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Including Students with Severe Disabilities (updated July 2002)

What strategies can be used to assist students with severe disabilities in inclusive settings?

At the present time, students with severe and multiple disabilities are taught in a variety of settings, from totally segregated to fully inclusive. The doctrine of the least restrictive environment (LRE), as applied to students with severe and multiple disabilities has usually resulted in placement in a special education classroom within a regular school. Now an increasing number of leaders in the field of severe and multiple disabilities are advocating for full inclusion for these students. Successful collaboration is essential if students are to be fully included in schools and community settings. Because the students' needs can be extensive, families, educators, physical and occupational therapists, speech and language pathologists and medical personnel need to work closely with each other to ensure that students receive an appropriate and inclusive education. In addition, students without disabilities and community members need to understand their roles in the collaborative planning process. (From Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Today's Schools, 2nd Edition. Turnbull, Turnbull and others. Merrill Publishing, Prentice Hall, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458)

Following are links to ERIC digests, minibibliographies, frequently asked questions (FAQs), related Internet resources, and Internet discussion groups, as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the citations.


You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:

ERIC Citations

The full text of citations beginning with an ED number (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:

  • In microfiche collections worldwide; to find your nearest ERIC Resource Collection, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm.
  • For a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com, service@edrs.com, or 1.800.443.ERIC. (no longer available)

The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:

ERIC Search Terms Used

inclusive schools

AND

severe disabilities OR multiple disabilities

EJ627966 EC627569
Access to the Core Curriculum: Critical Ingredients for Student Success.
Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy
Remedial and Special Education, v22 n3 p148-57 May-Jun 2001
ISSN: 0741-9325
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC2001
The experiences of three students (elementary, middle school, and high-school students) with significant disabilities who had been members of an urban general education classrooms for at least 3 years are described. Students were provided with accommodations and modifications, however, there was a lack of connection between Individualized Education Programs and curriculum and instruction.
Descriptors: *Academic Accommodations (Disabilities); *Access to Education; *Curriculum; Elementary Secondary Education; Inclusive Schools; *Individualized Education Programs; Peer Relationship; Regular and Special Education Relationship; *Severe Disabilities; Teacher Collaboration; *Urban Schools

EJ617946 EC626252
Peer Interactions and Sociometric Status of High School Students with Moderate or Severe Disabilities in General Education Classrooms.
Mu, Keli; Siegel, Ellin B.; Allinder, Rose M.
Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, v25 n3 p142-52 Fall 2000
ISSN: 0274-9483
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUN2001
A study examined the social status of six high school students with moderate or severe disabilities in general education cooking classes. Although no participants were classified as popular among their peers, the majority obtained average social status ratings. Students with disabilities were involved in fewer social interactions than their peers.
Descriptors: Cooking Instruction; *High School Students; *Inclusive Schools; *Interpersonal Communication; Interpersonal Competence; *Peer Acceptance; Peer Relationship; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; Secondary Education; *Severe Disabilities; Social Status; Socialization

EJ617945 EC626251
Useful Practices in Inclusive Education: A Preliminary View of What Experts in Moderate to Severe Disabilities Are Saying.
Jackson, Lewis; Ryndak, Diane Lea; Billingsley, Felix
Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, v25 n3 p129- 41 Fall 2000
ISSN: 0274-7483
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUN2001
Sixty-five experts in the moderate to severe disabilities field were asked their opinions on useful inclusive education practices across nine practice categories. Many of the identified practices require some level of educational service restructuring, including redefining the roles and functions of special and regular education teachers and related services personnel.
Descriptors: Educational Innovation; *Educational Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; *Severe Disabilities; *Teacher Role; *Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Related Servicesand regular education teachers and related services personnel.

EJ614764 EC625997
Inclusion and Classroom Membership in Early Childhood.
Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Guintini, Margaret
International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, v47 n3 p237- 57 Sep 2000
ISSN: 1465-346X
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJAPR2001
A study examined classroom membership in an early childhood setting which included a 3-year-old boy with multiple disabilities. Interpersonal interactions with peers and practices that contributed to building community are discussed. Findings revealed that there were deliberate and ongoing efforts to create a strong sense of community within the classroom.
Descriptors: Attitudes toward Disabilities; *Classroom Environment; Early Childhood Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Multiple Disabilities; *Peer Acceptance; Peer Relationship; Preschool Children; *Social Integration; *Student Behavior

EJ614683 EC625832
Defining School Inclusion for Students with Moderate to Severe Disabilities: What Do Experts Say?
Ryndak, Diane Lea; Jackson, Lewis; Billingsley, Felix
Exceptionality, v8 n2 p101-16 1999-2000
ISSN: 0936-2835
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJAPR2001
Questionnaires completed by 47 experts in the inclusion of students with disabilities indicate they defined the term "inclusion" to include placement in natural typical settings, all students together for instruction and learning, supports and modifications within general education, belongingness and acceptance, and collaborative integrated service by education teams.
Descriptors: Classification; *Definitions; *Educational Environment; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Institutional Characteristics; Questionnaires; *Severe Disabilities; Student Placement

EJ608106 EC625047
Inclusion of Students with Moderate or Severe Disabilities in Educational and Community Settings: Perspectives from Parents and Siblings.
Gallagher, Peggy A.; Floyd, Julia H.; Stafford, Alison M.; Taber, Teresa A.; Brozovic, Susan A.; Alberto, Paul A.
Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, v35 n2 p135-47 Jun 2000
ISSN: 1079-3917
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC2000
A study investigated parent and sibling perspectives on the inclusion of 21 children with moderate or severe disabilities. Both parents and siblings believed the children were capable, wanted to have the children around typical peers as much as possible, and had general satisfaction with the amount and type of inclusion.
Descriptors: *Attitudes toward Disabilities; Children; Community Programs; Family Influence; *Inclusive Schools; *Parent Attitudes; Parent Child Relationship; *Severe Disabilities; *Siblings; *Social Integration

ED432844 EC307327
Returning Students with Severe Disabilities to Inclusionary Settings.
Hilton, Alan
Pages: 23
Publication Date: February 04, 1999
Notes: Paper presented at the Annual International Conference on Mental Retardation and Other Developmental Disabilities (6th, Maui, HI, February 3-6, 1999).
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Document Type: Reports--Research (143); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Journal Announcement: RIEJAN2000
This paper describes the outcomes of 11 California pilot projects designed to return students with disabilities to public education. A total of 220 students with severe disabilities who had been previously placed in private sites were selected to participate based on class communication between the public and private settings. Service delivery models varied from site to site and included merging reintegrated students into existing special education classes, development of new classrooms at a school, and the development of schools within an existing school. Results of the pilots indicated: (1) 43 percent of the students who reintegrated into public schools either graduated or were placed in general education classes, and 12 percent were returned to private school placements by the local education agency (LEA); (2) each pilot site reported cost savings from the approaches they instituted that varied from $90,000 to $466,480; (3) pilot programs reported improved levels of communication, cooperation, and coordination between the LEAs and the private sites and increased levels of interaction between the involved public agencies within the community and the LEAs; and (4) pilot programs reported they felt the structure of the pilots helped improve parent involvement in the educational process.
Descriptors: *Cost Effectiveness; Delivery Systems; Educational Attainment; Educational Cooperation; Elementary Secondary Education; *Graduation; *Inclusive Schools; Mainstreaming; Models; *Parent Participation; Pilot Projects; Private Schools; *Severe Disabilities; Student Placement
Identifiers: California

EJ601284 EC623967
Short-Changed in the Name of Socialization? Acquisition of Functional Skills by Students with Severe Disabilities.
Sandler, Allen G.
Mental Retardation, v37 n2 p148-50 Apr 1999
ISSN: 0047-6765
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Opinion papers (120)
Journal Announcement: CIJAUG2000
This article reviews research on inclusion of students with severe disabilities and concludes that greater attention to the acquisition of functional skills may be necessary if inclusion is to realize its promise as an instructional model that benefits students across the range of skills areas necessary for independent adult life.
Descriptors: *Daily Living Skills; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Independent Living; Instructional Design; Instructional Effectiveness; Models; *Outcomes of Education; *Severe Disabilities

EJ587804 EC622534
Inclusion: Empirical Guidelines and Unanswered Questions.
Wilson, Barbara A.
Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, v34 n2 p119-33 Jun 1999
ISSN: 1079-3917
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Opinion papers (120)
Journal Announcement: CIJJAN2000
Guidelines for the inclusion of students with severe disabilities in general education programs include (1) respecting parent and student preferences regarding programming; (2) fostering the general-education teacher's sense of empowerment, control, and support; (3) facilitating friendships among children; and (4) structuring classrooms to maximize learning for all students.
Descriptors: Classroom Environment; Educational Practices; *Educational Principles; Elementary Secondary Education; Friendship; Guidelines; *Inclusive Schools; Mental Retardation; Regular and Special Education Relationship; *Severe Disabilities; Social Integration; Student Participation

EJ585778 EC622002
Integrating Therapies into the Educational Setting: Strategies for Supporting Children with Severe Disabilities.
Craig, Susan E.; Haggart, Ann G.; Hull, Karla M.
Physical Disabilities: Education and Related Services, v17 n2 p91-109 Spr 1999
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC1999
Describes the integrated therapy model, a team service delivery system for students with disabilities. Contrasts this model with the clinical model and details the integrated model's application to assessment, planning, program implementation, and monitoring. Sample schedules and forms are included. (DB) Descriptors: *Delivery Systems; Elementary Secondary Education; Inclusive Schools; *Integrated Services; Interdisciplinary Approach; Models; *Severe Disabilities; Student Participation

EJ581414 CS756913
Inclusive Education: Evaluating the Educational Needs and Outcomes of Students with Severe Disabilities.
Robinson, Kevin; Burnham, Sonja; Rowland, Sidney; Arnold, Mit
Reading Improvement, v36 n1 p35-39 Spr 1999
ISSN: 0034-0510
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Opinion papers (120)
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT1999
States that including students with severe disabilities in regular classes provides an opportunity for educators to reflect on the nature and characteristics of these learners. Asserts that teachers must reevaluate the process by which they determine learner outcomes. Provides a guide for these activities and a review of inclusive education.
Descriptors: *Educational Needs; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Outcomes of Education; *Severe Disabilities

EJ599159 EC622316
The Impact of Typical Peers on the Perceived Happiness of Students with Profound Multiple Disabilities.
Logan, Kent R.; Jacobs, Heidi A.; Gast, David L.; Murray, Amy Streu; Daino, Kim; Skala, Chuck
Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, v23 n4 p309- 18 Win 1998
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUL2000
A study evaluated the effect of the type of peer group on behavior associated with the happiness of five elementary students with profound multiple disabilities. Results indicated higher levels of happiness behaviors (smiles, eyes open) with typical peers than with peers with disabilities across all five students.
Descriptors: *Attitudes toward Disabilities; Elementary Education; *Happiness; Inclusive Schools; *Peer Acceptance; *Peer Relationship; *Severe Disabilities

EJ581764 EC621096
Supporting Elementary Age Students with Significant Disabilities in General Education Classrooms: Personal Perspectives on Inclusion.
Coots, Jennifer J.; Bishop, Kathryn D.; Grenot-Scheyer, Marquita
Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, v33 n4 p317-30 Dec 1998
ISSN: 1079-3917
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT1999
Findings of a study in which four elementary general-education teachers commented on the inclusion of students with significant disabilities within general-education classrooms indicated that children with disabilities were described and observed as full classroom members. Difficulties were related to designing and implementing appropriate and relevant individualized adaptations and supports.
Descriptors: Elementary Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Individualized Instruction; *Instructional Effectiveness; Interviews; *Peer Relationship; *Severe Disabilities; Social Integration; *Teacher Attitudes
Identifiers: *Academic Accommodations (Disabilities)

EJ577342 EC620263
Comparison of General and Special Education Classrooms of Students with Severe Disabilities.
Helmstetter, Edwin; Curry, Chris A.; Brennan, Margaret; Sampson-Saul, Melissa
Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, v33 n3 p216-27 Sep 1998
ISSN: 1079-3917
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJAUG1999
Nine students (age 6-12) with severe disabilities were observed in their general and special education classrooms using a two-minute time sampling procedure. General education classrooms provided more instruction, utilized more whole class instruction, provided a comparable amount of one-to-one instruction, addressed academic content more, and utilized typical peers more.
Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Classroom Environment; Educational Strategies; Elementary Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Instructional Effectiveness; Regular and Special Education Relationship; *Severe Disabilities; *Special Classes; *Teaching Methods

EJ577341 EC620262
Instruction for Students with Severe Disabilities in General Education Settings.
McDonnell, John
Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, v33 n3 p199-215 Sep 1998
ISSN: 1079-3917
Document Type: Information Analysis (070); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJAUG1999
Discusses some of the issues associated with effective instruction for students with severe disabilities enrolled in general education classes. It is argued that developing a valid technology of instruction will require the field to reconceptualize our current model of teaching and learning for this group of students.
Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; Instructional Effectiveness; *Learning Strategies; Mainstreaming; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; *Severe Disabilities; *Teaching Methods; Teaching Models

EJ571916 EC619873
In Junior High You Take Earth Science: Including a Student with Severe Disabilities into an Academic Class.
Siegel-Causey, Ellin; McMorris, Carol; McGowen, Susan; Sands-Buss, Sue
TEACHING Exceptional Children, v31 n2 p66-72 Sep-Oct 1998
Notes: Theme Issue: Inclusive Schools and Schoolwide Achievement.
ISSN: 0040-0599
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAY1999
This case study of a 14-year-old boy with severe disabilities describes the collaboration of a team of educators who sought to include him in eighth-grade general-education classes. His inclusion plan included four steps: planning, selecting classes, accommodating, and collaborating. The accomplishments of the student's inclusion in earth science is highlighted.
Descriptors: Case Studies; *Educational Planning; Grade 8; *Inclusive Schools; *Individualized Education Programs; Junior High Schools; *Science Instruction; *Severe Disabilities; *Teacher Collaboration; Teamwork
Identifiers: *Academic Accommodations (Disabilities)

EJ599144 EC619412
How Teachers Include Students with Moderate and Severe Disabilities in Elementary Classes: The Means and Meaning of Inclusion.
Janney, Rachel E.; Snell, Martha E.
Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, v22 n3 p159- 69 Fall 1997
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUL2000
A study investigated the way general and special educators included six students with moderate and severe developmental disabilities in five elementary classrooms. Teachers were found to use an assimilationist approach to diversity, downplaying the differences between the students with disabilities and their classmates. Teacher collaboration is discussed.
Descriptors: Acculturation; *Disabilities; Elementary Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; *Severe Disabilities; *Teacher Attitudes; Teacher Collaboration; *Teaching Methods

EJ542837 EC616574
Research on Inclusive Educational Programs, Practices, and Outcomes for Students with Severe Disabilities.
Hunt, Pam; Goetz, Lori
Journal of Special Education, v31 n1 p3-29 Spr 1997
Notes: Special Issue: "Research in Severe Disabilities." For reactions of Respondents, see EC 616 575.
ISSN: 0022-4669
Document Type: Information Analysis (070); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJSEP1997
A review of 19 investigations of inclusive educational programs, practices, and outcomes for students with severe disabilities groups the research into five categories: (1) parents' attitudes toward educational placement; (2) issues and practices; (3) costs; (4) educational achievement outcomes; and (5) social outcomes. Six themes were identified across the studies and offer guidelines for research and practice.
Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Educational Practices; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Instructional Effectiveness; Interpersonal Competence; *Outcomes of Education; Parent Attitudes; Peer Relationship; Program Costs; *Program Effectiveness; *Severe Disabilities
 

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