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Selected Readings: Gifted Students with Learning Disabilities

The ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education (ERIC EC)
E-mail: webmaster@hoagiesgifted.org
Internet: http://eric.hoagiesgifted.org
ERIC EC Minibib EB9
Updated March 2003

Citations with an ED (ERIC Document; for example, ED123456) number are available in microfiche collections at more than 1,000 locations worldwide; to find the ERIC Resource Collection nearest you, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm. Documents can also be ordered for a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com/, service@edrs.com, or 1-800-443-ERIC (no longer available).

Journal articles (for example, EJ999999) are available for a fee from the originating journal (check your local college or public library), through interlibrary loan services, or from article reproduction services such as: Infotrieve: 800.422.4633, http://www4.infotrieve.com, service@infotrieve.com or ingenta: 800.296.2221, www.ingenta.com, ushelp@ingenta.com.

Baum, S. (1990). Gifted but learning disabled: A puzzling paradox. ERIC Digest #E479. ED321484.
Learning disabled gifted are grouped into three categories: identified gifted students who have subtle learning disabilities, unidentified students whose gifts and disabilities may be masked by average achievement, and identified learning disabled students who are also gifted. Four general guidelines are offered to professionals in developing appropriate educational programs.

Baum, S. M., Cooper, C. R., Neu, T. W. (2001). Dual differentiation: An approach for meeting the curricular needs of gifted students with learning disabilities. Psychology in the Schools, 38(5), 477-90.
This article discusses the dual characteristics of gifted learning disabled students and suggests a unique curriculum that integrates both through talent development. Developed through Project HIGH HOPES, this dually differentiated curriculum offers strategies for addressing students' learning problems while fulfilling their need for sophisticated challenge through advanced level content and a focus on solving authentic, real world problems.

Birely, M. (1994). Crossover children: A sourcebook for helping children who are gifted and learning disabled (2nd ed.). Reston, VA: The Council for Exceptional Children.
A rich resource that provides specific strategies to help children who are gifted and learning disabled and/or ADD control impulsivity, increase attention, enhance memory, improve social skills, and develop a positive self concept. It also provides recommendations for academic interventions and enrichment activities.

Brody, L. E., & Mills, C. J. (1997). Gifted children with learning disabilities: A review of the issues. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30(3), 282-96.
This article explores current policies and practices concerning the definition, identification, and educational needs of students who are both gifted and learning disabled. Recommendations stress the need for less rigid definitions and cutoff scores for program eligibility and the provision of a wide variety of settings (resource rooms, special classes) and service options (individualized instruction, enrichment).

Coben, S., & Vaughn, S. (1994). Gifted students with learning disabilities: What does the research say? Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 5(2), 87-94.
A review of the literature on gifted students with learning disabilities concludes that the literature is presently unable to provide empirically based guidelines for identifying and serving children who are both gifted and learning disabled. Several key problems are discussed, including identification, characteristics, and intervention.

Coleman, M. R. (2001). Surviving or thriving? 21 gifted boys with learning disabilities share their school stories. Gifted Child Today Magazine, 24(3), 56-63.
Twenty-one middle school boys who were both gifted and learning disabled were interviewed to learn how they would handle hypothetical difficult school situations. Results are summarized in four tables that list: (1) how other people can help, (2) strategies for coping with academic content, (3) strategies for test taking, and (4) general strategies.

Coleman, M. R., & Gallagher, J. J. (1995). State identification policies: Gifted students from special populations. Roeper Review, 17(4), 268-75.
Results are presented of a national survey of state policies regarding identification of gifted students from special populations (culturally diverse families, economic disadvantagement, or gifted students with disabilities). Also considered is a followup study on the implementation of state policies in Ohio, Arkansas, and Texas. Future policy directions are recommended.

Dix, J., & Schafer, S. (1996). From paradox to performance: Practical strategies for identifying and teaching GT/LD students. Gifted Child Today Magazine, 19(1), 22-25, 28-31.
Basic information for regular classroom teachers with students who are both gifted and learning disabled covers definition of this population; incidence; characteristics; and six teaching strategies, such as flexibility in how student demonstrates mastery of material, adapting for reading differences, and using attention-directing techniques. A screening checklist is also provided.

Freed, J., & Parsons, L. (1997). Right-brained children in a left-brained world: Unlocking the potential of your ADD Child. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Freed and Parsons state that ADD is related to learning style and that effective intervention strategies would include teaching a visual spatial learner to learn differently. They offer a step-by-step program that shows parents how to work with, not against, the special abilities of the ADD child and other visual thinkers.

The gifted learning disabled student. (1994). Available from: Publications & Resources Coordination, CTY, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218.
This collection of articles on gifted learning disabled students begins with an explanation of the philosophy of the Center for Talented Youth at Johns Hopkins University (Maryland), a list of characteristics of gifted disabled students, and three definitions of learning disabilities. A listing of resources includes centers, associations, and organizations; a select sampling of schools; programs; publications; tests and publishers; and recommended reading. Some of the individual articles also contain references.

Greenbaum, J., Markel, G. (2001). Helping adolescents with ADHD & learning disabilities: Ready-to-use tips, techniques, and checklists for school success. Prentice Hall Direct, 800-445-6991 (Toll Free), www.phdirect.com/education.
This manual is intended to provide practical guidance to teachers of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or learning disabilities (LD) through specific techniques, teaching strategies, checklists, and student case histories. Twelve chapters, four appendices.

Hannah, C. L., & Shore, B. M. (1995). Metacognition and high intellectual ability: Insights from the study of learning-disabled gifted students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 39(2), 95-109.
This study compared metacognitive performance of gifted, gifted learning- disabled, learning-disabled, and average males in grades 5 and 6 and grades 11 and 12. For metacognitive knowledge, skill on think-aloud error detection reading, and comprehension, the performance of gifted learning-disabled students resembled that of gifted students more than that of learning-disabled students.

Howard, J. B. (1994). Addressing needs through strengths: Five instructional practices for use with gifted/learning disabled students. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 5(3), 23-34.
This article describes five instructional strategies for use with gifted students with learning disabilities: (1) use of computer technology; (2) mnemonic (memory enhancing) techniques; (3) graphic organizers; (4) the integrative strategy instruction model; and (5) seminar instruction.

Hua, C. B., Coleman, M. R. (2002). Preparing twice exceptional students for adult lives: A critical need. Understanding Our Gifted,14(2), 17-19.
Six necessary program components to prepare gifted students with disabilities for productive adult lives are identified: provide challenging educational experiences along with supports, facilitate passion learning through enrichment activities, empower students through student-centered planning, develop self-advocacy, enhance positive social emotional adjustment, and use Positive Disintegration as a tool for growth.

Little, C. (2001). A closer look at gifted children with disabilities. Gifted Child Today Magazine, 24(3), 46-53,64.
Discussion of gifted children with disabilities notes that many such children are excluded from gifted programming due to a deficit in some aspect of development. The concept of global giftedness is critiqued. Examples of gifted individuals with learning, physical, sensory disabilities or with autism are offered and suggestions are given for fostering their development.

McCoach, D. B., Kehle, T. J., Bray, M. A., Siegle, D. (2001). Best practices in the identification of gifted students with learning disabilities. Psychology in the Schools, 38(5), 403-11.
Explores several controversial issues surrounding the identification of students as both gifted and learning disabled. Argues against the use of profile analysis to identify gifted students with learning disabilities. Proposes guidelines for school psychologists to identify students with intellectual gifts and learning disabilities, and provides suggestions for serving this unique population of students within the school environment.

McGuire, K. L., & Yewchuk, C. R. (1996). Use of metacognitive reading strategies by gifted learning disabled students: An exploratory study. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 19(3), 293-314.
Evaluation of the metacognitive strategies used by four upper elementary gifted students with reading disabilities during a reading comprehension think- aloud task found that, although the students monitored their reading and reported use of evaluation, paraphrase, and regulation metacognitive strategies, they were not proficient in these strategies. The need for individualized reading instruction matched to student profiles was indicated.

Nielsen, M. E. (2002). Gifted students with learning disabilities: Recommendations for identification and programming. Exceptionality, 10(2), 93-111.
This article summarizes research findings related to the characteristics, identification, and programming for gifted students with learning disabilities. It also presents data from 2 projects that examined the identification and characteristics of this population. Research-generated recommendations are provided and the need for a continuum of services and interventions is emphasized.

Olenchak, F. R. (1994). Talent development: Accommodating the social and emotional needs of secondary gifted/learning disabled students. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 5(3), 40-52.
This discussion uses student cases and a review of the literature to advocate for the development of individual student talent as a philosophical basis for accommodating the social and emotional needs of gifted secondary students with learning disabilities. Descriptions of several educational innovations and reform efforts likely to enhance talent development are included.

Reis, S. M., McCoach, D. B. (2002). Underachievement in gifted and talented students with special needs. Exceptionality, 10(2), 113-25.
This article reviews research regarding gifted students with disabilities who underachieve. Educators are urged to determine whether underachievement stems from more serious physical, cognitive, or emotional issues, a mismatch between the student and environment, or a personal characteristic, and develop intervention strategies specifically designed to address the area of need.

Reis, S. M. and others. (1995). Talents in two places: Case studies of high ability students with learning disabilities who have achieved. Storrs, CT: Research Monograph 95114. National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented.
Extensive interviews were conducted with 12 young adults with learning disabilities who were successful at the college level, as well as with their parents, along with a thorough review of available school records, in order to examine how well high-ability students with learning disabilities succeed in academic environments. Reports of positive school experiences primarily centered around individual teacher support.

Silverman, L. (2003). Upside-down brilliance: The visual-spatial learner. Denver: DeLeon Publishing, http://www.deleonpub.com 
Right hemispheric skills include imagination, visualization, intuitive knowledge, invention, discovery, spirituality, three-dimensional perception, artistic expression, scientific and technological proficiency, emotional responsiveness, holistic and whole-part thinking, holographic understanding. This book explains how to bring out giftedness in visual spatial learners and make the most of their talents.

Southern, W. T. and others. (1995). Twice exceptional: Gifted children with learning disabilities and gifted students with learning disabilities. LD Forum, 20(2), 48-50.
This column offers two articles: one on problems in identifying students who are gifted and learning disabled and recommendations for working with this population; a second article describes a resource program for students in grades six through eight who are gifted and learning disabled, involving collaboration through weekly team meetings.

Strop, J., Goldman, D. (2002). The affective side: Emotional issues of twice exceptional students. Understanding Our Gifted, 14(2), p28-29.
This article discusses the need for gifted students who have disabilities to have a strong support group to assist them with several key emotional issues that may impede their academic achievement, including: anger, fear of failure, a strong need to control, low self-esteem, an sometimes, even fear of success.

West, T. (1997). In the mind's eye: Visual thinkers, gifted people with dyslexia and other learning difficulties, computer images, and the ironies of creativity (3rd ed.). Buffalo: Prometheus.
West provides an overview of neurological research, summarizes current knowledge about such learning difficulties as dyslexia, and demonstrates how certain traits that are problematic in one context can be a great advantage in another. The third edition explains how some innovations in computer visualization are making work and education more favorable to visual thinkers.

Weinfeld, R., Barnes-Robinson, L., Jeweler, S., Shevitz, B. (2002). Academic programs for gifted and talented/learning disabled students. Roeper Review, 24(4) 226-33.
This article discusses a comprehensive program for gifted students with learning disabilities in Maryland's Montgomery Country Public Schools (MCPS). MCPS has developed special self-contained classes for gifted students with severe learning disabilities while those with moderate and mild disabilities receive gifted instruction and services in general education classrooms.

Winebrenner, S. (2002). Strategies for teaching twice exceptional students. Understanding Our Gifted, 14(2) 3-6.
This article provides strategies for teaching gifted students who have learning disabilities, including making sure students see the big picture before learning its pieces, teaching students to set realistic, short-term goals, making everything visual, providing hands-on situations, and using musical chants and rhymes. Guidelines for parents are also included.

Winebrenner, S. (1996). Teaching kids with learning difficulties in the regular classroom: Strategies and techniques every teacher can use to challenge and motivate struggling students. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit. Also available from CEC.
This book provides concise explanations of various learning differences, and presents proven techniques for dealing with diverse learning styles, language, literacy, science, math, social studies, behavior problems, and more.

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