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Early Childhood and Inclusion
(updated April 2000)

How can inclusive practices be incorporated in early childhood settings, and how can parents become involved?

"The inclusion of children with disabilities in general preschool and child care programs is becoming more and more common. Parents, teachers, and researchers have found that children benefit in many ways from integrated programs that are designed to meet the needs of all children. Many children with disabilities, however, need accommodations to participate successfully in the general classroom. Teachers and other staff often require current information, skills training, and even additional staff to meet the needs of these children. The information that follows provides strategies for working with children in inclusive early childhood environments." (From Preschool Inclusion by Claire C. Cavallaro & Michele Haney. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.)

Following are links to related ERIC Digests, frequently asked questions (FAQs), and Internet resources, as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the citations.

You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:

ERIC Citations

The full text of citations beginning with an ED number (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:

  • In microfiche collections worldwide; to find your nearest ERIC Resource Collection, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm.
  • For a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com, service@edrs.com, or 1.800.443.ERIC. (no longer available)

The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:

ERIC Search Terms Used

inclusive schools


early childhood education OR preschool education OR early intervention

EJ512416 PS524073
Moving toward Inclusion by Narrowing the Gap between Early Childhood Professionals.
Appl, Dolores J.
Early Childhood Education Journal, v23 n1 p23-26 Fall 1995
ISSN: 1082-3301
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJFEB96
Inclusive child care programs are built upon planning and implementation that includes all educators. Currently, there is a gap between early childhood educators and early childhood special educators. This gap can be bridged by concentrating on commonalities in educational practices, instructional strategies, and interventions.
Descriptors: Access to Education; Child Caregivers; Disabilities; *Early Childhood Education; *Inclusive Schools; Preschool Teachers; *Professional Isolation; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; Social Integration; *Special Education; Special Education Teachers; Special Needs Students

EJ501918 PS523113
Technology in Inclusive Early Childhood Settings.
Brett, Arlene
Day Care & Early Education, v22 n3 p8-11 Spr 1995
ISSN: 0092-4199
Language: English
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJAUG95
Examines the question of whether to make computers a part of the early childhood curriculum. Discusses the contribution of computers to children's development, focusing on the role of computers and related technology in benefiting children with disabilities and facilitating inclusion. Discusses ways of adapting technology to make it developmentally appropriate.
Descriptors: Cognitive Development; *Computer Uses in Education; Disabilities; Early Childhood Education; Educational Technology; *Inclusive Schools; Mainstreaming;*Special Education; Special Programs Identifiers: Developmentally Appropriate Programs; *Inclusive Educational Programs; Technology Mediated Interactive Learning

EJ529436 EC614489
Come Play Developing Children's Social Skills in an Inclusive Preschool.
Collins, Belva C.; And Others
TEACHING Exceptional Children, v29 n1 p16-21 Sep-Oct 1996
ISSN: 0040-0599
Language: English
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); TEACHING GUIDE (052)
Journal Announcement: CIJJAN97
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
A step-by-step guide is presented for developing and implementing a social interaction intervention based on a study of an inclusive preschool program. Steps include developing a data collection system, selecting observation time, collecting baseline data, identifying target children, developing social interaction skills intervention, monitoring daily data, and evaluating maintenance and generalization.
Descriptors: Data Collection; *Disabilities; *Early Intervention; Generalization; *Inclusive Schools; *Interpersonal Competence; Maintenance; Peer Acceptance; Peer Relationship; Preschool Education; *Program Development; Program Implementation; Skill Development; Social Integration

EJ517762 EA531364
Kindergarten Plus: Integrating Children with Disabilities into Early Childhood Classrooms.
Deutsch-Berney, Tomi; Ticke, Lynne
ERS Spectrum, v13 n4 p36-40 Fall 1995
ISSN: 0740-7874
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJJUN96
New York City's SuperStart Plus and Kindergarten Plus programs provide a developmentally appropriate learning environment that encourages both general- and special-education children's language, cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development. Teachers integrate multicultural and English-as-a-Second-Language strategies into their teaching. These integrated programs have benefited both disabled and nondisabled student participants.
Descriptors: *Developmental Programs; *Disabilities; Early Childhood Education; *Inclusive Schools; Kindergarten; *Mainstreaming; *Program Implementation; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; Young Children Identifiers: *New York (New York)

EJ510009 EC612004
The Preschool Checklist: Integration of Children with Severe Disabilities.
Drinkwater, Sarah; Demchak, MaryAnn
TEACHING Exceptional Children, v28 n1 p4-8 Fall 1995
ISSN: 0040-0599
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJJAN96
Target Audience: Practitioners
This article presents and explains the Preschool Checklist, a measure that incorporates research-based guidelines for developing preschool programs that include children with severe disabilities. The checklist assesses four areas: (1) scheduling and instructional arrangements; (2) socialization and communication; (3) alternative communication; and (4) appearance of the child.
Descriptors: Augmentative and Alternative Communication; *Check Lists; *Inclusive Schools; Instructional Systems; Interpersonal Communication; Mainstreaming; Preschool Education; *Program Evaluation; Scheduling; *Severe Disabilities; Social Integration; Socialization; Student Evaluation Identifiers: Physical Appearance; *Preschool Checklist

EJ529847 PS525405
Conflict Strategies and Resolutions: Peer Conflict in an Integrated Early Childhood Classroom.
Malloy, Heidi L.; McMurray, Paula
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, v11 n2 p185-206 Jun 1996
ISSN: 0885-2006
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJJAN97
Examined the physical and verbal peer conflicts of nine typically developing children and eight children with disabilities in an integrated preschool. Several conflict constructs were examined including goals, oppositions, strategies, outcomes, and the teacher's role in peer conflict. Results suggest the need for active teacher involvement when children with disabilities participate in conflicts in integrated early childhood classrooms.
Descriptors: Classroom Communication; *Conflict; *Conflict Resolution; Developmental Delays; Ethnography; *Inclusive Schools; *Interpersonal Relationship; Learning Disabilities; Mainstreaming; Peer Acceptance; *Peer Relationship; Preschool Children; Preschool Education; Social Development; Teacher Role; *Teacher Student Relationship

EJ522829 EC613467
A "Can Do" Inventory for 3-Year-Olds: Preschool-Referenced Assessment.
McCormick, Linda; Noonan, Mary Jo
TEACHING Exceptional Children, v28 n4 p4-9 Sum 1996
ISSN: 0040-0599
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJSEP96
Target Audience: Practitioners
The Preschool Referenced Assessment process, intended to link ecological and judgment-based assessment to instructional planning for young children with disabilities in inclusive settings, is described, including instructions for use of assessment forms and development of goals and objectives for the child's Individualized Education Program.
Descriptors: Check Lists; *Diagnostic Teaching; *Disabilities; Evaluation Methods; *Inclusive Schools; Individualized Education Programs; *Instructional Development; Preschool Education; Questionnaires; *Student Educational Objectives; *Student Evaluation

ED395692 PS024260
Facilitating Language and Literacy Development in Preschool Children: To Each According to Their Needs.
Notari-Syverson, Angela; And Others
Apr 1996
38p.; Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Educational Research Association (New York, NY, April 8-12, 1996).
Sponsoring Agency: Washington Research Inst., Seattle.
Contract No: H024B20031
EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Washington
Journal Announcement: RIEOCT96
In American culture, although literacy is an integral part of daily life, little is known about the development of teaching of early literacy skills to young children with disabilities. This study examined the effects of a comprehensive early literacy curriculum designed for use with preschool children, focusing primarily on children with disabilities. The goal was to examine effects on early language and literacy measures among three preschool populations: (1) children with disabilities; (2) children who are at risk of effects from economic disadvantage; and (3) children who are developing "normally." The study was conducted over a 2-year period, using a population of 70 children. Data were collected from inclusive classrooms in a child development center and self-contained classrooms in the public schools. Measures included the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised (WJ-R) and the Early Literacy Checklist. Activities designed to facilitate skills in print awareness, metalinguistic awareness, and oral language were implemented over a 6-month period with the three preschool populations. Both the children with disabilities and the children at-risk made significant gains on standardized and criterion-referenced measures of language, early literacy, and metalinguistic awareness. (Appendices contain sample learning activities, including shared storybook reading, nursery rhymes, and show and tell.)
Descriptors: At Risk Persons; *Curriculum Evaluation; *Disabilities; Early Intervention; *Emergent Literacy; Inclusive Schools; Learning Activities; Literacy; Preschool Children; Special Education; Special Needs Students Identifiers: American Educational Research Association; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (Revised); Woodcock Johnson Psycho Educational Battery

ED402727 EC305257
Health and Safety Considerations: Caring for Young Children with Exceptional Health Care Needs.
Presler, Betty
Sonoma State Univ., Rohnert Park, CA. California Inst. of Human Services. 1996 120p.; Produced by Project EXCEPTIONAL--EXceptional Children: Education in Preschool Techniques for Inclusion, Opportunity-building, Nurturing And Learning. Sponsoring Agency: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (ED), Washington, DC.
Contract No: H024P30047
Available From: Project EXCEPTIONAL, California Institute on Human Services, Sonoma State University, 1801 E. Cotati Avenue, Rohnert Park, CA 94928-3609; telephone: 707- 664-2051; fax: 707-664-2017 ($30, includes shipping).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; California
Journal Announcement: RIEMAY97
This manual on health and safety considerations in caring for young children with exceptional health care needs is a product of Project EXCEPTIONAL (EXceptional Children: Education in Preschool Techniques for Inclusion, Opportunity-building, Nurturing And Learning), which has the goal of increasing the quality and quantity of inclusive child care and development options for California's young children (birth to age 5) with disabilities through development of a training model and materials to support the training of interagency community teams. The manual's text focuses on 10 key points: (1) the increasing need by children with disabilities for child care services; (2) the moral and legal responsibility of child care providers to include children with exceptional needs; (3) the rewards, risks, and responsibility of servicing these children; (4) the vast diversity in health-related conditions and need for individualized accommodations; (5) inclusion as a national, state, and local priority; (6) barriers to inclusion; (7) critical elements of quality child care; (8) best practices; (9) characteristics of a health supportive environment; and (10) the need to ensure the health and safety of every child. Much of the document consists of 13 appendices, including a listing of national parent organizations; a recommended training curriculum; authorization forms; discussion of safety issues, emergency contact information, and incident reports; recommended procedures for nutrition and feeding, diapering, and hand washing; universal precautions; information on childhood diseases; health condition fact sheets and record forms; medication records; and training activities.
Descriptors: Agency Cooperation; Caregiver Role; Child Caregivers; Community Programs; Compliance (Legal); *Day Care; *Disabilities; *Health Needs; Health Services; Inclusive Schools; Infants; Inservice Education; Preschool Education; *Safety; Safety Education; *Social Integration; *Special Health Problems; Teamwork; Toddlers; Training Methods; Young Children

EJ544924 PS526484
Together Is Better: Specific Tips on How To Include Children with Various Types of Disabilities.
Russell-Fox, Jane
Young Children, v52 n4 p81-83 May 1997
ISSN: 0044-0728
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT97
Provides specific tips for preschool teachers on how to better include children with exceptional health needs, hearing needs, learning needs, communication needs, visual impairment, or physical needs. Suggests that facilitating social skills is an essential part of facilitating true interaction.
Descriptors: Disabilities; Early Childhood Education; *Inclusive Schools; Interpersonal Competence; *Mainstreaming; Peer Groups; Peer Relationship; *Preschool Education; Teacher Student Relationship; *Teaching Methods; *Young Children

EJ538095 PS525983
Children Blossom in a Special and General Education Integration Program--A Private Child Care Center and a Public School Collaborate.
Schoen, Theresa Maloney; And Others
Young Children, v52 n2 p58-63 Jan 1997
ISSN: 0044-0728
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJJUN97
Successful integration of special needs children with typical children benefits everyone. Describes how educators collaborated to form an inclusive program of children with special needs (physical, cognitive, and behavioral impairments) from a public school and a for-profit day care center. Discusses the conception, early concerns, planning, implementation and evaluation of the program. Includes five funding and information sources.
Descriptors: Childhood Attitudes; Early Childhood Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Institutional Cooperation; Partnerships in Education; Physical Disabilities; Preschool Children; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; *Special Education Teachers; *Special Needs Students; *Teacher Collaboration; Young Children Identifiers: Special Needs Children

ED398709 EC305002
Serving Children with Special Needs in Your Child Care Facility.
Searl, Julia, Ed.
Early Childhood Inclusion Network, Syracuse, NY. Apr 1996 55p.
Sponsoring Agency: National Inst. on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC.
Contract No: H133D50037
Available From: Dianne Apter, Early Childhood Direction Center, 805 South Crouse Avenue, Syracuse, NY 13244.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
Language: English Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055) Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIEJAN97
Target Audience: Practitioners
This manual provides information to caregivers on how to successfully develop a child care center that includes children with disabilities. The benefits of inclusion for children, parents, and providers are identified. Principles for developing an inclusive program are noted, such as developing a partnership with a special education agency. The guide stresses the necessity of developing a philosophical mission statement on inclusion, clarifying lines of authority and roles of administrators, and careful monitoring of money and contracts involved in inclusive programming. Also covered are annual, weekly, and daily schedules; space requirements; accessibility standards; the critical importance of training and staff development; strategies for family involvement; and the elements of successful collaboration. Indicators of a good inclusive program and factors that affect survival of inclusive programs are listed, including a match of values among families, the child care program, and the special education community; a community- wide philosophy of acceptance of diversity; and resolution of differences through a problem-solving strategy. The appendix includes a list of definitions/abbreviations, a guide for child caregivers for determining a child's need for services, a guide to staff teaming, a sample mission statement, and a listing of 14 resources (organizational, print, and videos).
Descriptors: *Accessibility (for Disabled); Caregiver Child Relationship; Day Care; *Day Care Centers; *Disabilities; Early Childhood Education; *Inclusive Schools; Infant Care; Mainstreaming; Program Development; *Social Integration; Staff Development; Teamwork

EJ536390 PS525941
Early Childhood Special Education. "Can I Play Too?" Adapting Common Classroom Activities for Young Children with Limited Motor Abilities.
Sheldon, Kristyn
Early Childhood Education Journal, v24 n2 p115-20 Win 1996
ISSN: 1082-3301
Language: English
Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAY97
Suggests that teachers are challenged with arranging the environment to allow physically impaired children to participate in classroom activities. Defines limited motor ability. Suggests ways to make minor modifications or adaptations to accommodate these children in common classroom activities, including circle time, art, sensory play, fine motor, dramatic play, computers and technology, gym and playground, snack and book activities.
Descriptors: Adjustment (to Environment); *Assistive Devices (for Disabled); *Classroom Design; *Classroom Environment; Developmental Delays; Disabilities; Early Childhood Education; *Inclusive Schools; Mainstreaming; Motor Development; Physical Development; *Physical Disabilities; *Special Needs Students
Identifiers: *Adaptive Instructional Methods; Child Care Needs

EJ531332 PS525599
Young Children's Attitudes toward the Disabled: A Classroom Intervention Using Children's Literature.
Trepanier-Street, Mary L.; Romatowski, Jane A.
Early Childhood Education Journal, v24 n1 p45-49 Fall 1996
ISSN: 1082-3301
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJFEB97
Examined attitudes of 71 kindergarten and first-grade children regarding the capabilities of disabled children and the potential for friendship, and assessed the effectiveness of children's literature and related activities in influencing attitudes toward the disabled. Found that children's attitudes were generally positive and realistic, and that the use of selected books and activities positively influenced attitudes.
Descriptors: *Attitude Change; Change Strategies; *Childhood Attitudes; *Childrens Literature; *Disabilities; Early Childhood Education; Inclusive Schools; *Intervention; Social Integration; Special Needs Students
Identifiers: *Attitudes toward Disabled

ED406819 EC305538
Passages to Inclusion: Creating Systems of Care for All Children. Monograph for State, Territorial and Tribal Child Care Administrators.
National Child Care Information Center, Vienna, VA.; Trans-Management Systems, Inc. 6 Mar 1997 84p.; Synthesis of solutions and strategies generated during a Leadership Forum (Washington, DC, June 27, 1995).
Sponsoring Agency: Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, D.C.
Contract No: 105-94-1626
Available From: National Child Care Information Center, 301 Maple Ave. W., Suite 602, Vienna, VA 22180; toll-free telephone: 800-616-2242; fax: 800-716-2242; TTY: 800- 516-2242; e-mail: agoldstein@acf.dhhs.gov.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Virginia
Journal Announcement: RIESEP97
Government: Federal
This monograph presents a synthesis of the solutions and strategies generated during a June 1995 national forum of state, territorial, and tribal child care administrators on the inclusion of children with disabilities in community-based child care settings. The monograph is organized into sections focused on the five major issue areas discussed at the forum. These are: (1) staffing; (2) facilities and environments; (3) administration of inclusive practices; (4) financing; and (5) community resources. Each section discusses the key issue areas, offers recommendations, and suggests specific strategies. Program examples are also included. Extensive appendices provide descriptions of programs used as examples in the report, a summary of relevant federal legislation, descriptions of major projects conducted by the Administration on Developmental Disabilities, sources of technical assistance from the Child Care Bureau, a position statement on inclusion from the Division for Early Childhood of the Council for Exceptional Children, several article reprints, a listing of national organizations with resources for inclusive child care, and the forum agenda and participant list.
Descriptors: *Change Strategies; Community Programs; Community Resources; *Day Care; *Disabilities; Educational Environment; Educational Facilities; Federal Aid; Federal Legislation; Financial Support; *Inclusive Schools; Mainstreaming; Personnel Selection; Preschool Education; *Program Administration; Program Costs; *Social Integration; Technical Assistance

ED398220 SP036871
Setting the Stage: Including Children with Disabilities in Head Start. Training Guides for the Head Start Learning Community.
RMC Research Corp., Portsmouth, NH. 1995 147p.; For other guides in the series, see SP 036 872-873.
Sponsoring Agency: Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.
Contract No: 105-93-1585
EDRS Price - MF01/PC06 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC96
Government: Federal
Target Audience: Practitioners; Parents
This foundation guide is addressed to Head Start staff, parents, and consultants to help them develop a broader view of their roles and to support the program's efforts to include children with disabilities in the various worlds around them. The guide includes the following sections: (1) "Module 1: There's Room for All of Us," which helps participants identify ways in which their own perceptions and experiences influence how they interact with children with disabilities and their families; (2) "Module 2: Communication Counts," which helps participants identify and practice ways of communicating about disabilities that foster a sense of belonging in children with disabilities and their families; (3) "Module 3: Making It Work " which helps participants identify how the principles underlying the laws and regulations that protect the rights of individuals with disabilities apply to everyday practice; (4) "Continuing Professional Development," which offers strategies that supervisors can use to help staff apply new skills and extend their learning; and (5) "Resources," which lists print and audiovisual materials and resources that staff can use to learn more about the key issues presented in the guide.
Descriptors: Disabilities; *Family Role; Federal Legislation; *Inclusive Schools; Inservice Teacher Education; Learning Strategies; *Normalization (Disabilities); Preschool Children; Preschool Education; Preschool Teachers; Resource Materials; *Staff Development; *Teacher Role; Training Methods; Workshops
Identifiers: *Project Head Start

Available from your local bookstore or library:

Natural Environments and Inclusion. Young Exceptional Children Monograph Series No. 2 from the Division for Early Childhood of the Council for Exceptional Children. Susan Sandall and Michaelene Ostrosky, editors. Sopris West, 4093 Specialty Place, Longmont, CO 80504. 303.651.2829. http://www.sopriswest.com or http://www.dec-sped.org

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