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Teacher Collaboration (updated March 2002)

What are some ways regular educators and special educators can work together effectively?

"Co-teaching is defined as two or more professionals delivering substantive instruction to a group of students with diverse learning needs. This approach increases instructional options, improves educational programs, reduces stigmatization for students, and provides support to the professionals involved. Co-teaching is an appropriate service delivery approach for students with disabilities who can benefit from general education curriculum if given appropriate supports. Teachers and related service professionals who are flexible and have good judgment are likely to be successful in this role. Co-teachers need preparation, administrative support, and opportunities to nurture their collaborative relationships. Co-teaching programs should be planned and implemented systematically. Deliberate and ongoing communication among everyone involved is essential." (From Focus on Exceptional Children. Vol. 28 (3), 1995. Cook and Friend, authors. Love Publishing Co., PO Box 22353, 9101 East Kenyon Avenue, Suite 220, Denver, CO 80222)

Following are links to ERIC digests, minibibliographies, frequently asked questions (FAQs), related Internet resources, and Internet discussion groups, as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the citations.

You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:

ERIC Citations

The full text of citations beginning with an ED number (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:

  • In microfiche collections worldwide; to find your nearest ERIC Resource Collection, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm.
  • For a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com, service@edrs.com, or 1.800.443.ERIC. (no longer available)

The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:

ERIC Search Terms Used

regular and special education relationship OR teacher collaboration

EJ627981 EC627584
Co-Teacher Relationship and Program Quality: Implications for Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Preschool Settings.
McCormick, Linda; Noonan, Mary Jo; Ogata, Veronica; Heck, Ronald
Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, v36 n2 p119-32 Jun 2001
ISSN: 1079-3917
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC2001
A study explored associations between co-teachers' (n=20) perceptions of similarity (in philosophical beliefs, personal characteristics and traits, and professional style) with one another and two quality outcomes. With disability status controlled for, there was a significant relationship between the co-teacher relationship and quality of the environment.
Descriptors: *Disabilities; *Environmental Influences; *Interpersonal Relationship; Preschool Education; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; *Teacher Collaboration; *Team Teaching

EJ623193 EC626992
Understanding Coteaching Components.
Gately, Susan E.; Gately, Frank J., Jr.
TEACHING Exceptional Children, v33 n4 p40-47 Mar-Apr 2001
ISSN: 0040-0599
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJSEP2001
This article describes components of co-teaching and gives examples of what the teacher interactions of that component may resemble at each developmental stage of co- teaching: the beginning stage, the compromise stage, and the collaborative stage. The Coteaching Rating Scale is presented for examining the effectiveness of co- teaching classrooms.
Descriptors: *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; Informal Assessment; *Program Effectiveness; Program Evaluation; Rating Scales; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; *Teacher Collaboration; *Team Teaching

EJ619694 EC626442
Descriptive Analysis of Team Teaching in Two Elementary Classrooms: A Formative Experimental Approach.
Welch, Marshall
Remedial and Special Education, v21 n6 p366-76 Nov-Dec 2000
ISSN: 0741-9325
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUL2001
This article reports the results of a descriptive analysis of team teaching in two classrooms. The study used formative experiments to conduct summative evaluation procedures. Performance of typical students and students with learning disabilities on curriculum-based assessment measures indicate academic gains in reading and spelling for all students.
Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Elementary Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Learning Disabilities; *Outcomes of Education; *Reading Improvement; Spelling; *Team Teaching

EJ601238 EA536877
Co-Teaching: A Different Approach to Inclusion.
Arguelles, Maria Elena; Hughes, Marie Tejero; Schumm, Jeanne Shay
Principal, v79 n4 p48,50-51 Mar 2000
ISSN: 0271-6062
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Journal Announcement: CIJAUG2000
As part of a statewide pilot program, Florida schools are implementing instructional delivery systems to mainstream more students with disabilities and develop more special/general educator partnerships. Effective coteaching models have common planning time, flexibility, risk-taking, defined roles and responsibilities, compatibility, communication skills, and administrative support.
Descriptors: Communication Skills; Delivery Systems; *Disabilities; *Educational Benefits; Elementary Education; *Inclusive Schools; Mainstreaming; *Pilot Projects; Planning; Program Descriptions; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; Risk; State Boards of Education; Teacher Collaboration; *Team Teaching
Identifiers: *Florida; Individuals with Disabilities Educ Act Amend 1997

EJ587816 EC622546
An Examination of Two Coteaching Classrooms.
Luckner, John L.
American Annals of the Deaf, v144 n1 p24-34 Mar 1999
ISSN: 0002-726X
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJJAN2000
This qualitative study examined two classrooms that used a coteaching approach to provide services to students who were deaf, hard of hearing, and hearing. It used extensive observations and interviews with teachers, students, parents, and administrators. Results support coteaching's effectiveness as a service-delivery model. Seven themes about coteaching were identified. Recommendations for establishing coteaching teams are offered.
Descriptors: *Delivery Systems; Elementary Education; *Hearing Impairments; *Inclusive Schools; Instructional Effectiveness; Qualitative Research; Teaching Models; *Team Teaching

ED432558 SP038679
Co-Teaching in Secondary Schools: Teacher Reports of Developments in Australian and American Classrooms.
Rice, Don; Zigmond, Naomi
Pages: 32
Publication Date: 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Research (143)
Geographic Source: Australia; Queensland
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC1999
Co-teaching approaches to support students with disabilities in inclusive secondary classrooms were investigated through interviews with and classroom observations of 17 teachers. Data collected in Queensland (Australia) and Pennsylvania (USA) public schools allowed comparisons of teacher roles and responsibilities under two education systems. The co-teaching partnerships in both countries were dominated by subject teachers, with special educators being assigned monitoring or helping duties within the class. Teachers stressed the importance of school-wide commitment to inclusive principles for co-teaching to succeed. Professional and personal compatibility between co-teaching partners were seen as critical for success by most respondents. Barriers to the introduction of co-teaching in secondary schools were reported to be entrenched attitudes rejecting inclusion and administrators' unwillingness to commit the required time and resources. Teachers believed that well implemented co-teaching results in academic and social gains for all students and should be regarded as an effective support option for inclusive secondary classrooms.
Descriptors: Collegiality; Disabilities; Educational Cooperation; Foreign Countries; *Inclusive Schools; Public Schools; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; Secondary Education; Secondary School Teachers; Special Education Teachers; *Teacher Collaboration; *Teacher Role; Teaching Methods; *Team Teaching; *Teamwork
Identifiers: Australia; Pennsylvania

ED417901 RC021455
It Takes Two: Co-Teaching for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Rural Schools.
Compton, Mary V.; Stratton, Angie; Maier, Ali; Meyers, Charice; Scott, Holly; Tomlinson, Tammy
Pages: 8
Publication Date: March 1998
In: Coming Together: Preparing for Rural Special Education in the 21st Century. Conference Proceedings of the American Council on Rural Special Education (18th, Charleston, SC, March 25-28, 1998); see RC 021 434.
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Descriptive (141); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG1998
As the adoption of inclusive practices moves growing numbers of deaf and hard-of- hearing students into the regular classroom, rural schools are challenged by the low incidence of hearing impairments and the need for collaboration between regular and special educators. An innovative solution that incorporates professional and interpersonal collaboration is co-teaching. Potential benefits of co-teaching are summarized, and five forms of co-teaching are briefly described. The University of North Carolina at Greensboro offers a program to prepare rural licensed teachers in the area of hearing impairment. As part of their course of study, students complete a course in collaboration and co-teaching and apply this knowledge during 15 weeks of student teaching in rural schools. All of the five forms of co-teaching have been implemented at various student teaching sites. Cooperating teachers had generally positive comments that emphasized the benefits of co-teaching: increased reinforcement and feedback for hearing-impaired students, greater attention to individual student needs, increased collegiality, the expertise provided by student teachers' training in hearing impairments, and increased reflection by cooperating teachers on their own methods and teaching styles. Negative aspects included problems with cooperative planning and with classroom control.
Descriptors: Cooperating Teachers; *Deafness; Educational Benefits; Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education; Preservice Teacher Education; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; Rural Education; *Rural Schools; Special Education; Student Teachers; *Student Teaching; *Teacher Collaboration; Teacher Education Programs; *Team Teaching
Identifiers: University of North Carolina Greensboro

EJ565786 SO529890
Rationale for Co-Teaching.
Dieker, Lisa A.
Social Studies Review, v37 n2 p62-65 Spr-Sum 1998
ISSN: 1056-6325
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC1998
Provides a personal perspective on the co-teaching relationship between a special education teacher and a social studies teacher. Discusses beginning a co-teaching relationship, implementing a social studies lesson with two teachers working together, identifying benefits, overcoming barriers, and evaluating student progress. Lists five options that co-teachers generally employ.
Descriptors: Educational Cooperation; Educational Innovation; Educational Trends; Elementary Secondary Education; *High Risk Students; *Mainstreaming; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; Social Studies; *Special Education; Special Education Teachers; *Teacher Collaboration; *Team Teaching

EJ582519 RC513099
Learning Together: The Evolution of an Inclusive Class.
Miller, Andrea; Valasky, Wendy; Molloy, Patricia
Active Learner: A Foxfire Journal for Teachers, v3 n2 p14-16 Sum 1998
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT1999
A general-education teacher, a special-education teacher, and her two assistants worked together to develop an integrated, fully inclusive classroom in a Bayview (New York) elementary school. A blend of whole and small-group instruction was augmented with peer teaching and small cooperative groups. Language remediation centered on the curriculum and was done in the classroom.
Descriptors: *Classroom Environment; *Educational Strategies; Elementary Education; Inclusive Schools; Language Skills; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; Small Group Instruction; *Special Education; *Teacher Collaboration; *Teaching Experience; Team Teaching

EJ571950 EC619907
False Starts and Other Dilemmas of a Secondary General Education Collaborative Teacher: A Case Study.
Trent, Stanley C.
Journal of Learning Disabilities, v31 n5 p503-13 Sep-Oct 1998
ISSN: 0022-2194
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAY1999
A case study of a secondary general educator involved in a collaborative-teaching model in an inclusive suburban high school, found that replicating and sustaining collaborative teaching can be difficult, complex and, without careful consideration of contextual variables, may not lead to improved outcomes for teachers or students.
Descriptors: Case Studies; *Disabilities; High Schools; *Inclusive Schools; Instructional Effectiveness; Outcomes of Education; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; *Teacher Attitudes; *Teacher Collaboration; Teacher Role; Teaching Models; *Team Teaching

EJ542647 EA533350
Small Victories in an Inclusive Classroom.
Mahony, Michael
Educational Leadership, v54 n7 p59-62 Apr 1997
ISSN: 0013-1784
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJSEP97
Describes how an English teacher and a special-education teacher cooperated to teach a "mixed" ninth-grade class of regular students, special-education students, and others who found English difficult. For special-education students, being part of a large class meant making new friends and encountering numerous challenges. The special-education teacher made an invaluable contribution by helping to instruct the entire class.
Descriptors: *English Teachers; Grade 9; High Schools; *Inclusive Schools; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; *Special Education Teachers; *Team Teaching

ED405722 EC305446
Collegial Coaching, Special Needs, and the Nontraditional Classroom.
McInturff, Johanna R.
1997 15p.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; West Virginia
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG97
This paper describes collegial coaching as a means of providing general and special educators with the collaboration, materials exchange, and emotional support needed to teach all children in an inclusive setting. A brief review of the literature precedes a discussion of prerequisites for collegial coaching (such as self- confidence and respect for the collegial partner). An action plan is outlined, involving staff development through group building activities; instruction in nonjudgmental mediational competencies; observational techniques; and the policies, procedures and theoretical-conceptual aspects of inclusion. The action plan's guidance for collegial pairs includes developing a mission statement, establishing generalized goals, and identifying specific objectives. The final stage of the action plan is implementation of an inclusive classroom approach that stresses individualization, alternate assignments, and collegial evaluation of progress.
Descriptors: Classroom Observation Techniques; *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Inservice Teacher Education; Mainstreaming; Peer Teaching; Regular and Special Education Relationship; *Teacher Collaboration; *Teacher Improvement; Team Teaching Identifiers: *Collegial Coaching

ED409317 SP037495
Collaboration Between General and Special Education Teachers. ERIC Digest.
Ripley, Suzanne
ERIC Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education, Washington, DC. Jul 1997 4p.
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Contract No: RR93002015
Report No: EDO-SP-96-5
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: ERIC PRODUCT (071)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIENOV97
This Digest explores facets of collaboration between general and special education teachers that are different from earlier models. Inclusion of students with disabilities into the same class has brought about teams of general education and special education teachers working collaboratively or cooperatively to combine their professional knowledge, perspectives, and skills. Regular and special education teachers share goals, decisions, classroom instruction, responsibility for students, assessment of student learning, problem solving, and classroom management in the same classroom. The primary responsibility of general education teachers is to instruct students in curricula dictated by the school system; the primary responsibility of special education teachers is to provide instruction by adapting and developing materials to match the learning styles, strengths, and special needs of each of their students. Successful collaboration involves time, support, resources, monitoring, and persistence. Planning for effective cooperation should take place at the district, building, and classroom levels. In addition, education on collaborative skills, teaching techniques, subject area(s), disability, individualization, and accommodation should be incorporated into all teacher preparation and professional development programs.
Descriptors: Elementary School Teachers; Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education; *Inclusive Schools; Mainstreaming; Preservice Teacher Education; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; Secondary School Teachers; Special Education Teachers; Staff Development; *Teacher Collaboration; Teacher Responsibility; *Teacher Role
Identifiers: ERIC Digests

EJ540973 EC615645
Cooperative Teaching: the Voices of Two Teachers.
Salend, Spencer J.; And Others
Remedial and Special Education, v18 n1 p3-11 Jan-Feb 1997
ISSN: 0741-9325
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJAUG97
Examines the evolution of a cooperative teaching effort between a general and a special education teacher who team taught kindergarten students with disabilities in a general education classroom. The obstacles they faced and their successes are recounted through excerpts from an open-ended, non-directed journal each kept, accompanied by interviews with the teachers and their principal.
Descriptors: Collegiality; *Disabilities; *Inclusive Schools; Kindergarten; Primary Education; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; *Teacher Collaboration; *Team Teaching

EJ540936 EC615489
Coteaching: New Variations on a Not-So-New Practice.
Reinhiller, Noell
Teacher Education and Special Education, v19 n1 p34-48 Win 1996
Language: English
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); POSITION PAPER (120)
Journal Announcement: CIJAUG97
Two factors, inclusion and diversity, have resulted in new collaboration between special educators and general educators and implementation of coteaching arrangements. This paper discusses the coteaching model, including various forms of coteaching and reported effectiveness with students with disabilities. Noted are frequent accounts in the literature of coteaching activities but less evidence of their effectiveness regarding student outcomes.
Descriptors: *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; Instructional Effectiveness; Outcomes of Education; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; *Teacher Collaboration; *Teaching Models; *Team Teaching
Identifiers: Diversity (Student)

EJ539250 EC615861
Where Do We Go From Here?: Sustaining and Maintaining Co-Teaching Relationships.
Driver, Barbara L.
LD Forum, v21 n4 p29-32 Sum 1996
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJJUL97
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
This article describes four ways experienced co-teachers, especially regular and special educators, can maintain mature co-teaching relationships. Celebrating accomplishments, re-evaluating team goals, sustaining equitable practices, and maintaining continuous improvement are suggested as specific strategies for keeping the co-teaching relationship vital. Illustrative examples of these strategies and a self-assessment scale are provided.
Descriptors: *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; Interpersonal Relationship; Maintenance; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; Staff Development; *Teacher Collaboration; *Team Teaching

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