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Selected Readings: Gifted Education
and Middle Schools

The ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education (ERIC EC)
E-mail: webmaster@hoagiesgifted.org
Internet: http://eric.hoagiesgifted.org
ERIC EC Minibib EB7
Updated January 2000
Compiled by Sandra Berger
Citations with an ED (ERIC Document; for example, ED123456) number are available in microfiche collections at more than 1,000 locations worldwide; to find the ERIC Resource Collection nearest you, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm. Documents can also be ordered for a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com/, service@edrs.com, or 1-800-443-ERIC. (no longer available)

Journal articles (for example, EJ999999) are available for a fee from the originating journal (check your local college or public library), through interlibrary loan services, or from article reproduction services such as: Infotrieve: 800.422.4633, www4.infotrieve.com, service@infotrieve.com; or ingenta: 800.296.2221, www.ingenta.com, ushelp@ingenta.com.

Braddock, J. H. II. (Feb 1990). Tracking the Middle Grades: National Patterns of Grouping for Instruction. Phi Delta Kappan, 71(6), 445-449.
To shed light on appropriate grouping practices for early adolescents, this article presents current data on using between-class grouping and regrouping in American schools serving this population, based on the 1988 Johns Hopkins University middle school survey. Findings show that learning opportunities in the middle grades remain highly stratified.

Burton-Szabo, S. (Jan-Feb 1996). Special Classes for Gifted Students? Absolutely. Gifted Child Today Magazine, 19(1), 12-15, 50.
This article makes a case for special classes for gifted students and answers objections to special classes raised by the middle school movement and the cooperative learning movement. A sample "Celebration of Me" unit taught to gifted seventh graders which involved poetry, literature, personal development, art, music, and physical fitness is outlined.

Clinkenbeard, P. R. (1991). Unfair Expectations: A Pilot Study of Middle School Students' Comparisons of Gifted and Regular Classes. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 15(1), 56-63.
Analysis of essays comparing experiences in gifted and regular classes written by sixth grade gifted students found that many students felt teachers and peers outside the gifted class had unfair expectations of them. Other topics addressed by students included grading, group work, lack of acknowledgement for effort, treatment by peers, and teacher expectations.

Coleman, M. R. , & Gallagher, J. J. (Sum 1995). The Successful Blending of Gifted Education with Middle Schools and Cooperative Learning: Two Studies. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 18(4), 362-384.
Features of programs that successfully blended the middle school (MS) model or cooperative learning (CL) model with gifted education were assessed. Site visits were made to five MS sites and five CL sites at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. Studies showed that gifted students' needs can be met within these programs, with appropriate planning and implementation.

Coleman, M. R., & Gallagher, J. (Nov 1992). Middle School Survey Report: Impact on Gifted Students. Chapel Hill, NC: Gifted Education Policy Studies Program. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED353728.
This study investigated attitudes of educators from both the middle school movement and gifted education, by means of a survey of 400 members of relevant professional organizations. The survey focused on six interest clusters: (1) grouping strategies, (2) identification issues, (3) curriculum modifications, (4) teacher preparation, (5) program evaluation, and (6) the emotional/social needs of gifted students. Opposing attitudes were found for two clusters: first, grouping practices (with educators of the gifted favoring ability grouping and middle school educators opposing such grouping) and second, social development (with only middle school educators seeing the "gifted" label as creating social adjustment problems). On the remaining clusters the groups had the same opinions but differed in how strongly they felt. Educators of gifted students felt more strongly that the regular curriculum was not challenging enough for gifted students, that the programs for gifted students should address the emotional needs of the students, and that middle school teachers need more staff development in the characteristics and needs of gifted students. Educators of the gifted ranked their top three priorities as curriculum, teacher preparation, and appropriate identification while middle school educators selected curriculum, grouping practices, and teacher preparation as most important. The survey form and 24 references are attached.

Elmore, R., & Zenus, V. (1994). Enhancing Social-Emotional Development of Middle School Gifted Students. Roeper Review, 16(3), 182-185.
Thirty sixth graders in accelerated mathematics classes were taught in cooperative learning teams for 12 weeks. Students appeared to benefit academically, personally, and socially from the cooperative learning strategies used to teach mathematics, cooperative learning skills, effective communications, internal locus of control, and personal responsibility in decision-making.

Epstein, J. L. (Feb 1990). What Matters in the Middle Grades— Span or Practices? Phi Delta Kappan, 71(6), 438-444.
A 1988 Johns Hopkins University survey gathered data on organizational variations among schools containing grade seven to study how grade span affects school programs, teaching practices, and student progress. This article reports selected results on the relation of grade span to school size, grade level enrollment, school goals, report card entries, and relevant trends.

Epstein, J. L. & Mac Iver, D. J. (Feb 1990). Education in the Middle Grades: Overview of National Practices and Trends. Baltimore, MD: Center for Research on Elementary and Middle Schools, The Johns Hopkins University. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED330082.
In spring 1988, the Johns Hopkins Center for Research on Elementary and Middle Schools (CREMS) conducted a national survey of principals in 2,400 public middle grade schools that include grade 7. Using the 1988 survey date, this document presents an overview of educational approaches and practices in schools that serve early adolescents. Topics examined include: (1) grade span; (2) size; (3) grouping; (4) number of teachers per students; (5) changing classmates; (6) homeroom and advisory periods; (7) guidance counselors; (8) teams of teachers; (9) curriculum; (10) instruction; (11) goals for students; (12) transitions and articulation practices; (13) remediation; (14) report card entries; (15) teacher certification; and (16) teacher talents. This document also summarizes principals' reports of their overall evaluation of present practices and presents four conclusions regarding middle grades reform based on survey data. The survey is appended.

Erb, T. O. (1992). Encouraging gifted performance in middle schools. Midpoints Occasional Papers, 3. Available from National Middle School Association, Columbus, OH 43265.
No Abstract Available

Erb, T. O. (1994). The Middle School: Mimicking the Success Routes of the Information Age. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 17(4), 385-406.
This article examines the unique organizational structure of middle schools and the historical context leading to their development. A true middle school is described as providing personalized curricula for the learning needs of diverse learners through use of problem-oriented interdisciplinary teams and flexible grouping practices.

Forsbach, T., Pierce, N. (1999). Factors Related to the Identification of Minority Gifted Students. Paper presented at Annual Conference of the American Educational Research Association (Montreal, Canada, April 19-23, 1999). ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED430372.
Middle schools throughout New York State were surveyed regarding the recruitment of gifted students. Data from 199 schools revealed that most middle schools in New York do not have programs for the gifted and when they do, minority students are underrepresented. A multivariate analysis of variance demonstrated that none of the identification procedures commonly used were useful for identifying minority gifted students. Teacher training facilitated the identification of African-Americans, whereas the training did not affect the identification of Latino-Americans.

Gallagher, J. J., Coleman, M. R., & Nelson, S. (Spr 1995). Perceptions of Educational Reform by Educators Representing Middle Schools, Cooperative Learning, and Gifted Education. Gifted Child Quarterly, 39(2), 66-76.
The perceptions of 175 gifted education teachers and 147 middle-school teachers concerning gifted education needs were compared. Gifted educators disagreed with proponents of cooperative learning concerning student needs and disagreed with middle-school educators on the value of ability grouping and the social consequences of being labeled gifted.

Gallagher, J. J. (Mar 1992). Gifted Students and Educational Reform. In: Challenges in Gifted Education: Developing Potential and Investing in Knowledge for the 21st Century. Columbus: Ohio State Dept. of Education. ED344404
This paper examines gifted education in the context of current educational reform efforts. It offers a rationale for the differentiated education of gifted students based on American values and equitable allocation of educational resources. Examples are offered of curriculum content modification for math, science, language arts, and social studies which utilize four approaches: (1) acceleration, (2) enrichment, (3) sophistication, and (4) novelty. The relationship of gifted education to the America 2000 program and to the six national education goals is noted. The paper then reviews major reform efforts in the areas of accountability, the middle school concept, and cooperative learning. Issues remaining to be solved are also identified and include personnel preparation, unidentified students (e.g., the culturally different), curricular options, strategies and metathinking, and the value of the term, "gifted," itself.

Gentry, M., Neu, T. W. (May-Jun 1998). Project High Hopes Summer Institute: Curriculum for Developing Talent in Students with Special Needs. Roeper Review, 20(4), 291-95.
Describes a summer institute curriculum used with 27 middle school students with disabilities who were identified as gifted in the visual arts, performing arts, engineering, or life sciences. The curriculum was real world, multidisciplinary, and problem based. Using a creative problem-solving process, students identified problems, developed solutions, and created presentations.

Gifted Education and Middle Schools (1996). Videotape and Book. Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children. A product of the National Training Program for Gifted Education. Based on a Council for Exceptional Children Symposium on Gifted Education and Middle Schools (Reston, VA: January 1995). ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED398666.
This book and video are based on a symposium of leaders in the fields of gifted education and middle-level education, which was held to identify and explore areas of agreement in often contrasting philosophies. Emphasis is on identifying areas of agreement between the fields, areas of tension, and promising directions that could engage educators in mutual planning of appropriate services for all middle-school students. The book includes the following papers: (1) "The Middle School: Mimicking the Success Routes of the Information Age" (Thomas O. Erb) which reviews the historical issues surrounding gifted education and middle-level education; (2) "Middle Schools and Their Impact on Talent Development" (Mary Ruth Coleman and James J. Gallagher) which describes two studies, one which compared attitudes of middle school and gifted educators and the other which looked at current best practices; (3) "Gifted Learners and the Middle School: Problem or Promise?" (Carol Ann Tomlinson) which outlines areas of tension between the two fields and suggests areas where leaders might collaborate; (4) "Differentiating Instruction for Advanced Learners in the Mixed-Ability Middle School Classroom" (Carol Ann Tomlinson) which provides specific suggestions for differentiating curriculum; and (5) "Instructional and Management Strategies for Differentiated, Mixed-Ability Classrooms" (Carol Ann Tomlinson) which provides a matrix of instructional strategies. Appendices include a list of symposium participants and the video script. The video presents views of symposium participants and gifted students on these issues and demonstrates students' needs for both integrated and separate learning experiences.

Guerrero, J. K. (1995). Serving the Advanced Middle School Learner in the Heterogeneous Classroom. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April 18-22, 1995). ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED385361.
The Chapter 2-Carnegie Middle School Project was designed to develop educational programming and to provide appropriate services to advanced and gifted learners within the restricted middle school environment. This study examined the extent to which trained teachers could effectively implement advanced instructional techniques and curricula for gifted students in a heterogeneous middle school environment. Data were collected through field notes and unstructured interviews covering seven categories: (1) teacher assessment; (1) teacher self-perception of professional growth; (3) academic challenge; (4) curricular decisions; (5) instruction; (6) classroom environment; and (7) classroom management. Findings show that the teachers most successful in implementing thematic and interdisciplinary curricula were those who expressed enthusiasm for their discipline and excitement in learning new teaching skills. There was little evidence of instructional differentiation in depth, complexity, novelty, or acceleration for advanced and gifted learners. Teachers tended to underestimate their students' readiness for more sophisticated instructional experiences. Nonetheless, the results indicated that students showed understanding of their curricular themes and generalizations, and expressed enthusiasm for their classes.

Ingels, S. J. (Apr 1990). Findings from the NELS:88 Base Year Student Survey. National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, Ill. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics (ED). ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED319747.
The National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), a longitudinal study sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics, provides trend data about transitions experienced as young people develop, attend school, and embark on careers. The study began with a national sample of about 26,000 eighth graders in 1988 and follows these students at 2-year intervals through high school and further. Findings of the base year are summarized, drawn from the descriptive summary "A Profile of the American Eighth Grader" by A. Hafner and others (1990). Characteristics of sample members, in-school and out-of-school experiences, and aspirations and choice behaviors are described. The paper is divided into three sections: (1) background on the study; (2) cross-sectional findings from the NELS:88 base year, with 24 tables and 16 graphs; and (3) issues for the next wave of data. Appendix 1 describes generating the sample; Appendix 2 gives a chart of key questionnaire items.

McCarthy, C. R. (Spr 1998). Assimilating the Talent Search Model into the School Day. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 9(3), 114-123.
Describes a multi-district/higher-education collaborative model that incorporates the talent-search model within the school-year schedule. Content acceleration and fast-paced instruction are assimilated into students' regular school day. In 180 hours of instruction over two school years, middle school students complete four years of high-school mathematics and advanced-placement English.

McEwin, C. K. & Thomason, J. (Apr 1991) Curriculum: The Next Frontier. Momentum, 22(2), 34-37.
Discusses the national movement to improve middle school education with respect to school reorganization, curricular issues, instructional strategies, and various ways of applying the middle school concept.

McIntire, J. A. (Feb 1998). Developing Middle Level Experts: Can Aspects of Gifted Education Be Applied to the Benefit of All Middle Level Students? NASSP Bulletin, 82(595), 110-118.
Middle schools are uniquely able to help early adolescents develop healthy, positive identities. Youngsters should expect to achieve school success and recognition. To develop and recognize individual expertise, schools must expand areas expertise is recognized, valued, and developed; become aware of students' interests and goals; create a favorable school climate; provide sufficient time, resources, and documenting criteria; and make developing expertise the school mission.

McPartland, J. M. (Feb 1990). Staffing Decisions in the Middle Grades: Balancing Quality Instruction and Teacher/Student Relations. Phi Delta Kappan, 71(6), 465-69.
Staffing patterns can significantly affect educators' efforts to provide high-quality instruction and create positive teacher/student relations in the middle grades. State data and Johns Hopkins University survey results are used to show how staffing patterns serving one goal may interfere with accomplishing another goal. Corrective staffing measures are suggested.

Parker, J. P. (Sep 1998). The Torrance Creative Scholars Program. Roeper Review, 21(1), 32-35. Theme Issue: Creativity and Gifted Education.
Describes the Torrance Creative Scholars Program, a program at the University of Southwestern Louisiana designed to identify and nurture creative potential. The program offers two levels for students completing grades four through eight, and a summer program that provides instruction and practice in several creative strategies.

Peterman, F. P. (May 1990). Successful Middle Level Schools and the Development. NASSP Bulletin, 74(526), 62-65.
Discusses Joan Lipsitz's 1984 treatise on ideal middle level school characteristics. Many middle schools' creative approaches to programing and instruction (through interdisciplinary team teaching, interest-based activities, thematic schoolwide events, creative problem solving, and hands-on experience) and responsiveness to young adolescents' developmental needs embody the best features of effective gifted programs.

Plucker, J. A., & McIntire, J. (1996). Academic survivability in high-potential, middle school students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 40(1), 7-14.
Qualitative methodology examined behaviors and strategies used by 12 high- potential middle school students when they did not feel challenged in school. Data analysis found students engaged in the following behaviors: selective attention, focused curricular involvement, involvement with others, humor, participation in extracurricular activities, and lack of effort/selected effort. Few teachers associated these behaviors with lack of challenge.

Pool, H., & Page, J. A. (Eds). (1995). Beyond Tracking: Finding Success in Inclusive Schools. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED386873.
This collection of papers addresses tracking, whether it should be abolished, the movement toward inclusiveness in schools, strategies to meet all students' needs, and the process of untracking. Contents are as follows: "Why Ability Grouping Must End: Achieving Excellence and Equity in American Education" (Jomills Henry Braddock II and Robert E. Slavin); "Understanding Ourselves: The Ancestry of Tracking" (Kathleen Cruikshank); "Conditions That Enhance the Reintegration of Schools" (Anne Wheelock); "Is It Possible To Live with Tracking and Ability Grouping?" (Paul S. George); "More Than Meets the Eye: Links between Tracking and the Culture of Schools" (Jeannie Oakes); "Tracking and Its Effects on African-Americans in the Field of Education" (Jane A. Page and Fred M. Page, Jr.); "Holistic Education Leadership and the Tracking Controversy" (Malcolm Katz); "Beyond Tracking, What? Discursive Problems and Possibilities" (Bryan Deever); "The Dilemma of Tracking and Grouping in Early Childhood and Middle Grades: Are We Speaking the Same Language?" (James J. Barta and Michael G. Allen); "Ideas and Programs To Assist in the Untracking of American Schools" (Howard D. Hill); "Providing Equity for All: Meeting the Needs of High-Ability Students" (Sally M. Reis); "Promoting Gifted Behavior in an Untracked Middle School Setting" (Thomas O. Erb et al.); "Untracking Your Middle School: Nine Tentative Steps toward Long-Term Success" (Paul S. George); "In the Meantime: Using a Dialectical Approach To Raise Levels of Intellectual Stimulation and Inquiry in Low-Track Classes" (Barbara G. Blackwell); "Synthesis of Research on Cooperative Learning" (Robert E. Slavin); "Incorporating Cooperation: Its Effects on Instruction" (Harbison Pool et al.); "Improving All Students' Achievement: Teaching Cognitive and Metacognitive Thinking Strategies" (Robert W. Warkentin and Dorothy A. Battle); "Integrating Diverse Learning Styles" (Dan W. Rea); "Reintegrating Schools for Success: Untracking across the United States" (Anne Wheelock); "Creatinga Nontraditional School in a Traditional Community" (Nancy B. Norton and Charlotte A. Jones); "Ungrouping Our Way: A Teacher's Story" (Daphrene Kathryn Sheppard); "Educating All Our Students: Success in Serving At-Risk Youth" (Edward B. Strauser and John J. Hobe); "Technology Education: A New Application of the Principles of Untracking at the Secondary Level" (N. Creighton Alexander); "Tracking and Research-Based Decisions: A Georgia School System's Dilemma" (Jane A. Page and Fred M. Page, Jr.); and "A Call to Action: The Time Has Come To Move beyond Tracking" (Harbison Pool and Jane A. Page).

Schatz, E. (Feb 1990). Ability Grouping for Gifted Learners as It Relates to School Reform and Restructuring. Madison: Wisconsin State Dept. of Education. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED327047.
This monograph uses a question-answer format to address issues concerned with meeting the needs of gifted students as Wisconsin schools restructure and change grouping practices as part of raising standards of learning for all students. Among 12 questions considered are the following: (1) Aren't some of the principles of middle level education, cooperative learning and whole class instruction in reading harmful from the standpoint of providing appropriate programs to gifted students? (2) Isn't acceleration a necessary component of gifted education but contradictory to the middle level philosophy? (3) If one views middle level education as anti-tracking and anti-ability grouping, then how is grouping at the middle of the pyramid ever acceptable? (4) "Doesn't participation in Midwest Talent Search promote labeling and an "earlier is better" approach to gifted education? (5) Don't research reports and declining test scores clearly support as little ability grouping as possible at all levels of education? (6) Won't cooperative learning increase boredom in gifted students and hold them back? (7) How can young gifted readers be challenged by whole class instruction in reading? and (8) How can we be sure school districts are asking the right questions about gifted education as these strategies are implemented?

Schuler, P.A. (1999). Voices of Perfectionism: Perfectionistic Gifted Adolescents in a Rural Middle School The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut, 362 Fairfield Road, U-7, Storrs, CT 06026-2007; http://www.gifted.uconn.edu. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED430352.
This study investigated the characteristics of perfectionistic gifted adolescents in a rural middle school, how they perceived their perfectionism, the influences on their perfectionism, and the consequences of their perfectionist behaviors. Findings support the multidimensional theory of perfectionism, which states that perfectionism exists on a continuum with healthy to dysfunctional behaviors.

Schulthes, D., Wolosky, J. (Nov-Dec 1998). Developing Each Child's Potential: The Discovery Program. Gifted Child Today Magazine, 21(6), 42-45.
Describes a middle school program that focuses on creating educational experiences that foster life-long learning for all students. The Discovery Program provides a range of differentiated teaching/learning activities, including research competitions, language-arts studies, social-action projects, art exhibitions, mathematics projects, and technology training.

Sicola, P. K. (Fall 1990). Where Do Gifted Students Fit? An Examination of Middle School Philosophy as It Relates to Ability Grouping and the Gifted Learner. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 14(3), 37-49. Special Issue: Educational Reform: Impact on Gifted.
The emphasis of middle school philosophy on heterogeneous grouping is examined in relationship to the needs of gifted learners. Arguments supporting such grouping based on developmental needs of young adolescents, social discrimination, and the need for positive role models are considered. Cooperative learning is seen to be an unproven instructional method with this population.

Stanley, J. C. (Feb 1985). A Baker's Dozen of Years Applying All Four Aspects of the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY). Roeper Review, 7(3), 172-175.
Since its inception in 1971, the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth has expanded from a local program serving 19 mostly seventh graders to a national program with an enrollment of 1,600. This article discusses trends experienced during the 13-year period and their implications for the program's future.

Stevens, M. (Mar 1992). School Reform and Restructuring: Relationship to Gifted Education. In: Challenges in Gifted Education: Developing Potential and Investing in Knowledge for the 21st Century. Columbus: Ohio State Dept. of Education. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED344408.
This chapter reviews recent trends toward increasing emphasis on excellence in American business and applies these trends to school reform and restructuring in the context of gifted education. First, it notes the main ideas of recent business and education excellence studies which call for radical changes in the American education system. Examined is the dilemma of balancing the educational demands of equity and excellence especially in an age of major demographic shifts. A quality-oriented paradigm is proposed which merges equity and excellence and focuses on the individual thus replacing the industrial model paradigm which focused on the "system". The issue of ability grouping is considered and research supporting within class grouping is cited. Concepts underlying the middle school approach are noted as another example where the equity/excellence dilemma and grouping concerns emerge. "Equifinality" is offered as a concept which suggests many potential ways to reach resolution especially when the focus is always on the individual gifted learner and the teacher/facilitator.

Tomlinson, C. (Spr 1992). Gifted Education and the Middle School Movement: Two Voices on Teaching the Academically Talented. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 15(3), 206-238.
Comparison of the fields of gifted education and middle school education indicates some major differences in such areas as organizing for instruction, how students learn, mainstreaming, delivery of instruction, affective needs, and the concept of giftedness.

Tomlinson, C. (1994). Gifted learners: The Boomerang Kids of Middle School? Roeper Review, 16(3), 177-182.
A variety of beliefs and practices central to middle schools may cause special difficulties for gifted learners. Such practices often focus on potentially competing goals of student competencies versus student excellence and include such practices as heterogeneous grouping, cooperative learning, and an absence of clearly defined middle school curricula.

Tomlinson, C. (Jan-Feb 1995). "All Kids Can Learn": Masking Diversity in Middle School. Clearing House, 68(3), 163-166.
Suggests that the cliche that "all kids can learn" validates educational practices that mask middle school learners' diversity. Presents case studies of two middle school learners, one student who could not read, and one who was gifted. Suggests that the hard truth is that middle schoolers differ greatly in the ways they learn and in their learning needs.

Tomlinson, C. (Spr 1995). Deciding to Differentiate Instruction in Middle School: One School's Journey. Gifted Child Quarterly, 39(2), 77-87.
A case study examines the experience of a middle school mandated to provide differentiated instruction for academically diverse learners and considers factors affecting movement toward differentiated classrooms. Clarity in defining the concept is discussed, along with administrative barriers, issues related to changing expectations, and need for professional support.

Van-Tassel-Baska, J.; Olszewski-Kubilius, P.; & Kulieke, M. (1994). A Study of Self-Concept and Social Support in Advantaged and Disadvantaged Seventh and Eighth Grade Gifted Students. Roeper Review, 16(3), 185-191.
This study investigated differences among intellectually gifted students of junior high age participating in full time intensive programs for the gifted. Findings indicated some differences based on ethnicity and gender, but most differences were observed between lower and higher socioeconomic groups, particularly for social support and social and behavioral self concept.

Worrell, F. C., Roth, D. A., Gabelko, N. H. (Sum. 1998). Age and Gender Differences in the Self-Concepts of Academically Talented Students. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 9(4), 157-162.
This study examined age and gender differences in global, academic, athletic, and social self-concepts in 311 academically talented middle and high school students. Males scored significantly higher on global and athletic self-concepts whereas females obtained significantly higher scores on social self-concept. No gender differences were found on academic self-concept and no age differences were found.

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