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Instructional Strategies Reflecting Cultural Respect

The ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education (ERIC EC)
E-mail: webmaster@hoagiesgifted.org
Internet: http://eric.hoagiesgifted.org
ERIC EC Minibib EB23
Updated April 2003

Citations with an ED (ERIC Document; for example, ED123456) number are available in microfiche collections at more than 1,000 locations worldwide; to find the ERIC Resource Collection nearest you, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm. Documents can also be ordered for a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com/, service@edrs.com, or 1-800-443-ERIC. (no longer available)

Journal articles (for example, EJ999999) are available for a fee from the originating journal (check your local college or public library), through interlibrary loan services, or from article reproduction services: Carl Uncover, now at Ingenta: http://www.ingenta.com/, uncover@carl.org, 1-800-787-7979; or ISI: tga@isinet.com, 1-800-523-1850.

Baker, C. (2000). The Care and Education of Young Bilinguals: An Introduction for Professionals. Multilingual Matters Ltd., http://www.multilingual-matters.com. 208p.
This book is a comprehensive introduction for all professionals working with bilingual children. For speech therapists, physicians, psychologists, counselors, teachers, special needs personnel, and many others, this book addresses the most important issues at a practical level. It is written in simple, nontechnical terms accessible to the layman and provides a brief but comprehensive introduction. Areas addressed include the following: the nature of bilingual children; the everyday language use of bilinguals; the advantages of the bilingual child; the personality and social development of bilinguals; identity issues and solutions; children as interpreters; code-switching; bilinguals and their families; childhood trilingualism; home and school relationships; language assessment and speech therapy in the bilingual context; migrants and refugee bilinguals; the assessment of bilingual children; language delays and disorders; the development of biliteracy; prejudice reduction in school; and bilingual classrooms. The book is divided into 13 chapters and has an index, glossary, and bibliography. Each chapter concludes with suggestions for further reading. Scholarly references appear throughout the text.

Brandenburg-Ayres, S. (1990). Working with parents. Module 4. Bilingual/ESOL special education collaboration and reform project. 185p. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED328093.
This instructional module is part of a project to reform current school curricula, improve instructional services for students with disabilities, at-risk limited-English-proficient (LEP), and language minority students, and provide innovative leadership in higher education related to programs for LEP persons. The materials contained in the module are designed to help in training personnel to serve this population, and are intended for use by consultants providing in-service education to teachers and administrators. This module, the fourth in a series of five, addresses such issues as dealing with the importance of parent-school collaboration, understanding the attitudes and beliefs of non-English background parents (NEBP) and students, assessing the needs of NEBP families, establishing effective communication with parents in multicultural settings and developing plans for parent involvement and for strong school-community relationships. Each section contains a series of critical points to be elaborated on by the consultant, suggested activities for participant involvement, and masters for handouts or transparencies.

Carrasquillo, A.L., Rodriguez, V. Language Minority Students in the Mainstream Classroom. Second Edition. Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 33. Multilingual Matters, Ltd., 416-667-7791; http://www.multilingual-matters.com. 201p.
This book integrates current second language teaching and learning theories and instructional strategies, helping to make mainstream educators aware that language minority students, especially those who are not totally proficient in English, need special attention, appropriate assessment, an appropriate language environment, and a challenging curriculum. Ten chapters include the following: (1) "Limited English Proficient Students in the Mainstream Classroom"; (2) "Limited English Proficient Students/English Language Learners: Who Are They?"; (3) "Cultural and Linguistic Diversity in the Classroom"; (4) "Alternatives to Mainstreaming"; (5) "The Integrated Development of Oral and Written Language"; (6) "Instructional Strategies for LEP/ELL Students' Oral and Written English"; (7) "Integrating Language and Social Studies Learning"; (8) "Integrating Language and Science Learning"; (9) "Integrating Language and Mathematics Learning"; and (10) "The Role of Teachers in the Development of Linguistic, Cognitive and Academic Skills of LEP/ELL Students."

Clasen, D. R. (1992). Strategies for enhancing learning in the multicultural classroom. International Journal of Special Education, 7(2), 159-63.
Eight teaching strategies found conducive to celebrating cultural differences and creating the possibility of multicultural harmony are discussed, including visualization or imaging, think/pair/share, brainstorming, use of metaphors, inductive teaching, graphic organizers, metacognition, and making content meaningful.

Ford, B. A., Ed. (1995). Multiple voices for ethnically diverse exceptional learners, 64p. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED391310.
This first serial issue addresses topics and issues impacting educational services for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) learners. The issue contains three research-into-practice articles, an interview section called "In the Oral Tradition," and three teacher-generated articles which delineate learner-enhancing practices for special educators. Articles include: "Learning and Cultural Diversities in General and Special Education Classes: Frameworks for Success." "Issues in the Implementation of Innovative Instructional Strategies." "Controllable Factors in Recruitment of Minority and Nonminority Individuals for Doctoral Study in Special Education." "Issues Regarding the Education of African American Exceptional Learners," "Using Bilingual Literature with Students Who Have Severe Disabilities." "Through Navajo Eyes: Curriculum Guidelines from a Teacher's Perspective" and "Using Instructional Games for Cultural Exploration: Exploring African Cultures."

Franklin, M. E. (1992). Culturally sensitive instructional practices for African-American learners with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 59(2), 115-22. Special Issue: Issues in the Education of African-American Youth in Special Education Settings.
This paper discusses six theoretical assumptions about effective instructional practices for culturally and linguistically diverse learners; literature on African-American cultural practices, interests, and cognitive styles; attitudes, perceptions, and instructional practices of effective teachers of African-American students with disabilities; and patterns of teacher-student and peer group interactions that promote high academic achievement.

Garcia, S. B. , Malkin, D. H. (1993). Toward defining programs and services for culturally and linguistically diverse learners in special education. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 26(1), 52-58.
Intended to help special educators with culturally and linguistically diverse learners, this article discusses the importance of addressing students' language characteristics, developing a language use plan, recognizing the important influence of cultural factors on childrearing practices and communication styles, selecting appropriate instructional strategies, creating supporting learning environments, and implementing multicultural special education.

Gersten, R., and others. (1994). Effective instruction for culturally and linguistically diverse students: A reconceptualization. Focus on Exceptional Children, 27(1), 1-16.
This article discusses instructional strategies likely to be effective with culturally and linguistically diverse students regardless of placement. It addresses assessment and misclassification; overreferral or underreferral; differing approaches to second language instruction; and the importance of transfer between languages, opportunities for natural language use, and bridging with families.

Harris, C. R. (1991). Identifying and serving the gifted new immigrant. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 23(4), 26-30.
The article considers service needs of gifted immigrant children, in terms of problem areas and strategies addressing each problem area. Problem areas include linguistics, cultural differences, economic and health factors, attitudes, sociocultural and peer expectations, cross-cultural stress, intergenerational conflict, and school system conflict.

Harris, K. C. (1996). Collaboration within a multicultural society: Issues for consideration. Remedial and Special Education, 17(6), 355-62, 376. Theme issue: Current Practices, Unresolved Issues, and Future Directions in Consultation.
Recommendations are provided for the development of multicultural competence in order for collaborating teachers to meet the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse students who are at risk of failing. Four general competencies are identified: understanding one's perspective; using effective interpersonal, communication, and problem-solving skills; understanding the roles of collaborators; and using appropriate assessment and instructional strategies.

Jimenez, R.T. (2002). Fostering the Literacy Development of Latino Students. Focus on Exceptional Children; 34(6), 1-10.
This article examines the literacy of Latino students and related educational issues, including the need for more informed educators, the distinctive nature of instruction for Latino students, alternative literacies, facilitating the transfer of information from first language and life experience to school-based tasks, xenophobia and linguicism, and promising instructional models.

Langdon, H. W. (1996). English language learning by immigrant Spanish speakers: A United States perspective. Topics in Language Disorders, 16(4), 38-53. Theme issue: Beyond Bilingualism: Language Acquisition and Disorders-a Global Perspective.
This article discusses the importance of three contextual variables in ensuring Hispanic individuals' success in learning English: (1) consideration of the impact of majority social context and attitude toward immigrants; (2) the views of the individual's family on the importance of acquiring English; and (3) classroom instructional strategies.

Lynch, E. W., Hanson, M. J., Eds. (1992). Developing cross-cultural competence: A guide for working with young children and their families. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., PO Box 10624, Baltimore, MD 21285-0624. 404p.
This book combines a strong conceptual framework with specific information on implementation of early intervention with intercultural sensitivity and awareness. Chapters are based on best practices in early intervention and intercultural effectiveness, and information and insights from contributing authors who are generally bicultural and often bilingual.

Obiakor, F.E. (2001). It Even Happens in "Good" Schools: Responding to Cultural Diversity in Today's Classrooms. Corwin Press, Inc., A Sage Publications Company, 800-818-7243, http://www.corwinpress.com. 185p.
This book offers case studies, observations, and practical, culturally responsive solutions to the challenges presented by diversity in the classroom. By telling stories and asking questions, the book explains that progress is slow-moving and that quality, equity, and fair, appropriate treatment are often very hard to find, even in good schools. Arguing that all schools must respond to pleas for excellence and quality, the book explains that this will not happen without concern for diversity as well. The book is thematically divided to address educational phases. Although the phases may appear independent, they are mutually inclusive. The book's seven chapters are: (1) "Redefining Good Schools"; (2) "Classroom Identification and Referrals"; (3) "Classroom Assessments and Accountabilities"; (4) "Classroom Labels and Categories"; (5) "Classroom Placements and Inclusions"; (6) "Classroom Instructions and Interventions"; and (7) "The Dream School: The Good School."

Putnam, J. W., Ed. (1993). Cooperative learning and strategies for inclusion: celebrating diversity in the classroom. Children, Youth & Change: Sociocultural Perspectives. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., PO Box 10624, Baltimore, MD 21285-0624. 188p.
This book is intended to assist educators to meet the needs of a diverse population of children with varying cognitive abilities; developmental and learning disabilities; sensory impairments; and different cultural, linguistic, and socioeconomic backgrounds. It is based on the premise that children of differing abilities and backgrounds will benefit both academically and socially from cooperative learning.

RESNA: Association for the Advancement of Rehabilitation Technology, Washington, DC. (1993). Project Reaching Out: Technology Training for Minorities with Low Incidence Disabilities. Part I: African-American Curriculum. 343p. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED364003.
The purpose of this curriculum, part of Project Reaching Out, is to provide African-Americans with low incidence disabilities an overview of information on assistive technology in a manner that respects differences in beliefs, interpersonal styles, and behaviors. Low incidence disabilities are defined as deafness, blindness, deaf blindness, neurological impairments, and orthopedic impairments. Part 1 of the curriculum, titled "Trainer Information," offers statistics on African-Americans with disabilities, cultural considerations, cultural working definitions, and techniques for assessing one's own cultural heritage. Part 2 provides guidelines for using the project's training materials. It covers principles of culturally competent programs, learning methods of adults, and presentation tips. Part 3 contains the curriculum modules themselves, focusing on the benefits and uses of assistive technology, legislation affecting the provision of assistive technology, and funding and advocacy. For training of trainers and service providers, modules on cultural awareness and marketing technology training to African-Americans with disabilities are also provided. Part 4 includes appendixes addressing: accessibility training information and an accessibility checklist; project evaluation forms; a sample participant's manual, containing a directory of several information resources; a list of state protection and advocacy agencies; a list of 31 suggested readings and 4 videos; and information on federal policy concerning assistive technology. Part 5 provides over 40 overheads for use in presenting the curriculum modules.

Salend, S. J. (1997). What about our schools, our languages. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 29(4), 38-41.
Provides suggestions for creating learning environments that affirm and value linguistic varieties, including adapting the school/classroom environment, promoting positive group and individual identities, creating school-family-community connections, diversifying the curriculum, providing students with sociolinguistic education, and teaching students about stereotyping and discrimination. Principles of multicultural education are provided.

Singh, N. N., and others. (1997). Value and address diversity. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 5(1), 24-35. Special Series: The National Agenda for Achieving Better Results for Children and Youth with Serious Emotional Disturbance-Part I.
This paper defines concepts of diversity, culture, cultural competence, and cultural sensitivity as part of a discussion of the third strategic target of the National Agenda for Achieving Better Results for Children and Youth with Serious Emotional Disturbance. Outlines a holistic model of multicultural education, including applications, best practices, and implications for special education.

Wright, J. V. (1995). Multicultural Issues and Attention Deficit Disorders. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 10(3), 153-59.
Current inadequacies in addressing the instructional needs of multicultural students with attention deficit disorder (ADD) are discussed, along with language and learning style issues. Approaches for instruction and evaluation of students are suggested that take into account diverse learning styles.

Zhang, C., Bennett, T. (2001). Multicultural Views of Disability: Implications for Early Intervention Professionals. Infant-Toddler Intervention: The Transdisciplinary Journal; 11(2), 143-154.
This article discusses the complex belief systems and values affecting the perception of disability for families from culturally diverse backgrounds, including the influence of traditional and spiritual beliefs, beliefs about health and healing, religion, belief about folk medicine and folk healers, and expectations of a child's social roles.

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