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Attention Deficit Disorder (updated April 2000)
Please provide an overview of attention deficit disorder.
Attention deficit disorder (ADD) is a syndrome characterized by serious and persistent difficulties in the
following three specific areas:
ADD is a chronic disorder that can begin in infancy and extend through adulthood, having
negative effects on a child's life at home, school, and within the community. It is conservatively
estimated that 3 to 5% of our school-age population is affected by ADD. Even though the exact
cause of ADD remains unknown, research shows that ADD is a neurologically based medical
problem. There is no one "test" for determining if a person has this disorder. An accurate
diagnosis requires an assessment conducted by a well-trained professional usually a
developmental pediatrician, child psychologist, child psychiatrist, or pediatric neurologist. (From ERIC EC Digest E569, Teaching Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders.)
- Attention span.
- Impulse control.
- Hyperactivity (sometimes).
Following are links to related ERIC Digests, minibibliographies, frequently asked questions (FAQs), Internet resources, and Internet discussion groups,
as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the
You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:
The full text of ERIC documents (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:
- In microfiche collections worldwide; to find your nearest ERIC Resource Collection, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm
ERIC AE Closed, please visit
The Mental Measurements
Yearbook Test Reviews On-line (http://buros.unl.edu/buros/jsp/search.jsp).
- For a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, or 1.800.443.ERIC.
(no longer available)
The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:
- The originating journal
- Through interlibrary loan services at your local college or public library
- From article reproduction services such as
ERIC Search Terms Used
attention deficit disorders
Understanding ADHD: A Practical Guide for
Teachers and Parents.
Bender, William N.
Available From: Merrill/Prentice Hall, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, NJ
Document Not Available from EDRS.
Document Type: BOOK (010);
NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New Jersey
Target Audience: Parents; Practitioners; Teachers
This book is intended as a practical
guide for parents and teachers in managing children or students with attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specific strategies and techniques are presented that will
facilitate learning for individuals with ADHD in both the home and school environment.
Chapters include: "ADHD at Home and in the Classroom" (William N. Bender), which discusses
the definition of ADHD and controversies about ADHD; "Etiology and Neurobiology of ADHD"
(Cynthia A. Riccio and others); "Family Interactions and Social Development" (Diane Knight),
which includes information on home behavior management techniques; "Assessment and
Diagnosis of ADHD" (Kerry A. Schwanz and R. W. Kamphaus); "Medical Interventions and
School Monitoring" (William N. Bender), which includes a discussion on the teacher's role in
medication treatments; "Intervention Strategies for Preschool Children with ADHD" (Josh Hall
and others); "Teaching Students with ADHD in the Elementary Classroom" (Mickie Y. Mathes
and William N. Bender); "Teaching the Secondary Student with ADHD" (Patricia Wallace
Tilson and William N. Bender); and "The Adult with ADHD" (Laura M. Franklin and William
N. Bender), which includes information on the characteristics of the adult with ADHD, family
relationships of the adult with ADHD, and the adult with ADHD in the workplace.
Descriptors: Adults; *Attention Deficit Disorders; *Behavior Modification; Clinical Diagnosis;
Definitions; Disability Identification; Drug Therapy; *Educational Strategies; Elementary
Secondary Education; *Etiology; *Family Relationship; *Hyperactivity; Intervention; Preschool
Education; Social Development; Student Evaluation; Teacher Role; Teaching Guides
Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in
Childhood: A Review of the Literature.
Brock, Stephen E.
1997; 16p.; Paper
presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association of School Psychologists (Anaheim,
CA, April 2-5, 1997).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
REVIEW LITERATURE (070); CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.;
While it is acknowledged that there is no flawless measure of attention
deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood, a review of the literature reveals significant
agreement in recommended assessment procedures. An overview of these procedures is
presented in this paper. It begins with the diagnostic criteria for ADHD, such as symptom
duration, inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, developmental level, symptom onset, symptoms
appearing in multiple settings, clinical significance, and the ruling out of other disorders that
might cause the symptoms. The paper then discusses procedures recommended in a sample of
the literature that discuss ADHD diagnosis, including diagnostic procedures, rating scales,
interviews, parent interviews, direct observation, laboratory and psycho-educational tests,
medical evaluation, a review of school records, and peer assessments. It was found that rating
scales, interviews, observations, and laboratory/psycho-educational testing were the most
frequently recommended diagnostic techniques, although the efficacy of some of these
techniques is questionable. It is emphasized that the diagnosis of ADHD is a matter of an
educated opinion and that no single psychological or medical test is recommended for use in
diagnosing ADHD. Furthermore, a number of other factors or conditions can create ADHD-like
Descriptors: *Attention Deficit Disorders; *Clinical Diagnosis; Diagnostic
Tests; Elementary Secondary Education; Evaluation Methods; Hyperactivity; Literature
Reviews; *Symptoms (Individual Disorders)
Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Cadoree, Michelle, Comp.
Congress, Washington, DC. Science and Technology Div.
LC Science Tracer Bullet, Aug
18p.; Report No: TB-97-3
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01
Document Type: SERIAL (022); BIBLIOGRAPHY (131)
Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
This bibliography lists
approximately 130 references concerning children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD). An introduction briefly describes the scope of what is being included under this term.
It then lists the Library of Congress subject headings which are relevant to the topic. The
citations include author, title, an annotation (occasionally), and the Library of Congress
cataloging number. Citations are listed under the following categories: basic texts, books for
children and younger readers, books for adolescents and teens, books for adults with ADHD,
books for parents, books for teachers and educators, books for practitioners and clinicians, books
on therapy and treatment, personal narratives, related titles, bibliographies, directories, journals,
journal articles, abstracting and indexing services (with relevant subject terms), and
Descriptors: *Attention Deficit Disorders; *Books; Child
Rearing; Databases; Elementary Secondary Education; *Hyperactivity; Organizations (Groups);
Rethinking Attention Deficit
Cherkes-Julkowski, Miriam; And Others
Available From: Brookline Books, P.O. Box 1047, Cambridge, MA
02238-1047; telephone: 1-800-666-BOOK;
Document Not Available from EDRS.
Document Type: BOOK (010); REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
Geographic Source: U.S.;
This book reviews issues concerning attention deficit disorders (ADDs) in
the context of a systems perspective. ADDs are viewed as resulting from dynamic interactions of
behavior, cognition, and affect, out of which emerge distinct and idiosyncratic ways of coping.
Chapter 1 looks at the interaction of attention and behavior. In chapter 2, the history of ADDs
classification from the perspective of ADDs cognitive disorders is reviewed and definitions
under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual are discussed. Chapter 3 details the extent and
complexity of the attention system including the attention/working memory system, influences
on attention, and manifestations in school. Chapter 4 focuses on attention as self-regulation and
discusses biological and cognitive aspects of self-regulation as well as school interventions.
Chapter 5, on motivation, contends that motivation is not under simple, conscious control and
cannot be manipulated through behavioral interventions. Effects of medication are examined in
chapter 6 and social and emotional aspects of ADDs are examined in chapter 7. Practical
suggestions for intervention are provided in the eighth chapter (on classroom management), the
ninth chapter (on reading), the tenth chapter (on written language), and the eleventh chapter (on
mathematics). The final chapter summarizes the issues and provides directions for intervention.
A brief appendix presents a table of neurotransmitter effects.
Attention Control; *Attention Deficit Disorders; Behavior Patterns; *Classroom Techniques;
Cognitive Development; *Cognitive Processes; Coping; Definitions; *Drug Therapy; Elementary
Secondary Education; *Intervention; Models; Motivation; Systems Approach; Teaching
Using Children's Books as an Intervention for
Fouse, Beth; Morrison, Jane Ann
Reading Teacher, v50
n5 p442-45 Feb 1997
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE
(052); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); POSITIONPAPER (120)
Describes how the use of
children's books may enable students with Attention Deficit Disorder to develop a clearer
understanding of themselves and their problems. Includes a 33-item annotated list of books
useful for this purpose.
Descriptors: *Attention Deficit Disorders; *Childrens Literature;
Elementary Education; *Reading Aloud to Others; *Reading Materials
Attention Deficit Syndrome: Educational Bugaboo of the 90s.
1997; 10p.; In: Gold, Svea J., If Kids Just Came with Instruction Sheets: Creating a
World without Child Abuse, Oregon, Fern Ridge Press, 1997. Chapter 10 and part of
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Oregon
The increase in the diagnosis of attention deficit disorder (ADD) and the characteristics and
treatment of ADD using sensory motor exercises are discussed. Reasons for the disability are
explored, including neurological differences and difficulties in interpreting sensory input.
Problems with focusing and hearing as well as hypersensitivity to light and sound are reviewed.
Research indicating nutritional deficits in children with ADD is also described. Finally, the
lower blood flow in the cortex of children with ADD is discussed. The report then highlights the
effectiveness of a sensory motor program that used creeping for treating children with ADD. A
list is attached of sensory motor exercises that have helped children labeled with ADD and can
be conducted by parents or licensed therapists. Exercises include turning the child in a chair, log
rolls on the floor, twirling, trampoline jumping, jogging, massage, and crawling on the
Descriptors: *Attention Deficit Disorders; Attention Span; Children; Clinical
Diagnosis; Disability Identification; *Etiology; *Hyperactivity; Incidence; *Multisensory
Learning; *Perceptual Motor Learning; Sensory Integration; *Sensory Training; Symptoms
ADHD: A Travel Guide to Success.
Childhood Education, v73 n3 p158-60 Spr 1997
Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055); JOURNAL ARTICLE
Uses "travel itinerary" structure to provide advice on teaching children with attention
deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Covers such areas as consulting the experts, "landing
without frustration" (modifying assignments and materials to match learning styles and abilities),
"mapping and orientation" (providing models of expected behavior), "collecting souvenirs"
(using positive behavior reinforcement), and "surviving group tours" (creating a climate of
Descriptors: *Attention Deficit Disorders; *Classroom Techniques;
Elementary Education; *Hyperactivity; Special Needs Students; Student Needs Identifiers:
Attention Deficit;*Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; Classroom Management
Practical Guidelines for Monitoring Treatment of
Katisyannis, Antonis; Landrum, Timothy J.;
Preventing School Failure, v41 n3 p132-36 Spr 1997
JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); POSITION PAPER (120); PROJECTDESCRIPTION (141)
Target Audience: Practitioners
First identifies salient features of attention
deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and then offers a model for diagnosis, treatment, and
monitoring of students with ADHD. The model assumes cooperation of parent, teacher, and
physician, and data-based decisions concerning use and ongoing monitoring of stimulant
medication or other home/school-based interventions.
Descriptors: *Attention Deficit
Disorders; Clinical Diagnosis; Decision Making; *Drug Therapy; *Hyperactivity; *Integrated
Services; Intervention; *Models; Stimulants; Student Characteristics
A Daily Classroom Checklist for Communicating with Parents of Children with Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
School Counselor, v44 n4 p315-18 Mar
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); PROJECT DESCRIPTION
Outlines a checklist that provides immediate, specific information on the Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder child's behavior and academic performance. Lists objectives of
the checklist, its content, and the ways in which the checklist is to be used. Claims that the
checklist fosters teachers', parents', and children's cooperation.
Achievement; Adolescents; *Attention Deficit Disorders; *Behavior Modification; *Check Lists;
Children; Elementary Secondary Education; Feedback; Reinforcement; Student Evaluation
Effects of Reinforcer Quality on Behavioral Momentum:
Coordinated Applied and Basic Research.
Mace, R. Charles; And Others
Applied Behavior Analysis, v30 n1 p1-20 Spr 1997
Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); RESEARCH REPORT (143)
Three experiments were
performed to study the relationship between reinforcer quality and behavioral momentum by
varying reinforcer quality in two applied experiments and a basic laboratory experiment with
rats. A study of two adolescent boys with mental retardation showed that compliance increasing
effects could be improved by reinforcing compliance and that reinforcer quality affects the
resistance of compliance to change.
Descriptors: Adolescents; *Behavior
Modification; Behavior Problems; *Compliance (Psychology); Intervention; Laboratory
Experiments; *Mental Retardation; *Motivation; *Positive Reinforcement; *Resistance to
Life, v10 n1 p44-46 Win 1998
NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Attention Deficit Disorder have trouble holding or sustaining attention. This article provides
teachers with a general review of the disorder, including ADD and learning difficulties,
self-esteem, and behavior problems; symptoms and diagnosis; and helping children with ADD,
including medication, routine and regularity, careful planning of activities, and involvement of
Descriptors: *Attention Deficit Disorders; Behavior Problems; Disability
Identification; Elementary Secondary Education; Learning Problems; Self Esteem; Symptoms
(Individual Disorders); Teacher Role
The ADHD Intervention
McEwan, Elaine K.
From: Corwin Press, Inc., a Sage Publications Company, 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA
91320; telephone: 805-499-9734
EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available
Document Type: BOOK (010); NON-CLASSROOM
Geographic Source: U.S.; California
This checklist assists in adapting and structuring all aspects of
classroom life to better meet the needs of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD). The checklist is divided into seven sections: (1) environmental interventions (changes
in the physical setting that will increase the likelihood of increased learning); (2) academic
interventions (modification of classroom procedures and expectations for the students); (3)
instructional interventions (changes in teacher behavior, lesson presentation, or both); (4)
organizational interventions (strategies to assist the student toward independent
self-organization); (5) homework interventions (ways to ensure that independent practice will be
productive and lead to the student's learning); (6) behavioral interventions (methods to increase
the likelihood of positive behaviors leading to increased learning); and (7) social skills
interventions (modifications to help the student with ADHD relate more positively with peers).
Three additional blank items have been added to each section to allow educators to insert their
own interventions. Directions for using the checklist are provided.
Deficit Disorders; Behavior Change; *Check Lists; Classroom Communication; Classroom
Environment; Classroom Techniques; Elementary Secondary Education; Homework;
*Hyperactivity; *Interpersonal Competence; Intervention; Self Management; Skill Development;
Teacher Behavior; Teacher Student Relationship Identifiers: *Academic Accommodations
Tips for Working with ADHD Students of All
Journal of Experiential Education, v20 n1 p51-53 May 1997
Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL
(055); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Tips for working with students who have attention
deficit hyperactivity disorder include putting them in charge of something, providing structure,
giving feedback, using logical consequences for unwanted behavior, being patient, teaching in
novel ways, helping them with their gear, pairing them with another student, allowing blow-out
time, and breaking down large tasks into smaller tasks. Discusses use of Ritalin.
Descriptors: *Attention Deficit Disorders; Behavior Disorders; Behavior Modification;
Elementary Secondary Education; *Hyperactivity; Outdoor Education; Self Esteem; *Student
Behavior; Teacher Student Relationship; *Teaching Methods Identifiers: Ritalin
Spadafore-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale: A New
Spadafore, Gerald J.; Spadafore, Sharon J.
1997; 23p.; Paper presented at
the Annual Meeting of the National Association of School Psychologists (Anaheim, CA, April
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
CONFERENCE PAPER (150); TEST, QUESTIONNAIRE (160)
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a perplexing disorder that
is both over- and under-diagnosed. A newly published instrument designed to identify ADHD
children through a comprehensive diagnostic procedure is described here. The paper opens with
discussions of ADHD and medication; related consequences of ADHD, such as social skills,
academics, noncompliance, and self-concept; and an overview of problems surrounding the way
ADHD is currently assessed. Some suggested steps for conducting an ADHD assessment are
described, including classroom observations and academic and/or social development. The new
rating scale is then presented. The Spadafore-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating
Scale views ADHD as a broad childhood disorder which includes a wide range of manifested
symptoms that have the potential to negatively impact a child's academic and social environment.
This scale was normed on 760 students from 16 states and 37 school districts; three factors
emerged and were subsequently labeled Hyperactivity/Impulsivity; Attention; and Socially
Maladjusted. The Spadafore scale provides school psychologists with a reliable instrument when
diagnosing children for ADHD. Attached are the Spadafore-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder Rating Scale; ADHD Index; ADHD Diagnosis; and ADHD Treatment.
Descriptors: *Attention Deficit Disorders; *Clinical Diagnosis; Elementary Secondary
Education; Evaluation Methods; Hyperactivity; Interpersonal Competence; Questionnaires;
Rating Scales Identifiers: Impulsiveness
Promoting Academic and Social Success for the Adolescent with Attention Deficit
Spinelli, Cathleen G.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus
Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
Source: U.S.; New Jersey
Target Audience: Practitioners; Teachers
discusses the role of resource center teachers in helping students with attention deficit disorder
(ADD) successfully make the transition to secondary school. It addresses: (1) characteristics of
ADD, including academic underachievement, cognitive fatigue, fine motor dysfunction, lack of
self-monitoring skills, poorly developed organization and time management skills, and
performance inconsistency; (2) the influence of adolescence and secondary school demands on
students with ADD; (3) diagnosis and placement; and (4) remedial strategies for resource center
teachers, including monitoring progress, providing prompts and encouragement, promoting use
of computers and modification of assignments to address fine motor dysfunction, encouraging
self-awareness and self-management, supporting the use of structured organizers, fostering the
use of daily notebooks to assist in short and long-term planning, prompting students to use
compensatory skills, persuading students to request assistance and clarification, teaching
mnemonic devices, advocating the use of study skills techniques, maintaining close supervision
and providing direct instruction, coaching self-advocacy skill development, and recommending
and facilitating involvement in extra-curricular activities.
*Attention Deficit Disorders; Classroom Techniques; *Clinical Diagnosis; Educational
Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; Organization; Remedial Instruction; *Resource
Teachers; Self Advocacy; Self Management; Special Education Teachers; Student Placement;
*Teacher Role; *Teacher Student Relationship; Transitional Programs
I Lost My Homework: Strategies for Improving Organization in Students with
Intervention in School and Clinic, v32 n5
p270-74 May 1997
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052);
JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
strategies to address the organization problems of students with attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD). Outlines the general organization problems of students with ADHD, presents
a method for assessing organization deficits, and provides a case example illustrating how to
write effective objectives for homework assignments.
Descriptors: *Attention Deficit
Disorders; *Educational Objectives; Elementary Secondary Education; *Hyperactivity;
*Learning Strategies; *Organization; *Self Management; Skill Development
Available from your local book store or library:
How to Reach and Teach Teenagerss with ADHD: A Step-by-Step Guide to Overcoming Difficult Behaviors at School and at Home. Grad L. Flick. The Center for Applied Research in Education/Prentice Hall Direct. PO Box 11075, Des Moines, IA 50336.
Teaching Teens with ADD and ADHD: A Quick Reference Guide for Teachers
and Parents. Chris A. Ziegler Dendy, M.S. Woodbine House. 6510 Bells Mill Rd.,
Bethesda, MD 20817. 800.384.7323.
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