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Selected Resources: Preparing Teachers to Serve Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations, 1993-1996This document has been retired from the active collection
of the ERIC Clearinghouse
on Disabilities and Gifted Education.
It contains references or resources that may
no longer be valid or up to date.
The ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education (ERIC EC)
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Journal articles (for example, EJ999999) are available for a
fee from the originating journal (check your local college or public library),
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Artiles, A. J. et al. (1996). The Preservice Education of Teachers for
Student Diversity: An Analysis of the Special Education Empirical Literature. Paper
presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association
(New York, NY, April 8-12, 1996). 19pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED394252.
This monograph analyzes the empirical literature on multicultural teacher education.
The first section summarizes the existing literature in general education and points out
strengths and weaknesses. Noted are a pervasive lack of answers to many questions
and a dearth of empirical research on multicultural preservice teacher education. The
paper then proposes an analytic scheme for conducting and assessing empirical efforts
in this domain within special education. The scheme has three main dimensions: (1)
the foci of teacher education research; (2) the approach to multicultural education
embedded in research studies; and (3) the methodological approaches utilized in
inquiries. The paper concludes that: it is risky to continue implementing programs in
this area that are not informed by empirical evidence; the research to date is minimal
and lacks methodological soundness; the existing research fails to adequately describe
the models and domains of study involved; there is little focus on description of
approaches; the research methodologies and tools used are limited; and the number
and types of dependent variables need to be broadened.
Beam, G. C. (1993) Introduction: Getting Started. Teams in Early
Intervention. For related documents, see EC 303 771-775. 71pp.
ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED379895.
Project TIE (Teams in Early Intervention) was conceptualized to meet the need for:
(1) involvement of formerly "ancillary" service professionals in early intervention for
children with disabilities, (2) high quality family-centered services, and (3) training in the
team approach. The project provides training to four groups that might constitute an
early intervention team/language pathologists, motor therapists, health care
professionals, and family members. The training is designed to enable participants to
determine what supports and interferes with children's performance, develop shared
perspectives in viewing children's performance, apply a common conceptual framework
for early intervention, explore how each profession addresses early intervention team
practices, know what other team members expect from them, and improve information
sharing among team members. This introductory training module contains a paper by
Carol Westby titled "Developing Cultural Competence: Working with
Culturally/Linguistically Diverse Families." The paper examines controversial issues in
cultural diversity, cultural variations in values and beliefs, cultural differences affecting
child development, and cultural influences on interviewing. Another paper, "The
Performance Competence Model: A Narrative Discussion" by Meave Stevens
Dominguez, promotes a holistic view of the child within the context of the child's
personal characteristics, preferences, environments, family, and culture. Appendices
contain a sample training agenda and cards for use in a performance competence
Burstein, N. et al. (1993). Teacher Preparation for Culturally Diverse
Urban Students: Infusing Competencies across the Curriculum. Teacher Education and
Special Education, 16(1), 1-13.
This paper describes a teacher education program which systematically infuses, into
the entire curriculum, those competencies important in serving culturally diverse
students with learning disabilities. The program's rationale, the infusion model, and its
implementation and effectiveness are discussed.
Ford, B.A. (1992). Multicultural Education Training for Special
Educators Working with African-American Youth. Exceptional Children, 59(2), 107-14.
A survey of 21 special education administrators in Ohio revealed that they perceived
that special education teachers should be involved in multicultural educational training
programs with special emphasis on African-American students and their families.
Results also revealed that personnel responsible for conducting such inservice
programs may lack formal training.
Grossman, Herbert. (1992). The San Jose State University
Bilingual/Multicultural Special Education Personnel Preparation Program: A Report on
Thirteen Years of Experience. 52pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED364092.
The report describes the San Jose State University (California) teacher education
program to prepare teachers of multicultural special education in elementary and
secondary schools. It begins by describing the program's components, all related to
bilingual special education teacher training: the training program itself; teacher
certification; an 8-course advanced training program; distance education; intercollegiate
credit transfer; multicultural training for monolingual teachers; multicultural training for
teachers trained in learning disabilities; early childhood education;
English-as-a-Second-Language instruction; and summer institutes. Other program
information reported includes student and faculty data, a history of the program's
development since 1979, program structure, courses offered, and descriptions of the
bilingual/multicultural competencies emphasized, with program activities used to teach
them. These include: language skills; cultural awareness and intercultural skills;
non-discriminatory assessment techniques; language assessment techniques;
instructional strategies; counseling, consultation, advocacy, and referral skills; and
classroom management techniques. A formal program evaluation for the program's
13-year period, with recommendations, is appended.
Hains, A. H. (1994). UWM Preservice Early Intervention Project:
Respecting the Full Range of Diversity across Early Childhood Settings. Final Report,
Fiscal Years 1991-1994. 50pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED379834.
This project recruited and provided preservice training for individuals from
underrepresented groups who were interested in working in urban areas with young
children with special needs and their families. The project was implemented within the
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM) Exceptional Education program in
collaboration with the Curriculum and Instruction program and the Center for Teacher
Education. The program included both existing and proposed coursework and
opportunities for fieldwork and practica experiences in a variety of settings including
community-based and public school programs. Competencies related to
family-centered intervention, team collaboration and consultation, care coordination
(case management), cultural diversity, transition planning, and problem-solving were
infused into the program. Experienced professionals from underrepresented populations
were recruited as mentors. Interviews with students indicated that students'
expectations were being met. This report discusses the project's objectives,
accomplishments toward objectives, and project findings. Appendices contain a project
brochure, news releases, student teaching evaluation form, UWM-Milwaukee Area
Technical College articulation agreement, and a preservice student questionnaire.
Harry, B. et al. (1993). Crossing Social Class and Cultural Barriers in
Working with Families: Implications for Teacher Training. TEACHING Exceptional
Children, 26(1), 48-51.
This article describes a preservice special education teacher education course at the
University of Maryland which requires students to interact directly with parents of
different social classes and cultural backgrounds. Three students recount their
experiences and changed attitudes as a result of this requirement.
Lyter-Mickelberg, P. & Connor-Kuntz, F. (1995). How to Stop
Stereotyping Students. Strategies, 8(6), 16-21.
Explains how teachers can modify their behaviors to incorporate a multicultural
approach in physical education. Gender, racial, and disability stereotypes are
emphasized as problematic. Eight steps to incorporating an inclusive approach to
physical education are provided.
Obiakor, F. E. & Ford, B. A. (1995). Restructuring and Reforming: "Rat
Race" for Excellence or Failure? Paper presented at the 73rd Annual International
Convention of the Council for Exceptional Children (Indianapolis, IN, April 5-9, 1995). 13pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED381980.
This paper considers the impact of school reform and restructuring programs on
African-American students with exceptionalities and suggests strategies for general and
special educators, policymakers, and administrators. It reviews the history of school
reforms and concludes that the America 2000/Goals 2000 program and the 1990
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act both fail to address the needs of
African-American and other at-risk students because of their heavy reliance on tests.
Teacher education programs are also criticized for their heavy reliance on tests for
admission and program completion as well as on their "soullessness" and "poverty of
the teaching spirit." Most reform efforts are seen to address "quality" but not "equity"
and thus cause more problems than they solve. Recommendations for responsible
reform and restructuring programs for African-American exceptional learners include:
(1) ensuring that adequate cultural knowledge is included in professional standards; (2)
recruiting and retaining African-American general and special educators at all levels; (3)
focusing on problem solutions and not problem politics; (4) addressing issues of equity
and excellence; and (5) creating a Comprehensive Support Model to involve
students, parents, schools, and communities.
Obiakor, F. E. & Utley, C. (1996). A. Rethinking Preservice and Inservice
Training Programs for Teachers in the Learning Disabilities Field: Workable Multicultural
Models. 52pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED397594.
This paper discusses the need to rethink preservice and inservice training programs
for general and special educators who teach culturally diverse students with learning
disabilities. An overview identifies problems associated with traditional preservice and
inservice training programs, such as Eurocentric teacher education programs and low
teacher expectations of minority students. The following model teacher development
programs are reviewed: "Bilingual/ESOL Special Education INFUSION," "Bilingual
Special Education Interagency Collaboration Project," "Multisystem: Systematic
Instructional Planning for Exceptional Bilingual Students," "Culture: Differences?
Diversity! Inservice Program," "Project Partnership," and "Training in America's
Multicultural Schools (Project TEAMS)." Barriers to systemic programmatic infusion of
these successful programs are identified, including a lack of involvement by minority
faculty and staff and implications of the transfer of funding authority to state and local
authorities. A discussion of multicultural competencies for regular and special educators
presents case studies to illustrate how traditional inservice training, labeling,
misidentification procedures, low teacher expectations, and teacher-student interactions
affect the outcomes for culturally diverse and at-risk students with learning disabilities.
Proactive nontraditional strategies are proposed, involving new ways of thinking;
curricular changes; modification and infusion of courses; testing, placement, and
instructional expectations; and recruitment and retention of minority students, faculty,
and staff at colleges and universities.
Ramirez, B. A. (1990). Preparing Special Education and Related
Services Personnel To Serve Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Children with
Handicaps: Needs and Future Directions. In: Bullock, Lyndal M., Ed.; Simpson,
Richard L., Ed., Critical Issues in Special Education: Implications for Personnel
Preparation. Monograph.; see EC 301 016. Paper presented at the Forum on
Emerging Trends in Special Education and Implications for Training Personnel
(Washington, DC, February 8-9, 1990). 5pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED343341.
This paper outlines the need to diversify the education profession at practitioner,
administrative, and personnel preparation levels in order to better serve culturally and
linguistically diverse children with disabilities. Needs identified include developing
effective recruitment and retention programs for members of ethnic minority groups;
ensuring that competencies related to culturally and linguistically diverse children with
handicaps are an integral component of special education and related services
preparation programs; strengthening training and leadership programs preparing ethnic
minority special education and related services personnel as well as personnel serving
culturally and linguistically diverse children with handicaps; and initiating research and
demonstration projects to improve curriculum, competencies, and training.
Wald, J. L. (1996). Culturally and Linguistically Diverse
Professionals in Special Education: A Demographic Analysis. 52pp.
ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED397579.
This paper identifies issues associated with the supply and demand of culturally and
linguistically diverse teaching professionals, particularly special educators. It notes an
alarming disparity between the supply and the demand of special education teaching
professionals representing diverse populations. First, data on general and special
education demographics are provided. Definitional issues are briefly addressed, noting
that a "minority" may well actually be the majority in some school systems. The critical
importance of population projection data in addressing the supply and demand of
culturally and linguistically diverse special educators is stressed. The scarcity of
relevant data and the importance of data collection in providing an empirical basis for
policy decisions are stressed. Variables related to the imbalance between the supply of
minority educators and the number of minority students are presented in graphs, tables,
and narrative, including alternative career paths, diminished supply of special education
personnel, low preservice graduation rates of minority students, and attrition/retention
issues. The value of diversity within the educational setting is emphasized.
Recommendations address: programs directed toward increased supply of educators
representing diverse populations; recruitment and retention efforts at the preservice
level; federal mandates; and systematic review and evaluation using national, state, and
regional data collection.
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