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Readings on the Use of Technology for Individuals With
This document has been retired from the active collection
of the ERIC Clearinghouse
on Disabilities and Gifted Education.
It contains references or resources that may
no longer be valid or up to date.
The ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education (ERIC EC)
ERIC EC Minibib EB16
Compiled by Janet Drill and Barbara Sorenson
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Aedo, I. (1994). A teaching methodology for the hearing impaired
using hypermedia and computer animation. Journal of Computing in
Childhood Education, 5(3/4), 353-69.
This article examines the possibilities and advantages of
computers in teaching hearing-impaired children. A method of
using computers to improve the spoken and written communication
skills of the hearing impaired is presented which suggests that
hypertext and multimedia technologies can be successfully applied
to speech therapy teaching, lip-reading teaching, hearing
training development, vocabulary teaching, morphosyntactic-structure teaching, and
Anderson, M. A. (1991). Technology integration for mainstreamed
students. Computing Teacher, 18(4), 6-8.
A discussion of the successful integration of technology to
assist students with mild disabilities in mainstreamed classrooms
highlights the role of the teacher. Three research studies are
described: one with elementary schools, one with middle schools,
and one with high schools. Curriculum objectives, student needs,
group learning, and teacher training are also discussed.
The Arc. (1994). How to evaluate and select assistive
technology. 4p. ERIC Document Reproduction Service
This digest discusses assistive technology for children and
adults with mental retardation and other disabilities. Assistive
technology is used to compensate for functional limitations and
to enhance and increase learning, independence, mobility,
communication, environmental control, and choice. A checklist is
provided that covers user questions, vendor questions, device
performance, convenience, reliability, safety, and practicality.
Brett, A. (1995). Technology in inclusive early childhood
settings. Day Care & Early Education, 22(3), 8-11.
This article examines whether to make computers a part of
the early childhood curriculum. It discusses the contribution of
computers to children's development, focusing on the role of
computers and related technology in benefiting children with
disabilities, facilitating inclusion, and ways of adapting
Brett, A., & Provenzo, E.F., Jr. (1995). Adaptive technology for
special human needs. SUNY series, Computers in education. State
University of NY Press, State University Plaza, Albany, NY 12246.
This publication describes the use of computers to augment
the schooling and daily functions of individuals with
disabilities, and details currently available hardware and
software systems in four areas of disability: visual impairment,
hearing and speech impairment, physical impairment, and cognitive
impairment (learning disabilities and mental retardation). Four
uses of adaptive technology are identified that apply to all
ages: spoken and written communication; cognitive stimulation and
development; recreation, leisure, and play; and environmental
control. Adaptive technology applications in education are
Button, C., & Wobschall, R. (1994). The Americans with
Disabilities Act and assistive technology. Journal of Vocational
Rehabilitation, 4(3), 196-201.
This paper provides a synopsis of each section of the
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the relationship of
assistive technology to the needs and mandate of the section.
Numerous suggestions are included for assistive technology
devices that may be effective resources for ADA compliance.
Ellsworth, N.J. (1994). Applications of technology for students
with learning disabilities: A survey of New York City schools.
LD Forum, 20(1), 21-24pp. Council for Learning Disabilities, PO
Box 40303, Overland Park, KS 66204.
Results are presented of a study on applications of
technology employed in New York City schools with students with
learning disabilities (LD). The study explored the availability
and frequency of use of 14 types of technology, as well as 68
teachers' views on what kinds of technology would be most
helpful. Information was obtained on: innovative uses of
technology, the quality of software available, accessibility of
computers, equipment needs for special education, and assistance
needed by teachers. Over two-thirds of teachers reported that
they and their students typically had access only to video
recording and playback equipment and older personal computers
with limited software.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education. (1995).
Instructional design of computer-assisted instruction for use
with students who have mild disabilities.
Children, 27(3), 77-79.
This review of the literature on computer-assisted
instruction for students with mild disabilities identifies
features of effective software, offers examples of software
features that support particular instructional strategies, and
outlines findings on specific instructional principles as applied
to computer-assisted instructional software.
Fitzgerald, G.E. (1994). Using the computer with students with
emotional and behavioral disorders. Technology & Disability,
3(2), 87-99. (Theme issue: Special education).
This article describes promising practices for integrating
the computer into therapeutic instruction for students with
emotional and behavioral disorders. For students with behavior
problems, the computer can serve as an effective motivator,
provide opportunities for cooperative learning, offer social and
leisure time pursuits, and provide students the tools to engage
in self-monitoring activities. For students with emotional
problems, the computer can facilitate self-expression, assist in
determining effective learning strategies, and build self-esteem.
Flippo, K.F. (Ed) et al. (1995). Assistive technology: A resource
for school, work, and community. Brookes Publishing Co., Box
10624, Baltimore, MD 21285-0624. 301pp.
This book explores the applications of assistive technology
for individuals with disabilities in school, work, and community
settings, stressing the need to keep the user of such technology
as the focus of all design, training, and implementation
processes. Issues addressed include: policy foundations,
training, staff development, creative financing, community
services, and the users' perspective of assistive technology.
Ford, M.J. et al. (1993). Attending behaviors of ADHD children
in math and reading using various types of software. Journal of
Computing in Childhood Education, 4(2), 183-96.
This article compared the effects of using various computer
software programs on the attending behavior of children with
attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). It found that the
attention of ADHD children increased while they used software
with a game format when animation was not excessive. Other
factors affecting nonattending behaviors included the software's
difficulty, format, and content.
Green, D.W. (1995). The benefits of multimedia computer software
for students with disabilities. 21pp. ERIC Document Reproduction
Service (EDRS), ED382172.
This paper assesses the current state of research and
informed opinion on the benefits of multimedia computer software
for students with disabilities. Topics include: a definition of
multimedia; advantages of multimedia; Multiple Intelligence
Theory, which states intellectual abilities consist of seven
components; motivation and behavior modification; hyperactive
children; attention grabbing and distraction; technology and
metacognition; the value of interactivity, immediate feedback,
and hypermedia; assessment-selecting software; students as
producers; teacher skills, training, and support; and technology
trends. A set of interview questions for practitioners is
included and the interview sample and results are discussed.
Hanley, T.V. (1995). The need for technological advances in
assessment related to national educational reform. Exceptional
Children, 61(3), 222-229.
This article explores the relation between the inclusion
movement and the development of national standards for "all
students," and outlines their implications for technology-assisted improvements in
assessment of students with disabilities. Testing accommodations, such as
input/output adaptations, can be facilitated with technology, and new tools
for measuring guiding student progress are being explored.
Higgins, K., & Boone, R. (1993). Technology as a tutor, tool,
and agent for reading. Journal of Special Education Technology,
This article reviews the use of computer-based technology in
teaching reading to students with disabilities. Research from
the last 10 years is examined using the metaphors of Tutor, Tool,
and Agent as categories of instructional purpose. Most of the
substantive data supporting computer use concerns drill and
practice and tutorial assisted instructional programs.
Holzberg, C.S. (1994). Technology in special education.
Technology and Learning, 14(7), 18-21.
This article presents examples of the use of technology to
motivate, teach, and empower children with physical and cognitive
disabilities. Specific applications include the use of computers
for antivictimization training, writing, self-expression, and
improving communication skills. The work of the Center for
Literacy and Disability Studies (North Carolina) is described.
Kurlychek, K. (1994). Software to go: A catalog of software
available for loan. 223pp. ERIC Document Reproduction
Service (EDRS), ED378719.
This catalog lists the holdings of the Software to Go
software lending library and clearinghouse for programs and
agencies serving students who are deaf or hard of hearing. An
introduction describes the clearinghouse and its collection of
software, much of it commercial and copyrighted material, for
Apple, Macintosh, and IBM (MS-DOS) computers and explains how to
join the service and use the lending procedure.
Lindsey, J.D. (Ed). (1993). Computers for exceptional
individuals. Second edition. PRO-ED, 8700 Shoal Creek Blvd.,
Austin, TX 78758-6897. 416pp.
This second edition provides an updated practical discussion
of current computer technology for use with individuals with
disabilities and/or gifted and talented individuals. Chapters
include information on: general and specific computer concepts
related to exceptional individuals; applications for computers
with individuals with mild disabilities, speech and language
disorders, severe and physical disabilities, sensory impairments,
and gifted and talented individuals; and administrative and
instructional applications. Appendices cover computer terms,
theories, principles, languages; teacher competencies; specific
software packages; and courseware evaluation procedures.
Ludy, R., & Blunt, M. (1995). Assistive technology resources:
Building bridges for institutions for higher education.
17pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED380016.
This paper describes the increased enrollment of individuals
with disabilities in institutions of higher education and the
special role of assistive technology resources making that
possible. The paper describes the Technology-Related Assistance
for Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1988, which made
discretionary funds available to all states to facilitate their
development of consumer-responsive, statewide technology-related
projects. A list of 53 state assistive technology projects is
Male, M. (1994). Technology for inclusion: Meeting the special
needs of all students. Second edition. Allyn & Bacon, 160 Gould
St., Needham Heights, MA 02194. 201pp.
This guide examines the implications of computer technology
on the education of students with disabilities, focusing on the
use of computers in inclusive classrooms. Chapters include
information on: student access to technology; roles of teachers,
parents, and administrators; quality-of-life issues; suggestions
for selecting and integrating computer hardware; using computers
to develop students' social skills; word processing and desktop
publishing; applications such as database management,
spreadsheets, telecommunications, and multimedia; integrating
computer technology into individualized educational plans; and
future trends in technology.
Meyers, L.F. (1994). Access and meaning: The keys to effective
computer use by children with language disabilities. Journal of
Special Education Technology, 12(3), 257-75.
This study of 18 school-age children with Down Syndrome
supports the contention that combining technological access to
speech and text with teaching methods providing the language
structure to link speech output and text with personal meaning
results in significantly improved language skills compared with
use of computers without speech output or use of pencil and
Miller, E.C. (1993). Special experiences for exceptional
students: Integrating virtual reality into special education
classroom. 10pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS),
This paper discusses potential benefits and hazards that
virtual reality holds for exceptional children in the special
education system. Topics include: applications of virtual
reality; developing academic skills via cyberspace; vocational
training; and social learning in cyberspace; telepresence and
distance education; the role of teacher in cyberspace; changing
teacher-training programs; the corollary curricular change; and
the risks of using virtual reality in special education.
Moore, P.R. (1994). An analysis of the impact of computer
placement and training on special education teachers' attitudes
and perceptions of the role of computers in instruction. Teacher
Education and Special Education, 17(4), 236-48.
Results of placing a computer in eight special education
classrooms and providing the teachers with a 4-month practicum
of integrating the computer into instructional programs indicated
that teachers viewed the computer as not only a powerful
motivating and reinforcing tool but also as a generally useful
tool for themselves and their students.
Ordover, E. (1994). Assistive technology for students with
disabilities: Rights under federal law. 8pp. ERIC Document
Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED377624.
This paper defines "assistive technology device" and
"assistive technology service," outlines responsibilities of
states receiving IDEA funds to provide such devices and services,
notes eligibility requirements, examines requirements for
vocational education programs, considers the use of assistive
technology devices and services to enable placement in regular
education settings, and discusses the provision of auxiliary aids
to students in postsecondary education programs. References to
the United States Code, the Code of Federal Regulations, and
court cases are provided to support the paper's views.
Payne, M.D., & Sachs, R. (1994). Educational software and
adaptive technology for students with learning disabilities. 5p.
ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED381920.
Technological solutions are described that have enabled
postsecondary students with learning disabilities to compete
equally with nondisabled peers in the educational environment.
Such solutions have included a variety of educational software,
word processing applications, and adaptive technology. Selected
examples are given of how campuses are providing computer access,
which is mandated by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.
Pesta, J. (1994). Assistive, adaptive, amazing technologies.
TECHNOS, 3(2), 10-12. Agency for Instructional Technology (AIT),
Box A, Bloomington, IN 47402-0120.
This article discusses assistive or adaptive technology and
highlights major technologies that help physically impaired
individuals at home, work, and school. Technologies include
voice recognition, microswitches, communication boards,
headsticks and mouthsticks, vision control, adaptive keyboards,
word prediction software, electronic readers, speech synthesizers, Braille
adapters, oversized displays, closed-captioning, and adapted
Pisarchick, S.E. (1992). Technology. Project prepare:
Competency-based personnel preparation in early childhood
education modules. 743pp. ERIC Document Reproduction
Service (EDRS), ED353754.
One of nine competency-based training modules for personnel
preparation in early childhood special education, this guide
focuses on assistive technology and technological interventions
in preschool programs. The module is adaptable for use with a
general audience, direct service personnel, or administrators.
This module focuses on six goals: gaining an overview of
assistive technology and its curricular role; familiarity with
switch applications to increase the independent control and
participation of young children; understanding the basic use of
computers and peripherals; understanding of how computers and
peripherals can be integrated into the curriculum; gaining an
overview of augmentative and alternative communication systems,
and obtaining practical information regarding funding for
assistive technology devices and services.
Staples, A. et al. (1993). Uses of technology and educational
media in literacy instruction for children with developmental
disabilities. 6pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS),
A 3-year research project, employing qualitative inquiry in
a pair of preschool and primary grade classrooms (one self-contained and one
integrated at each level), was undertaken to
examine the literacy learning difficulties of school-aged
children with developmental disabilities. The multi-site case
studies of the first phase of the project used the constant
comparative method of data collection and analysis. Analysis of
the first year of the project reveals two primary themes:
technology and inclusion. Technology facilitated literacy
learning opportunities when: it was available; teachers were
competent users and programmers of the devices; and teachers had
ample time to adapt materials. Inclusion facilitated learning
when: peers had a clear understanding of and experiences with
their roles; and the individual needs of all students were
Storeygard, J. (1993). Making computers work for students with
special needs. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 26(1), 22-24.
A course on computers and writing for special education
middle school students who are reluctant writers is described.
The background of the course, the role of the computer, student
attitudes, outcomes, and success factors are discussed. An added
advantage was the improved communication between regular and
Wolfenden, D.P. (1995). Educators' commonly asked questions
about assistive technology devices and services.
33pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED393240.
This monograph for Maine educators presents basic
information on assistive technology devices and services and the
role of assistive technology in delivering appropriate education
to children with disabilities in the least restrictive
environment. Questions address definitions; relevant provisions
of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA);
funding sources; alternatives to purchasing assistive technology
devices; responsibilities of schools regarding device
maintenance, repair, and replacement; relationship of devices to
medical needs; evaluation of devices or services; and training
in use of such devices.
Zabala, J. (1995). The SETT framework: Critical areas to
consider when making informed assistive technology decisions.
4pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED381962.
This brief paper offers a systematic approach to making
decisions regarding the provision of assistive technology devices
and services for students with disabilities. Initial questions
address which students need assistive technology, what kind of
technology is needed, and who is involved in making these
decisions. The question about what sort of data should be
collected is answered by a proposed model, the SETT framework,
which raises a series of 16 questions about the Student, the
Environment, the Tasks, and the Tools. A form for collecting
SETT information is attached.
MATERIALS FROM FEDERALLY FUNDED RESEARCH
Activating children through technology. A final report for the
project period October 1, 1992-January 31, 1996.
40pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED395411.
The primary purpose of ACTT (Activating Children
Through Technology) Outreach, housed in Macomb Projects in the
College of Education and Human Services at Western Illinois
University, is to integrate assistive technology into early
childhood services for children, ages birth to eight, with
NCIP profiles, 1-5, 1995 (ED390230); NCIP profiles, 1-5, 1994
(ED390229); Evaluation of the integration of technology for
instructing handicapped children (middle school level). Final
report of phase I (ED342159); Evaluation of the integration of
technology for instructing handicapped children (middle school
level). Final report of phase II (ED342160). ERIC Document
Reproduction Service (EDRS).
The National Center to Improve Practice (NCIP) is a 5-year project whose
overall mission is to promote the effective use of technology,
media, and materials to improve educational outcomes for students
Opening the doors: Using technology to improve education for
students with disabilities. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS),
sponsored project conducted by Macro International, Inc. explored
educational practices, originating in diverse communities, in
which teachers used educational technology in innovative ways to
meet the needs of children with disabilities.
Research synthesis on design of effective media, materials, and
technology for deaf and hard-of hearing students. Technical
report no. 1 (ED386850); Research synthesis on design of
effective media, materials, and technology for deaf and hard-of
hearing students. Executive summary. Technical report no. 2
(ED386851); Research synthesis on quality and availability of
assistive technology devices. Technical report no. 7.
(ED386855); Research synthesis on quality and availability of
assistive technology devices. Executive summary. Technical
report no. 8 (ED386856); Research Synthesis on Early Intervention
Practices. Technical report no. 11 (ED386859); Technology
integration into early childhood curricula: where we've been,
where we are, where we should go (ED386901). ERIC Document Reproduction
The National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators was established to help
developers and publishers of technology (software), media
(electronic media), and materials (print) meet emerging classroom
needs of diverse learners and provide guidelines to enable
developers and publishers to produce the most relevant and
effective materials possible.
School reform and its implications for technology use in the
future. Identifying emerging issues and trends in technology for
special education. ERIC Document Reproduction
Service (EDRS), ED350763.
This 3-year study
conducted by COSMOS Corporation strived to identify emerging
issues and trends in technology for special education.
Technology in the classroom: Applications and strategies for the
education of children with severe disabilities; Communication
module; Education module; Listening and hearing (Supplement);
Positioning, access, and mobility module. Available from:
Fullfillment Operations, American Speech-Language-Hearing
Association (ASHA), 1081 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852,
The "Technology in the Classroom" project
developed, field tested, and evaluated the effectiveness of self-instructional materials
that would improve the technology skills
and knowledge of families and regular/special education
professionals, in order to integrate assistive technologies into
the educational programs of children (ages 2 to 7) with severe
Technology inservice project (Project TIP). Final report.
ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED385991.
Technology Inservice Project (Project TIP) was
designed to provide technology training and information to meet
the staff development needs of early childhood administrators,
teachers, and support personnel and early intervention team
members, including families and regular educators.
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