. Chapter 5 considers cross-categorical characteristics and educational strategies. Part 2 of the book details effective teaching practices with this population. Chapter 6 explains how to organize and implement inclusion programs. Chapter 7 looks at teaching from the point of view of the learner. Chapters 8 and 9 detail instructional modification and classroom management practices. Chapter 10 extends this discussion to an analysis of social skills instruction. The final chapter describes the value of family-school cooperation and describes programs that include families. Appendices include a special education chronology, a guide to commonly used psychoactive medications, a guide to congenital disorders, a guide to tests, and a sample Individualized Education Plan.
Descriptors: Behavior Disorders; *Classroom Techniques; *Disabilities; Educational Principles; Elementary Secondary Education; Graduate Students; Higher Education; Inclusive Schools; *Instructional Effectiveness; Interpersonal Competence; Learning Disabilities; Mild Mental Retardation; Preservice Teacher Education; Special Education; *Student Characteristics; *Teaching Methods

EJ640991 EC629106
Title: Grading Students in Inclusive Settings.
Author(s) Salend, Spencer J.; Duhaney, Laurel M. Garrick
Source: TEACHING Exceptional Children, v34 n3 p8-15 Jan-Feb 2002
Publication Date: 2002
ISSN: 0040-0599
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUL2002
Target Audience: Practitioners
This article offers guidelines for determining equitable, accountable, and effective grading practices and policies for all students that balance the need for a common set of standards and the individual needs of the students. Purposes of grading, grading systems, and effective instructional practices that support grading processes are discussed.
Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Academic Standards; Achievement Rating; *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; *Grading; *Guidelines; *Inclusive Schools; Individual Needs; *Student Evaluation; *Teaching Methods

EJ648189 SP530195
Title: Inclusion Style of Teaching: A Powerful Relationship with the National Standards.
Author(s) Jenkins, Jayne M.; Todorovich, John R.
Source: Teaching Elementary Physical Education, v13 n2 p19-21 Mar 2002
Publication Date: 2002
ISSN: 1045-4853
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT2002
The power of the inclusion style of teaching is in that learner performance can be assessed from the perspective of standards related to all three of the learning domains. It allows teachers to address diverse students' individual needs, which is particularly important in physical education, where classes have significant discrepancies in abilities between students.
Descriptors: Elementary Education; Inclusive Schools; National Standards; *Physical Education; *Teaching Methods; Teaching Styles

EJ649347 PS533031
Title: Restructuring for Inclusion: Changing Teaching Practices (Part II).
Author(s) Kilgore, Karen; Griffin, Cynthia C.; Sindelar, Paul T.; Webb, Rodman B.
Source: Middle School Journal, v33 n3 p7-13 Jan 2002
Publication Date: 2002
Notes: Part I of this article appeared in the November, 2001 issue, PS 533 003.
ISSN: 0094-0771
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Journal Announcement: CIJNOV2002
Explains how teachers differentiate their teaching practices to support inclusive classrooms. Discusses system of democratic governance, culture of collaboration, commitment to and capacity for professional growth, strong leadership, and concern about equity and the success and well-being of individual students as factors for transforming school culture and implementing inclusive education.
Descriptors: Administrator Role; At Risk Persons; *Classroom Environment; Cooperation; Disadvantaged Youth; Educational Environment; Educational Policy; Improvement Programs; *Inclusive Schools; Instructional Innovation; Intermediate Grades; *Mainstreaming; *Middle Schools; Normalization (Disabilities); Principals; Professional Development; School Culture; Special Needs Students; Teacher Improvement; Teaching Conditions; *Teaching Methods; Transitional Schools

ED467479 EC309120
Title: Authentic Assessment and Student Performance in Inclusive Schools. Research Institute on Secondary Education Reform (RISER) for Youth with Disabilities Brief.
Author(s) King, M. Bruce; Schroeder, Jennifer; Chawszczewski, David
Author Affiliation: Wisconsin Center for Education Research, Madison.(BBB20214)
Pages: 17
Publication Date: December 2001
Notes: Portions of this Brief were presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Seattle, WA, April 10-14, 2001). Sponsoring Agency: Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC. (EDD00017)
Contract No: H158J970001
Report No: RISER-5
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Availability: RISER, University of Madison-Wisconsin, 1025 West Johnson Street, Suite 461, Madison, WI 53706. For full text: http:// www.wcer.wisc.edu/riser/briefs.html.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Research (143)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Wisconsin
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR2003
This research brief explores the extent to which teacher-designed assessments are authentic in inclusive secondary schools and how students with and without disabilities perform on these assessments. Data come from three high schools that are participating in a 5-year national study conducted by the Research Institute on Secondary Education Reform (RISER) for Youth with Disabilities. The schools demonstrate varying degrees of schoolwide inclusive and authentic practices. Specific findings indicate: (1) students with disabilities who were given more authentic tasks performed considerably better than students with disabilities who were given less demanding tasks; (2) special education students who received tasks with higher intellectual challenge outperformed students without disabilities who received tasks with less challenge; (3) 62% of the students with disabilities produced work that was the same, or higher, in authenticity than that produced by students without disabilities; (4) 25 students without disabilities (71%) received accommodations for the given assessment tasks, while all 35 students with disabilities received accommodations. Accommodations ranged from giving encouragement to complete the task to changing the requirements of the tasks. The brief concludes that teachers who use more authentic assessments elicit more authentic work from students with and without disabilities.
Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Disabilities; *Educational Assessment; Evaluation Methods; High Schools; Inclusive Schools; Performance Factors; *Student Evaluation; *Teaching Methods; *Testing Accommodations; Thinking Skills
Identifiers: *Authentic Learning

ED469551 EC309251
Title: Differentiating Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities: Best Teaching Practices for General and Special Educators.
Author(s) Bender, William N.
Pages: 208
Publication Date: 2002
ISBN: 0-7619-4517-2
Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS. Availability: Corwin Press, Inc., 2455 Teller Rd., Thousand Oaks, CA 91320- 2218 ($29.95). Tel: 800-818-7243 (Toll Free); Fax: 800-417-2466 (Toll Free); e-mail: order@corwinpres.com; Web site: http://www.corwinpress.com.
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Guides--Non-classroom (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; California
Journal Announcement: RIEJUN2003
Target Audience: Practitioners; Teachers
This book provides classroom-proven strategies designed to empower the teacher to target instructional modifications to the content, process, and products for students with learning disabilities in the general and special education classrooms. Chapter 1 presents the concept of differentiated instruction and how that concept translates into instruction for students with learning disabilities in the special education or the inclusive classroom. Chapter 2 involves insights into instruction stemming from the grade- compatible instruction literature--one foundation for the differentiated instructional construct. Chapters 3 and 4 involve supporting students academically, using a variety of metacognitive and/or scaffolding learning techniques that allow teachers to differentiate the learning process for students with learning disabilities. Chapter 5 describes a series of tutoring techniques that may be employed in the inclusive classroom to assist the teacher in providing differentiated instruction for all the students in the class in a timely fashion. Chapter 6 presents a variety of assessment models that allow for differentiation of evaluation requirements. Chapter 7 demonstrates the application of many of these strategies in the area of reading instruction for the elementary and middle grades. The final chapter discusses improving instruction using the differentiated instruction model.
Descriptors: Criterion Referenced Tests; Curriculum Based Assessment; Elementary Secondary Education; Inclusive Schools; *Learning Disabilities; Metacognition; *Peer Teaching; Performance Based Assessment; Reading Instruction; *Scaffolding (Teaching Technique); Self Evaluation (Individuals); *Student Evaluation; *Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Curriculum Differentiation

Available from your local bookstore or library:

Inclusive Middle Schools. Craig H. Kennedy and Douglas Fisher. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., PO Box 10624, Baltimore, MD 21285-0624. http://www.brookespublishing.com

Building Inclusive Schools: Tools and Strategies for Success. Ann T. Halvorsen and Thomas Neary. Allyn & Bacon, Needham Heights, MA 02494. 800.666.9433. http://www.abacon.com
 

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