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Readings and Resources on School
ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education (ERIC EC)
ERIC EC Minibib EB20
Compiled by Jane Burnette
Citations with an ED (ERIC Document; for example, ED123456) number are available in
microfiche collections at more than 1,000 locations worldwide; to find the ERIC
Resource Collection nearest you, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm. Documents can also be
ordered for a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com/, email@example.com, or 1-800-443-ERIC.
(no longer available)
Journal articles (for example, EJ999999) are available for a
fee from the originating journal (check your local college or public library),
through interlibrary loan services, or from article reproduction services such as:
Infotrieve: 800.422.4633, www4.infotrieve.com, firstname.lastname@example.org; or ingenta: 800.296.2221, www.ingenta.com, email@example.com.
Allen, S. D. & Edwards-Kyles, D. R. (1995). Alternatives to expulsion:
Houston's school of last resort. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Problems, 3(4), 22-25. EJ502591.
Describes the evolution of Harper Alternative School, which
serves disruptive, volatile, and seriously emotionally disturbed students who could
not be managed within regular schools in Houston, TX. Through a process of constant change and refinement
to meet students' needs, the school has developed a model that is successful in serving even
the most troubled students.
Almeida, D. A. (1995). Behavior management and the
Teaching Pre-K-8, 26(1), 88-89. EJ518635.
Discusses a five-step classroom management program that employs
the concepts of clarity,
consequences, caring, consistency, and change. When used
together, these steps are an effective
framework that teachers and administrators can use to help all
students learn and maintain
Butera, G. and others. (1997). IEPs, students with
behavior problems and school
discipline policies: A collision course. In
Promoting Progress in Times of Change:
Rural Communities Leading the Way. ERIC Document
Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED406103.
This paper reports on the perceptions of West Virginia teachers
and administrators regarding the
effectiveness of individual education plans (IEPs) in guiding
discipline decisions for students
with disabilities. Telephone interviews conducted with 141
regular and special education
teachers and administrators indicate that IEPs often address
academic rather than social,
emotional, or behavioral needs, and the use of the IEP process to
guide discipline procedures is
seen as time-consuming and cumbersome. Consequently, students
with disabilities often receive
the same instructional programming and discipline procedures as
regular education students. The
report offers recommendations to improve the IEP process in
student disciplinary action.
Carr, V. G. (1995). The Garrison Model: An effective
program for managing the
behaviors of students with behavioral disorders.
Paper presented at the Annual
International Convention of the Council for Exceptional Children
(73rd, Indianapolis, IN, April 5-9, 1995). ERIC Document
Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED384164.
Describes an educational therapeutic program for youth with
severe behavior disorders which
emphasizes a student's responsibility for choices that are made.
The model was developed at the
Garrison School, a public alternative day school in Illinois that
serves students with severe
behavioral disorders. The following key elements of the model are
discussed: the whole school
approach, direct social skills training, community service
learning, elimination of suspension
coupled with logical natural consequences for inappropriate
behavior, interagency coordination,
safe school planning, gang identification, intervention and
prevention, creating a positive
environment and using a level system, positive acknowledgment of
student success, violence
intervention through the team approach, developing good community
establishing a school business partnership, and accenting the
Cooley, S. (1995). Suspension/expulsion of regular
and special education
students in Kansas: A report to the Kansas State Board of
Education. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED395403.
This study examined whether acts leading to suspension or
expulsion of students with disabilities
were different from those committed by other students, based on a
survey of 441 Kansas
secondary school principals. Students with disabilities were
found to be more than twice as likely
to be suspended/expelled than other students, with 87 percent of
having been diagnosed with either behavior disorders or learning
disabilities. These students
represented 1 percent and 4.5 percent, respectively, of the
Kansas student population, but each
group made up 11 percent of those suspended/expelled. While no
significant differences were
found between the acts leading to suspension/expulsion by these
students and those committed
by students without disabilities, findings were taken to suggest
that many students'
Individualized Education Plans failed to adequately provide them
with the skills they need to get
along in society. Students with and without disabilities were
equally likely to commit violent acts
or bring weapons to school.
Costenbader, V. &
Reading-Brown, M. (1995). Isolation timeout used with students
with emotional disturbance.
Exceptional Children, 61(4), 353. EJ497632.
This 1-year study investigated use of isolation timeout as a
behavioral control intervention with
156 students with emotional disturbance in a special educational
facility. Results indicated that
13,000 separate timeouts occurred over the year. Average time in
isolation was 23 hours per
student. Older students in more restrictive settings spent
significantly more time in isolation than
Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders &
Council of Administrators of
Special Education, Inc. (1995). A joint statement on violence in
the schools. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED386878.
This issue paper on violence in public schools provides an
overview of the problem and a joint
statement of the belief that the majority of the violent,
aggressive, or destructive students in U.S.
schools are not students receiving special education, but
students whose behavior may be
incidental to a particular emotional crisis. Most students who
have cognitive, emotional, social,
or behavioral disabilities are effectively managed and taught
through special education
interventions, and rarely exhibit the violent behavior that
places them and those around them in
danger of harm. Both CCBD and CASE endorse the need for a school
district to immediately
remove any student who has a disability if he or she becomes
violent, aggressive, or destructive
within a particular school. Such students must continue to
receive their education in an
alternative educational setting until an assessment has been
completed and appropriate decisions
are made around their long-term education program.
Council for Exceptional Children. (1996). CEC
Policy on Inclusive Schools
and Community Settings, CEC Policy on Physical Intervention, and
Position Statement on
Discipline. Council for Exceptional Children,
Arlington, VA. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED400634.
This collection of position statements describes CEC's policy on
inclusive schools: To support
the concept of inclusion as a meaningful goal, but also to urge
that a continuum of services be
available for all students. CEC's position on physical
interventions aims to assure the child's
physical freedom, social interaction, and individual choice and
to not include procedures which
cause pain or trauma. A list of criteria to be met before
physical intervention is used is presented.
CEC's policy on the discipline of children with disabilities
supports the placement of
dangerously violent or destructive students, with or without
disabilities, in educational programs
designed to meet their learning, safety, and behavioral
management needs. The steps that a local
education agency should take in determining the discipline of a
child with a disability are
Deshler, D. D. (1996). Influencing effective
practice through IDEA-supported
research. Exceptionality, 6(2),
To illustrate the impact
of research on the performance and quality of life of individuals
with disabilities, this article
highlights three research areas supported by the Individuals with
Disabilities Education Act
(IDEA): (1) at-risk infant programs; (2) learning strategy
interventions for adolescents with
learning disabilities; and (3) reduction of discipline problems
through functional assessment and
positive behavioral supports.
Dwyer, K. P. (1996). Disciplining students with
National Association of School Psychologists, 4340 East West
Highway, Suite 402, Bethesda,
MD 20814 (free). ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED399707.
This report discusses disciplining children with disabilities in
schools in the context of the legal
requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
Practical concepts are explained
in terms of the school's responsibilities.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilites and Gifted
Education, The ERIC/OSEP
Special Project. (1997). School-wide behavioral management
Connections, 1(1). ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED410712.
This newsletter discusses how behavioral management techniques, a
long-time focus of special
education research, are being integrated into school-wide
systems. It describes emerging models,
practitioners' attitudes and insights about the use of behavior
management systems, and states'
initiatives, and provides a list of contacts and resources.
Evans, E. D. & Richardson, R. C. (1995). Corporal
punishment: What teachers
should know. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 27(2),
This article cites the incidence of corporal punishment in
schools; levels of public support for it;
and factors that place students with behavioral, emotional,
learning, and mental disorders at risk
for corporal punishment. Teachers are encouraged to educate
themselves and others, to say no to
corporal punishment, and to develop alternatives to corporal
Fasko, D. and
others. (1995). An Analysis of Disciplinary Suspensions.
Paper presented at the
Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association
(Biloxi, MS, November
8-10, 1995). ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED393169.
Student punishment has received
increased scrutiny; one of
the concerns is that not all students are punished equally. This
paper presents findings of a study
that investigated whether race, gender, or existence of student
disability affected punishment
practices in an Eastern Kentucky school district. Male
adolescents developed more conduct
problems than did females and younger students. Almost 20 percent
of the suspensions were
given to students categorized as disabled, who composed 14
percent of the student body.
Jordan, D. (1995). Honorable intentions: A parent's
guide to educational planning
for children with emotional or behavioral disorders.
Available from PACER
Center, Inc., 4826 Chicago Ave., S., Minneapolis, MN 55417-1098
This guide to help parents work in collaboration with the school
team to enhance the education of
their children with emotional or behavioral disorders considers
special education and related
services, special education evaluation, the individualized
education program (IEP), school rules
and policies, day treatment, residential placement, adaptations
and modifications, communicating
with the school, evaluating the IEP plan, and resolving
differences. Checklists suggest questions
that parents may want to ask on prereferral interventions,
evaluation, conference planning, the
IEP, transportation, suspension, change of placement, educational
services in residential
placement, returning to school from residential placement, a
communication plan, and
King, A. T. (1996). Exclusionary discipline and the
forfeiture of special education
rights: a survey. NASSP Bulletin, 80(584),
of exclusionary discipline practices with handicapped students
revealed a national pattern of de
facto differential treatment. In denying a school's
unilateral authority to remove dangerous
or disruptive students, the Supreme Court's judgment in "Honig v.
Doe" (1988) took precedence
over all earlier court decisions. A system to establish
misbehavior/handicap linkages and student
responsibility is badly needed.
Kirleis, K. (1995). The effects of peer mediation
training on conflicts among
behaviorally and emotionally disordered high school students.
ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED394865.
This practicum was designed to explore the impact that exposure
to conflict management had on
emotionally and behaviorally disordered high school students.
High school students who
participated in this study were from the west coast of central
Florida. The practicum objectives
were for students to show a 25% increase in the use of conflict
management strategies; a 20%
decrease in the number of discipline referrals; and decrease in
conflictual behavior by 25%. The
results exceeded the objectives' outcome projections. The target
group participated in peer
mediation training and worked with teachers and staff to use the
training with classroom
conflicts. Appendices include student and staff pre-intervention
and post-intervention surveys, a
parent letter, and peer mediation referral/report/contract
McIntyre, T. (1996). Does the way we teach create
behavior disorders in
culturally different students? Education and
Treatment of Children, 19(3), 354-70.
(Special Issue: Severe Behavior Disorders of Children and Youth).
article considers the effects of a mismatch between the cognitive
styles of children from minority
cultural groups and cognitive styles promoted in schools, leading
to inappropriate interaction,
assessment, instruction, or discipline. It suggests such students
may be inappropriately identified
as having a learning disability or emotional and/or behavioral
disorder. Strategies for prevention
Morgan-D'Atrio, C. and others. (1996). Toward
prescriptive alternatives to
suspensions: a preliminary evaluation. Behavioral
Disorders, 21(2), 190-200. EJ524417.
Analysis of data on discipline problems and suspensions at a
large urban high school found a
high frequency of disciplinary referrals and suspensions and poor
school disciplinary policy and disciplinary actions. Students
with recurrent suspensions were
found to be a very heterogeneous group. Implications for
developing proactive treatment
alternatives to suspension are discussed.
Morgan, R. L. and others. (1997). Regulating the use
of behavioral procedures in
schools: A five-year follow-up survey of state department
standards. Journal of
Special Education, 30(4), 456-70. EJ540988.
This survey of 27 state departments of special education
investigated standards and guidelines on
behavioral procedures current in 1994 and compared them with 1989
survey results. Types of
behavioral procedures, including prohibited/restricted
procedures, were identified, and
monitoring activities were described. In 1994, more states had
standards on behavioral
procedures, and had increased staff training and use of decision
Muscott, H. S. (1996). Special education teachers'
standards for the classroom
behavior of students with behavioral disabilities across a
variety of cascade placements.
Education and Treatment of Children, 19(3), 300-15.
(Special Issue: Severe
Behavior Disorders of Children and Youth.) EJ5341370.
Special education teachers
(n=108) were assessed to determine whether standards for
acceptable student behavior differed as
a function of either placement or instructional level of
schooling. Differences were found only at
the elementary level, where teachers in less restrictive
placements (such as resource rooms)
expressed more rigorous behavioral standards than teachers in
more restrictive placements (such
as special schools).
National Association of School Psychologists. (1995).
Helping special education. National Association of
Bethesda, MD. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS),
This guide presents innovative school psychological practices to
help children with disabilities
learn. Descriptions are provided on programs, practices, and
particular cases, divided into four
sections: helping students learn, helping teachers teach,
developing family-responsive schools,
and disciplining students.
Ordover, E. L. (1996). Challenging abusive filing of
juvenile petitions against
children with disabilities by school officials. Center for Law
Washington, DC. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS),
This paper analyzes federal legislation and court decisions
relevant to the exclusion of students
with disabilities by school systems through the filing of
delinquency and other petitions based
upon in-school behavior. In many cases the behavior is related to
the disability and/or to the
consequences of the school system's past failure to provide
appropriate educational and related
services. The issue is examined in terms of these legislative
acts or court decisions: Honig v.
Doe, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Section
504 of the Rehabilitation Act
of 1973, the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA),
and the Americans with
Disabilities Act (ADA). Identifies 10 specific violations of
rights under IDEA, Section 504, the
ADA, and FERPA.
Ordover, E.L. (1996). Points on the content of
education after "expulsion" for
conduct deemed unrelated to a disability. Center
for Law and Education,
Washington, DC. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED405704.
This paper analyzes court decisions and federal legislation
concerning required educational
services for students with disabilities who are expelled from
school for conduct judged to be
unrelated to the disability. The analysis focuses on
documentation of the right to continued
education following disciplinary expulsion and content
requirements of education after such an
expulsion. The issue is interpreted in terms of the following
court cases and federal laws: Honig
v. Doe, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA),
Commonwealth of Virginia v.
Riley, S-1 v. Turlington, Kaelin v. Grubbs, and Board of Hendrick
Hudson Central School
District v. Rowley.
Richardson, R. C. (1996). Discipline and the
chronically ill child: what are the
management strategies to promote positive patient outcomes?
ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED396484.
This paper reviews various discipline models and applies them to
children with chronic and acute
medical conditions, especially End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD).
The definition of Other Health
Impairments in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act is
cited and related to the
medical, psychosocial, and educational characteristics and needs
of students with ESRD. Seven
conceptual models of behavior management are briefly described:
humanistic, psychodynamic, ecological, cognitive, and
strategies based on each of these models are then proposed and
organized into proactive
strategies (to prevent problems) and reactive strategies (to
solve problems as they occur).
Ross, P. A. (1995). Practical guide to discipline
and behavior management for
teachers and parents. Manisses Communications Group,
Inc., Providence, RI.
Available from Newsletter Book Services, 919 Duke Street,
Alexandria, VA 22314
(800-382-0602; fax: 703-684-4059) ($34.95, plus shipping and
handling). ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED400049.
This guide presents practical advice and strategies for
discipline and behavior management,
aimed at both parents and teachers. The chapters are (1) "Child
including self-esteem and backgrounds of difficult children; (2)
"The Challenges of Attention,"
covering Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); (3)
"Disciplining Children"; (4)
"Specific Behavior Management Strategies," including token
reinforcement, time out, behavior
management during outings, and diversion; (5) "Behavior
Management with Adolescents: A
Matter of Communication"; (6) "Positive Classroom," including
"Management Plan Ross
Method"; and (7) "Violence and Behavior."
Shriner, J. G. & Yell, M. L. (1996). Legal and policy
developments in the
education of students with emotional/behavioral disorders.
Education and Treatment
of Children, 19(3), 371-85. EJ534141.
This article examines three legal and policy issues affecting
students with emotional and
behavioral disorders: placement in the least restrictive
environment; discipline of students who
present a danger to staff and students; and inclusion of students
with disabilities in accountability
and assessment programs.
Sinclair, M. F. and others. (1996). On a collision
course? Standards, discipline,
and students with disabilities. Policy Research
Brief, 8(4). Minnesota University,
Minneapolis, Institute on Community Integration. ERIC Document
Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED404793.
This policy brief
discusses the impact of higher academic standards and zero
tolerance policies on students with
disabilities. The public's demand for higher standards and safe
environments is also explored.
The development of academic and behavioral standards in
educational laws and state policies is
documented. Examples of local practices and policies that
influence students' engagement with
school and ways to help youth meet higher academic and behavioral
standards are presented. The
approaches are based on the experiences of three projects that
tested strategies for keeping
middle school students in school within a climate of low
tolerance for atypical behavior and
increasing demands for academic excellence. Five key intervention
strategies were common to
the three projects.
Smith, D. D. & Rivera, D. P. (1995). Discipline in
special education and general
education settings. Focus on Exceptional Children,
27(5), 1-14. EJ506731.
This article presents guidelines for effective discipline in
special and general education settings.
It addresses causes of discipline problems, prevention techniques
(such as establishing rules),
intervention techniques (organized into an intervention ladder of
increasing intrusiveness), and
techniques for evaluating discipline effectiveness.
Sprick, R. S. & Howard, L. M. (1995). The teacher's
encyclopedia of behavior
management: 100 problems/500 plans for grades K-9.
Available from Sopris West,
1140 Boston Ave., Longmont, CO 80501 ($39.50). ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS),
This reference is
intended to provide teachers with a wide variety of intervention
plans for responding to behavior,
discipline, and motivation problems. While most interventions are
based on behavioral research,
others are derived from counseling, Adlerian psychology, social
learning theory, and
cognitive/behavior modification approaches. The book lists of
approximately 100 common
classroom problems. For each problem, general considerations are
offered, followed by model
intervention plans for differing levels of problem severity and
suggested steps for developing and
implementing an intervention plan. Examples of the problems
addressed include: absenteeism,
aggression, apathy, babyish behavior, bossiness, depression,
disrespectful behavior, drug use,
fighting, forgetting materials, homework, hygiene, lying,
stealing, and problems in work
completion. Three appendices provide additional information on
the topics of reinforcing
appropriate behavior, assigning responsibilities to jobs, and
responding to inappropriate
Watson, D. & Rangel, L. (1996). So Johnny's been bad.
What else is new?
Principal, 75(4), 27-28. EJ519715.
When parent-teacher conferences don't improve a problem student's
behavior, a systematic
change strategy is needed. Daily report cards are effective if
they divide the day into segments,
provide evaluations for each segment, feature increasingly
demanding goals, provide parent
reinforcement, use mild punishment, and accrue reinforcement
rewards. A sidebar discusses
Whitaker, A. M. & Votel, C. B. (1995). Managing
troubling behaviors: A systems
approach. In Reaching to the Future: Boldly Facing
Challenges in Rural
Communities. Conference Proceedings of the American Council on
Rural Special Education
(ACRES) (Las Vegas, Nevada, March 15-18, 1995). ERIC Document
Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED381307.
The Mentor Supported
School Success Program offers supplementary support to current
school programming through
the use of mentors. In the first year of the program, members of
multidisciplinary team identified students exhibiting troublesome
behaviors, with priority given
to elementary-aged students previously recommended for expulsion.
substitute teachers who had demonstrated both empathy for
students and consistent effective
behavioral management strategies were selected as mentors.
Mentors assist with individual
behavioral management plans, support classroom activities,
provide additional monitoring of
non-academic activities, and help teach the social skills
training program. Program components
include integrated behavior management plans for each student;
daily orientation and wrap-up;
carefully designed mentor schedules; academic assistance;
monitoring of medications; crisis
intervention; social skills training; and evaluation of changes
in students' behavior, attendance,
and academic achievement.
Zirkel, P.A. & Gluckman, I. B. (1997). Due process in
student suspensions and
expulsions. Principal, 76(4),
In an era promulgating
"zero tolerance" of school violence, courts are giving
considerable latitude to school officials in
administering student discipline. The vast majority of student
due process claims arising from
suspensions and expulsions, including a recent marijuana
possession case in Alabama, have
failed in recent years. The major exception to this trend
concerns students covered under federal
Beyond Behavior, A Magazine Exploring Behavior in our
Council on Children with Behavior Disorders, The Council for Exceptional
1110 N. Glebe Rd.,
Arlington, VA 22201-5704
Journal of the Council on Children with Behavior Disorders
Council for Exceptional Children
1110 N. Glebe Rd.
Arlington, VA 22201-5704
Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice
Chesapeake Institute of the American Institutes for Research
1000 Thomas Jefferson St., NW, Suite400
Washington, DC 20007
Council for Exceptional Children
1110 N. Glebe Rd.
Arlington, VA 22201-5704
Note: Special WEB Focus on discipline and behavior
National Association of School Psychologists, 4340 East West
Highway, Suite 402,
Bethesda, MD 20814; 301-657-0270; URL: http://www.naspweb.org
National School Safety Center
4165 Thousand Oaks Blvd., Suite 290
Westlake, CA 91362
UCLA School Mental Health Project
Dept. of Psychology
405 Hilgard Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1563
Educational and Psychological Resources, UC Berkeley, School
School Psychology Resources Online
ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education
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