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Attention Deficit Disorder (updated April 2000)

Please provide an overview of attention deficit disorder.

Attention deficit disorder (ADD) is a syndrome characterized by serious and persistent difficulties in the following three specific areas:

  1. Attention span.
  2. Impulse control.
  3. Hyperactivity (sometimes).
ADD is a chronic disorder that can begin in infancy and extend through adulthood, having negative effects on a child's life at home, school, and within the community. It is conservatively estimated that 3 to 5% of our school-age population is affected by ADD. Even though the exact cause of ADD remains unknown, research shows that ADD is a neurologically based medical problem. There is no one "test" for determining if a person has this disorder. An accurate diagnosis requires an assessment conducted by a well-trained professional usually a developmental pediatrician, child psychologist, child psychiatrist, or pediatric neurologist. (From ERIC EC Digest E569, Teaching Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders.)

Following are links to related ERIC Digests, minibibliographies, frequently asked questions (FAQs), Internet resources, and Internet discussion groups, as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the citations.

You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:

ERIC Citations

The full text of ERIC documents (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:

  • In microfiche collections worldwide; to find your nearest ERIC Resource Collection, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm
    ERIC AE Closed, please visit The Mental Measurements Yearbook Test Reviews On-line (http://buros.unl.edu/buros/jsp/search.jsp).
  • For a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com, service@edrs.com, or 1.800.443.ERIC. (no longer available)

The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:

ERIC Search Terms Used

attention deficit disorders

ED406798 EC305500
Understanding ADHD: A Practical Guide for Teachers and Parents.
Bender, William N.
1997; 276p.
ISBN: 0-13-348731-8
Available From: Merrill/Prentice Hall, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Document Not Available from EDRS.
Document Type: BOOK (010); NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New Jersey
Target Audience: Parents; Practitioners; Teachers
This book is intended as a practical guide for parents and teachers in managing children or students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specific strategies and techniques are presented that will facilitate learning for individuals with ADHD in both the home and school environment. Chapters include: "ADHD at Home and in the Classroom" (William N. Bender), which discusses the definition of ADHD and controversies about ADHD; "Etiology and Neurobiology of ADHD" (Cynthia A. Riccio and others); "Family Interactions and Social Development" (Diane Knight), which includes information on home behavior management techniques; "Assessment and Diagnosis of ADHD" (Kerry A. Schwanz and R. W. Kamphaus); "Medical Interventions and School Monitoring" (William N. Bender), which includes a discussion on the teacher's role in medication treatments; "Intervention Strategies for Preschool Children with ADHD" (Josh Hall and others); "Teaching Students with ADHD in the Elementary Classroom" (Mickie Y. Mathes and William N. Bender); "Teaching the Secondary Student with ADHD" (Patricia Wallace Tilson and William N. Bender); and "The Adult with ADHD" (Laura M. Franklin and William N. Bender), which includes information on the characteristics of the adult with ADHD, family relationships of the adult with ADHD, and the adult with ADHD in the workplace.
Descriptors: Adults; *Attention Deficit Disorders; *Behavior Modification; Clinical Diagnosis; Definitions; Disability Identification; Drug Therapy; *Educational Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; *Etiology; *Family Relationship; *Hyperactivity; Intervention; Preschool Education; Social Development; Student Evaluation; Teacher Role; Teaching Guides

ED410512 CG027999
Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Childhood: A Review of the Literature.
Brock, Stephen E.
1997; 16p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association of School Psychologists (Anaheim, CA, April 2-5, 1997).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; California
While it is acknowledged that there is no flawless measure of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood, a review of the literature reveals significant agreement in recommended assessment procedures. An overview of these procedures is presented in this paper. It begins with the diagnostic criteria for ADHD, such as symptom duration, inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, developmental level, symptom onset, symptoms appearing in multiple settings, clinical significance, and the ruling out of other disorders that might cause the symptoms. The paper then discusses procedures recommended in a sample of the literature that discuss ADHD diagnosis, including diagnostic procedures, rating scales, interviews, parent interviews, direct observation, laboratory and psycho-educational tests, medical evaluation, a review of school records, and peer assessments. It was found that rating scales, interviews, observations, and laboratory/psycho-educational testing were the most frequently recommended diagnostic techniques, although the efficacy of some of these techniques is questionable. It is emphasized that the diagnosis of ADHD is a matter of an educated opinion and that no single psychological or medical test is recommended for use in diagnosing ADHD. Furthermore, a number of other factors or conditions can create ADHD-like symptoms.
Descriptors: *Attention Deficit Disorders; *Clinical Diagnosis; Diagnostic Tests; Elementary Secondary Education; Evaluation Methods; Hyperactivity; Literature Reviews; *Symptoms (Individual Disorders)

ED417522 EC306264
Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Cadoree, Michelle, Comp.
Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Science and Technology Div.
LC Science Tracer Bullet, Aug 1997
18p.; Report No: TB-97-3
ISSN: 0090-5232
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Document Type: SERIAL (022); BIBLIOGRAPHY (131)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Government: Federal
This bibliography lists approximately 130 references concerning children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). An introduction briefly describes the scope of what is being included under this term. It then lists the Library of Congress subject headings which are relevant to the topic. The citations include author, title, an annotation (occasionally), and the Library of Congress cataloging number. Citations are listed under the following categories: basic texts, books for children and younger readers, books for adolescents and teens, books for adults with ADHD, books for parents, books for teachers and educators, books for practitioners and clinicians, books on therapy and treatment, personal narratives, related titles, bibliographies, directories, journals, journal articles, abstracting and indexing services (with relevant subject terms), and organizational resources.
Descriptors: *Attention Deficit Disorders; *Books; Child Rearing; Databases; Elementary Secondary Education; *Hyperactivity; Organizations (Groups); *Periodicals; Resources

ED408739 EC305610
Rethinking Attention Deficit Disorders.
Cherkes-Julkowski, Miriam; And Others
1997; 272p.
ISBN: 1-57129-037-0
Available From: Brookline Books, P.O. Box 1047, Cambridge, MA 02238-1047; telephone: 1-800-666-BOOK;
Document Not Available from EDRS.
Document Type: BOOK (010); REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Massachusetts
This book reviews issues concerning attention deficit disorders (ADDs) in the context of a systems perspective. ADDs are viewed as resulting from dynamic interactions of behavior, cognition, and affect, out of which emerge distinct and idiosyncratic ways of coping. Chapter 1 looks at the interaction of attention and behavior. In chapter 2, the history of ADDs classification from the perspective of ADDs cognitive disorders is reviewed and definitions under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual are discussed. Chapter 3 details the extent and complexity of the attention system including the attention/working memory system, influences on attention, and manifestations in school. Chapter 4 focuses on attention as self-regulation and discusses biological and cognitive aspects of self-regulation as well as school interventions. Chapter 5, on motivation, contends that motivation is not under simple, conscious control and cannot be manipulated through behavioral interventions. Effects of medication are examined in chapter 6 and social and emotional aspects of ADDs are examined in chapter 7. Practical suggestions for intervention are provided in the eighth chapter (on classroom management), the ninth chapter (on reading), the tenth chapter (on written language), and the eleventh chapter (on mathematics). The final chapter summarizes the issues and provides directions for intervention. A brief appendix presents a table of neurotransmitter effects.
Descriptors: Attention; Attention Control; *Attention Deficit Disorders; Behavior Patterns; *Classroom Techniques; Cognitive Development; *Cognitive Processes; Coping; Definitions; *Drug Therapy; Elementary Secondary Education; *Intervention; Models; Motivation; Systems Approach; Teaching Methods

EJ547110 CS753592
Using Children's Books as an Intervention for Attention-Deficit Disorder.
Fouse, Beth; Morrison, Jane Ann
Reading Teacher, v50 n5 p442-45 Feb 1997
ISSN: 0034-0561
Describes how the use of children's books may enable students with Attention Deficit Disorder to develop a clearer understanding of themselves and their problems. Includes a 33-item annotated list of books useful for this purpose.
Descriptors: *Attention Deficit Disorders; *Childrens Literature; Elementary Education; *Reading Aloud to Others; *Reading Materials

ED405679 EC305379
Attention Deficit Syndrome: Educational Bugaboo of the 90s.
Gold, Svea J.
1997; 10p.; In: Gold, Svea J., If Kids Just Came with Instruction Sheets: Creating a World without Child Abuse, Oregon, Fern Ridge Press, 1997. Chapter 10 and part of appendix.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Oregon
The increase in the diagnosis of attention deficit disorder (ADD) and the characteristics and treatment of ADD using sensory motor exercises are discussed. Reasons for the disability are explored, including neurological differences and difficulties in interpreting sensory input. Problems with focusing and hearing as well as hypersensitivity to light and sound are reviewed. Research indicating nutritional deficits in children with ADD is also described. Finally, the lower blood flow in the cortex of children with ADD is discussed. The report then highlights the effectiveness of a sensory motor program that used creeping for treating children with ADD. A list is attached of sensory motor exercises that have helped children labeled with ADD and can be conducted by parents or licensed therapists. Exercises include turning the child in a chair, log rolls on the floor, twirling, trampoline jumping, jogging, massage, and crawling on the stomach.
Descriptors: *Attention Deficit Disorders; Attention Span; Children; Clinical Diagnosis; Disability Identification; *Etiology; *Hyperactivity; Incidence; *Multisensory Learning; *Perceptual Motor Learning; Sensory Integration; *Sensory Training; Symptoms (Individual Disorders)

EJ541608 PS526219
ADHD: A Travel Guide to Success.
Hogan, Dawn
Childhood Education, v73 n3 p158-60 Spr 1997
ISSN: 0009-4056
Uses "travel itinerary" structure to provide advice on teaching children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Covers such areas as consulting the experts, "landing without frustration" (modifying assignments and materials to match learning styles and abilities), "mapping and orientation" (providing models of expected behavior), "collecting souvenirs" (using positive behavior reinforcement), and "surviving group tours" (creating a climate of cooperation).
Descriptors: *Attention Deficit Disorders; *Classroom Techniques; Elementary Education; *Hyperactivity; Special Needs Students; Student Needs Identifiers: Attention Deficit;*Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; Classroom Management

EJ552061 EC617151
Practical Guidelines for Monitoring Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
Katisyannis, Antonis; Landrum, Timothy J.; Vinton, Lori
Preventing School Failure, v41 n3 p132-36 Spr 1997
Target Audience: Practitioners
First identifies salient features of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and then offers a model for diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of students with ADHD. The model assumes cooperation of parent, teacher, and physician, and data-based decisions concerning use and ongoing monitoring of stimulant medication or other home/school-based interventions.
Descriptors: *Attention Deficit Disorders; Clinical Diagnosis; Decision Making; *Drug Therapy; *Hyperactivity; *Integrated Services; Intervention; *Models; Stimulants; Student Characteristics

EJ553447 CG551061
A Daily Classroom Checklist for Communicating with Parents of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Lavin, Paul
School Counselor, v44 n4 p315-18 Mar 1997
Outlines a checklist that provides immediate, specific information on the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder child's behavior and academic performance. Lists objectives of the checklist, its content, and the ways in which the checklist is to be used. Claims that the checklist fosters teachers', parents', and children's cooperation.
Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Adolescents; *Attention Deficit Disorders; *Behavior Modification; *Check Lists; Children; Elementary Secondary Education; Feedback; Reinforcement; Student Evaluation

EJ544429 EC616453
Effects of Reinforcer Quality on Behavioral Momentum: Coordinated Applied and Basic Research.
Mace, R. Charles; And Others
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, v30 n1 p1-20 Spr 1997
ISSN: 0021-8855
Three experiments were performed to study the relationship between reinforcer quality and behavioral momentum by varying reinforcer quality in two applied experiments and a basic laboratory experiment with rats. A study of two adolescent boys with mental retardation showed that compliance increasing effects could be improved by reinforcing compliance and that reinforcer quality affects the resistance of compliance to change.
Descriptors: Adolescents; *Behavior Modification; Behavior Problems; *Compliance (Psychology); Intervention; Laboratory Experiments; *Mental Retardation; *Motivation; *Positive Reinforcement; *Resistance to Change

EJ558684 PS527555
Pay Attention
Madden, Drina
Montessori Life, v10 n1 p44-46 Win 1998
ISSN: 1054-0040
Children with Attention Deficit Disorder have trouble holding or sustaining attention. This article provides teachers with a general review of the disorder, including ADD and learning difficulties, self-esteem, and behavior problems; symptoms and diagnosis; and helping children with ADD, including medication, routine and regularity, careful planning of activities, and involvement of parents.
Descriptors: *Attention Deficit Disorders; Behavior Problems; Disability Identification; Elementary Secondary Education; Learning Problems; Self Esteem; Symptoms (Individual Disorders); Teacher Role

ED417532 EC306274
The ADHD Intervention Checklist.
McEwan, Elaine K.
ISBN: 0-8039-6668-7
Available From: Corwin Press, Inc., a Sage Publications Company, 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320; telephone: 805-499-9734
EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Document Type: BOOK (010); NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; California
Target Audience: Practitioners
This checklist assists in adapting and structuring all aspects of classroom life to better meet the needs of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The checklist is divided into seven sections: (1) environmental interventions (changes in the physical setting that will increase the likelihood of increased learning); (2) academic interventions (modification of classroom procedures and expectations for the students); (3) instructional interventions (changes in teacher behavior, lesson presentation, or both); (4) organizational interventions (strategies to assist the student toward independent self-organization); (5) homework interventions (ways to ensure that independent practice will be productive and lead to the student's learning); (6) behavioral interventions (methods to increase the likelihood of positive behaviors leading to increased learning); and (7) social skills interventions (modifications to help the student with ADHD relate more positively with peers). Three additional blank items have been added to each section to allow educators to insert their own interventions. Directions for using the checklist are provided.
Descriptors: *Attention Deficit Disorders; Behavior Change; *Check Lists; Classroom Communication; Classroom Environment; Classroom Techniques; Elementary Secondary Education; Homework; *Hyperactivity; *Interpersonal Competence; Intervention; Self Management; Skill Development; Teacher Behavior; Teacher Student Relationship Identifiers: *Academic Accommodations (Disabilities)

EJ546429 RC512023
Tips for Working with ADHD Students of All Ages.
Robelia, Beth
Journal of Experiential Education, v20 n1 p51-53 May 1997
ISSN: 1053-8259
Tips for working with students who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder include putting them in charge of something, providing structure, giving feedback, using logical consequences for unwanted behavior, being patient, teaching in novel ways, helping them with their gear, pairing them with another student, allowing blow-out time, and breaking down large tasks into smaller tasks. Discusses use of Ritalin.
Descriptors: *Attention Deficit Disorders; Behavior Disorders; Behavior Modification; Elementary Secondary Education; *Hyperactivity; Outdoor Education; Self Esteem; *Student Behavior; Teacher Student Relationship; *Teaching Methods Identifiers: Ritalin

ED410509 CG027996
Spadafore-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale: A New Instrument.
Spadafore, Gerald J.; Spadafore, Sharon J.
1997; 23p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association of School Psychologists (Anaheim, CA, April 2-5, 1997).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; Idaho
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a perplexing disorder that is both over- and under-diagnosed. A newly published instrument designed to identify ADHD children through a comprehensive diagnostic procedure is described here. The paper opens with discussions of ADHD and medication; related consequences of ADHD, such as social skills, academics, noncompliance, and self-concept; and an overview of problems surrounding the way ADHD is currently assessed. Some suggested steps for conducting an ADHD assessment are described, including classroom observations and academic and/or social development. The new rating scale is then presented. The Spadafore-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale views ADHD as a broad childhood disorder which includes a wide range of manifested symptoms that have the potential to negatively impact a child's academic and social environment. This scale was normed on 760 students from 16 states and 37 school districts; three factors emerged and were subsequently labeled Hyperactivity/Impulsivity; Attention; and Socially Maladjusted. The Spadafore scale provides school psychologists with a reliable instrument when diagnosing children for ADHD. Attached are the Spadafore-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale; ADHD Index; ADHD Diagnosis; and ADHD Treatment.
Descriptors: *Attention Deficit Disorders; *Clinical Diagnosis; Elementary Secondary Education; Evaluation Methods; Hyperactivity; Interpersonal Competence; Questionnaires; Rating Scales Identifiers: Impulsiveness

ED417545 EC306290
Facilitating and Promoting Academic and Social Success for the Adolescent with Attention Deficit Disorder.
Spinelli, Cathleen G.
1998; 31p.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; New Jersey
Target Audience: Practitioners; Teachers
This paper discusses the role of resource center teachers in helping students with attention deficit disorder (ADD) successfully make the transition to secondary school. It addresses: (1) characteristics of ADD, including academic underachievement, cognitive fatigue, fine motor dysfunction, lack of self-monitoring skills, poorly developed organization and time management skills, and performance inconsistency; (2) the influence of adolescence and secondary school demands on students with ADD; (3) diagnosis and placement; and (4) remedial strategies for resource center teachers, including monitoring progress, providing prompts and encouragement, promoting use of computers and modification of assignments to address fine motor dysfunction, encouraging self-awareness and self-management, supporting the use of structured organizers, fostering the use of daily notebooks to assist in short and long-term planning, prompting students to use compensatory skills, persuading students to request assistance and clarification, teaching mnemonic devices, advocating the use of study skills techniques, maintaining close supervision and providing direct instruction, coaching self-advocacy skill development, and recommending and facilitating involvement in extra-curricular activities.
Descriptors: Adolescents; *Attention Deficit Disorders; Classroom Techniques; *Clinical Diagnosis; Educational Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; Organization; Remedial Instruction; *Resource Teachers; Self Advocacy; Self Management; Special Education Teachers; Student Placement; *Teacher Role; *Teacher Student Relationship; Transitional Programs

EJ545999 EC616543
I Lost My Homework: Strategies for Improving Organization in Students with ADHD.
Stormont-Spurgin, Melissa
Intervention in School and Clinic, v32 n5 p270-74 May 1997
ISSN: 1053-4512
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
Describes strategies to address the organization problems of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Outlines the general organization problems of students with ADHD, presents a method for assessing organization deficits, and provides a case example illustrating how to write effective objectives for homework assignments.
Descriptors: *Attention Deficit Disorders; *Educational Objectives; Elementary Secondary Education; *Hyperactivity; *Learning Strategies; *Organization; *Self Management; Skill Development

Available from your local book store or library:

How to Reach and Teach Teenagerss with ADHD: A Step-by-Step Guide to Overcoming Difficult Behaviors at School and at Home. Grad L. Flick. The Center for Applied Research in Education/Prentice Hall Direct. PO Box 11075, Des Moines, IA 50336. www.phdirect.com.

Teaching Teens with ADD and ADHD: A Quick Reference Guide for Teachers and Parents. Chris A. Ziegler Dendy, M.S. Woodbine House. 6510 Bells Mill Rd., Bethesda, MD 20817. 800.384.7323. www.woodbinehouse.com.

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