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Supplementary and Related Services in Special Education (May 2003)

Besides special education services, what other types of services are available to children with disabilities?

The Individualized Education Program (IEP) for a child with disabilities may include supplementary aids and services, as well as related services. Supplementary services are services a child needs to participate with non-disabled children in the regular classroom and in other education-related settings, such as in extracurricular activities. Because of the emphasis in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) on mainstreaming and the "least restrictive environment," supplementary aids and services have become increasingly important and should be specified in the child's IEP. These can include modifications to the curriculum or classroom, extended time to complete tasks, assistive technology devices, an aide or notetaker, and other accommodation to allow regular classroom participation. Related services is the term for those services a child with a disability needs in order to benefit from special education. These are often specific services provided directly to the child, such as speech therapy, occupational therapy, orientation and mobility services, transportation services, or counseling.

Following are links to related ERIC digests, Minibibliographies, Internet resources, and Internet discussion groups, as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the citations.

You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:

ERIC Citations

The full text of citations beginning with an ED number (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:

  • In microfiche collections worldwide; to find your nearest ERIC Resource Collection, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm.
  • For a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com, service@edrs.com, or 1.800.443.ERIC. (no longer available)

The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:

ERIC Search Terms Used

Supplementary services or supplementary aids or related services or accommodations or modifications


Special education or disabilities

EJ579486 EC620570
The IDEA Amendments: A Four-Step Approach for Determining Supplementary Aids and Services.
Etscheidt, Susan; Bartlett, Larry
Exceptional Children; v65 n2 p163-74 Win 1999
Document Type: Information Analyses (070); Journal Articles (080)
ISSN: ISSN-0014-4029
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJSEP1999
Reviews the legal basis for the mandatory consideration of supplementary aids and services for enabling children with disabilities to be educated in the regular classroom and presents a four-step approach for teams to use in determining supplementary aids and services for children with disabilities.
Descriptors: *Assistive Devices (for Disabled); *Decision Making; *Disabilities; *Educational Legislation; *Inclusive Schools; *Services; Elementary Secondary Education; Federal Legislation; Individualized Education Programs; Student Needs; Teamwork
Identifiers: *Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

ED458752 EC308699
Accommodations and Modifications: What Parents Need To Know = Facilidades y modificaciones: Lo que los padres necesitan saber.
Beech, Marty
2000, 54 p.
Notes: Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Part B.
Availability: Clearinghouse/Information Center, Bureau of Instructional Support and Community Services, Division of Public Schools and Community Education, Florida Dept. of Education, Room 622, Turlington Building, Tallahassee, FL 32399-0400. Tel: 850-488-1879; Fax: 850-487-2679; e-mail: cicbiscs@mail.doe.state.fl.us; Web site: http://www.firn.edu/doe/commhome/.
EDRS Price MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
Institution: : BBB34790 _ Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Bureau of Instructional Support and Community Services.; BBB25147 _ Florida Developmental Disabilities Planning Council, Tallahassee.
Document Type: Non-Classroom Use (055); Multilingual/Bilingual Materials (177)
Target Audience: Parents
Language: English; Spanish
Geographic Source: U.S.; Florida
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR2002
This English-Spanish language booklet is designed to help parents understand two important features of special education services, accommodations and modifications for students with disabilities. Examples of accommodations and modifications are provided, federal laws requiring schools to provide accommodations and modifications are cited, and eligibility is explained. Information is also provided on how decisions are made for children with disabilities and written in Individualized Education Programs. Section 2 of the booklet provides examples of accommodations for a variety of learning problems, including examples of assistive technology. Accommodations are listed for students with disabilities who are having difficulty reading, students with disabilities who have difficulty maintaining attention, following ideas, and interpreting information, and students with disabilities who have problems with learning mathematical concepts and processes. Accommodations are also listed for students who have difficulties for specific kinds of classroom assignments, including problems with written assignments and assessments, with following instructions, with completing assignments, with organization, and with taking tests. The third section focuses on modifications to course requirements, curriculum expectations, and alternate assessments. The final section emphasizes the importance of teacher and parent collaboration and the need to monitor the impact of any accommodation or modification.
Descriptors: *Academic Accommodations (Disabilities); *Classroom Techniques; *Disabilities; *Federal Legislation; *Reading Difficulties; *Writing Difficulties; Assistive Devices (for Disabled); Attention Deficit Disorders; Elementary Secondary Education; Eligibility; Evaluation Methods; Mathematics; Student Evaluation; Student Needs; Teaching Methods; Time on Task
Identifiers: *Testing Accommodations (Disabilities)

EJ567796 PS527879
Assistive Technology and IEPs for Young Children with Disabilities.
Parette, Howard P., Jr.; Murdick, Nikki L.
Early Childhood Education Journal; v25 n3 p193-98 Spr 1998
Document Type: Journal Articles (080); Project Descriptions (141)
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJFEB1999
Examines the use of supplementary aids and services, those modifications or additional supports frequently required by young children with disabilities in an inclusive environment. Discusses the definition and continuum of assistive technology devices, the importance of supplementary aids, factors hindering the use of assistive devices in inclusive settings, and enhancing the use of assistive technology in inclusive settings.
Descriptors: *Assistive Devices (for Disabled); *Disabilities; *Inclusive Schools; *Individualized Education Programs; *Mainstreaming; Classroom Environment; Costs; Early Childhood Education; Educational Equipment; Training

ED459567 EC308755
Related Services. 2nd Edition. NICHCY News Digest.
Mattson, Beverly
2001, 22 p.
Document Type: Non-Classroom Use (055)
Availability: National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (NICHCY), Academy for Educational Development, P.O. Box 1492, Washington, DC 20013-1492. Tel: 800-695-0285 (Toll Free); Tel: 202-884-8200; Fax: 202-884-8441; e-mail: nichcy@aed.org; Web site: http://www.nichcy.org.
EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Institution: : BBB29829 _ National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.
Sponsoring Agency: EDD00017 _ Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC.
Contract Number: H326N980002
Report Number: NICHCY-ND16
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIEMAY2002
This publication examines the requirement under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that mandates that all children with disabilities have available to them special education and related services designed to meet their unique needs and prepare them for employment and independent living. It investigates what is meant by "related services" and why they are an important part of educating children with disabilities. It begins by looking at the related services listed in the Federal regulations, eligibility, the evaluation process for assessing related services need, and the school's obligation to provide related services free of charge. Part 2 presents information about different types of related services, including artistic/cultural programs, assistive technology devices and services, audiology, counseling services, medical services, occupational therapy, orientation and mobility services, parent counseling and training, physical therapy, psychological services, recreation services, rehabilitation counseling services, school health services, social work services, speech-language pathology services, and transportation. Part 3 discusses how school districts provide children with disabilities with related services, how service are coordinated, and how services are funded. The last part reviews related services eligibility under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. A list of relevant articles, books, and organizations is provided.
Descriptors: *Ancillary School Services; *Disabilities; *Eligibility; *Federal Legislation; *Special Education; *Student Evaluation; Art Therapy; Assistive Devices (for Disabled); Audiology; Counseling Services; Educational Finance; Educational Legislation; Elementary Secondary Education; Federal Aid; Health Services; Medical Services; Music Therapy; Needs Assessment; Occupational Therapy; Physical Therapy; Pupil Personnel Services; Recreational Activities; Rehabilitation Counseling; School Responsibility; Social Work; Speech Language Pathology; Speech Therapy; Transportation
Identifiers: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act; Rehabilitation Act 1973 (Section 504); *Related Services

ED436036 EC307499
IDEA and Early Childhood Inclusion.
Smith, Barbara J.; Rapport, Mary Jane K.
1999, 14 p.
Document Type: Information Analyses (070); Legal Materials (090)
EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Sponsoring Agency: Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC.
Contract Number: H324R980047-99
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Colorado
Journal Announcement: RIEMAY2000
This paper discusses 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that promote the inclusion of children with disabilities in general early childhood education settings. The evolution of inclusion policy is explored and changes in disability terminology are described. Amended provisions are then explained and include: (1) an emphasis on the provision of early intervention services in natural environments; (2) participation of preschool children with disabilities in appropriate activities; (3) access to the general education curriculum; and (4) a change in the definition of supplementary aids and services that makes it clear that these non-special education and related services are to be provided if necessary to successfully include a child with disability in general education settings and/or the general education curriculum. The report contains two tables that outline inclusion provisions in the IDEA early intervention program and in the preschool program. It also emphasizes that while IDEA contains provisions indicating a preference for inclusion for infants and toddlers and preschoolers with disabilities, implementation strategies at the state and local levels will play an important part in actualizing that preference.
Descriptors: *Disabilities; *Educational Legislation; *Federal Legislation; *Inclusive Schools; *Student Placement; Early Intervention; Educational Environment; Infants; Mainstreaming; Policy Formation; Preschool Children; Preschool Education; Toddlers; Trend Analysis
Identifiers: *Individuals with Disabilities Educ Act Amend 1997

ED436902 EC307575
Related Services for Vermont's Students with Disabilities.
Dennis, Ruth E., Ed.; Edelman, Susan W., Ed.; Giangreco, Michael F., Ed.; Rubin, Ron, Ed.; Thoms, Peter W., Ed.
1999, 101 p.
Document Type: Project Descriptions (141)
Availability: The Vermont Department of Education, Family and Educational Support Team, 120 State Street, Montpelier, VT 05620-2501. Tel: 802-828-3130; Web site: .
EDRS Price MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Vermont
Notes: Cooperative Developers were The Related Services Workgroup, The Vermont Department of Education Family and Educational Support Team and the Center on Disability and Community Inclusion, The University Affiliated Program of Vermont, and University of Vermont.
Journal Announcement: RIEJUN2000
This manual offers information regarding provision of related services to Vermont students with disabilities that is consistent with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and with Vermont law and regulations. It also describes promising or exemplary practices in education, special education, and related services. Section 1, "Legislative Context for and Approaches to Providing Related Services," discusses state and federal definitions of related services, related services and Vermont's special education process, modes of service delivery, and collaborative teamwork. Section 2, "Vermont's Guidelines for Related Services," addresses access to knowledge and information, roles of related service providers in determining eligibility for special education, determination of related services, and evaluation of related services. Section 3, "Funding for Related Services," discusses local education agency responsibility and potential sources of funding for related services. Section 4, "Frequently Asked Questions about Related Services," addresses key concerns surrounding related services. Section 5, "Information about Related Service Disciplines," provides a basic description of twelve related services in order to acquaint providers with various disciplines that may be required to support a students' special education program. The manual includes a voluntary registry of related service providers.
Descriptors: *Disabilities; *Eligibility; *Financial Support; *Pupil Personnel Services; *Staff Role; Assistive Devices (for Disabled); Delivery Systems; Elementary Secondary Education; Federal Legislation; Occupational Therapists; Physical Therapists; Rehabilitation Counseling; School Psychologists; Social Workers; Special Education; Speech Language Pathology; State Regulation; Teamwork
Identifiers: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act; *Related Services; *Vermont

ED406097 RC020998
Providing Related Services to Students with Disabilities in Rural and Remote Areas of Nevada.
Demchak, MaryAnn; Morgan, Carl R.
1997, 11p.
Document Type: Research/Technical (143); Conference Papers (150)
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Nevada
Notes: 11p.; In: Promoting Progress in Times of Change: Rural Communities Leading the Way; see RC 020 986.
Related services include transportation and such developmental, corrective, and supportive services that enable a student with a disability to benefit from special education. Rural school districts have difficulty providing services comparable to those provided by urban districts. Special education directors of 11 of the 15 rural school districts in Nevada responded to a survey concerning related services. The number of special education students in these districts ranged from 25 to 1,146, and the number of schools ranged from 3 to 19. The only three related services available in all districts were speech pathology, counseling, and psychological services. Occupational and physical therapy were available in the majority of the districts. Six or more of the 11 districts reported that audiology, social work, parent counseling and training, and recreation were not available. The most frequent reason provided for unavailability of a service was that there was no allocation for personnel in that area. In only three instances was a position open due to difficulties in hiring a qualified person. Only one school district reported that all related services were available. Most of the available services were provided to 20 or fewer students in a district. The primary way of providing services was through certified school district employees, but some remote districts provided services through independent contracts with service providers. Two districts provided services through collaboration with other agencies. Four tables list related services and present survey results.
Descriptors: *Ancillary School Services;* Rural Schools; *School Districts; *School Personnel; Special Education; Allied Health Personnel; Delivery Systems; Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; Individualized Education Programs; Professional Personnel; State Surveys
Identifiers: *Nevada; *Related Services

ED436893 EC307566
Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE): Special Education and Related Services. Issues in Education. Technical Assistance Bulletin.
1998, 6 p.
Document Type: Non-Classroom Use (055)
Availability: Division of Special Education, Missouri Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, P.O. Box 480, Jefferson City, MO 65102. Tel: 573-751-0699; Fax: 573-526-4404.
EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Institution: : BBB21836 _ Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City. Div. of Special Education.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Missouri
Journal Announcement: RIEJUN2000
This bulletin provides guidance and direction to Missouri local education agencies (LEAs) and Individualized Education Program (IEP) teams regarding the U.S. Office of Special Education Program's findings that indicated Missouri students with disabilities were not always receiving all of the special education and related services that were required to meet their unique needs. It also was found that medical services for diagnosis or evaluation (such as hearing and vision evaluations) were not always provided without cost to the parent. The bulletin outlines the responsibilities of LEAs in providing appropriate special education and related services to students with disabilities. Federal legislation is reviewed, and school districts are reminded that for each identified student with a disability, the district must develop an IEP that ensures the student will receive a free appropriate public education. Information is provided on: (1) how decisions are made about related services; (2) the use of private physicians, private insurance, and other funding sources for related services; (3) who can provide related services; (4) considerations for related services; and (5) the definition of related services. Included is a reference for IEP teams when considering related services for students with disabilities.
Descriptors: *Compliance (Legal); *Disabilities; *Federal Legislation; *School Responsibility; Special Education; Delivery Systems; Elementary Secondary Education; Financial Support; Health Insurance; Health Services; Individualized Education Programs; School Districts
Identifiers: Missouri; *Related Services

ED436886 EC307559
Keys to the Schoolhouse Door: Educating All Children.
Publication Date: 1998
Document Type: 010; Non-Classroom Use (055)
Pages: 24
Availability: Center for Innovations in Special Education (CISE), University of Missouri-Columbia, Department of Education, Suite 152 Parkade Center, 601 Business Loop 70 West, Columbia, MO 65211-8020 ($2). Tel: 573-884-1275; Tel: 800-735-2966 (Toll Free/TDD). Web site: .
Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Missouri
Journal Announcement: RIEJUN2000
This booklet was developed in response to input from six regional forums held in Missouri in the spring of 1996. The purpose was to solicit public perceptions about inclusive school practices in public schools for students with and without disabilities, as well as to obtain stakeholder input on how to increase and improve inclusive education in Missouri. Through summaries and questions and answers, the booklet provides information on: (1) characteristics of inclusive schools; (2) the curriculum adaptation process; (3) the legal requirement for schools to educate students with disabilities in the general education classroom with supplementary aids and services to the maximum extent appropriate; (4) corresponding practices to the inclusion philosophy; (5) service delivery, including placement decisions, Individualized Education Program (IEP) team membership, IEP content; (6) conflict resolution; (7) supplementary aids and services; (8) the role of the general education teachers; (9) preschool children placement; (10) low incidence disabilities; (11) due process; (12) health and medical needs; (13) legal considerations pertaining to disruptive students, joint planning time, and safety; and (14) funding. The last part of the booklet provides information on effective practices that are available for professional development and for materials and products for training on inclusive practices.
Descriptors: *Delivery Systems; *Disabilities; *Federal Legislation;* Financial Support; *Inclusive Schools; *Student Placement; Conflict Resolution; Curriculum Development; Due Process; Educational Legislation; Elementary Secondary Education; Individualized Education Programs; Preschool Education; Public Schools; Regular and Special Education Relationship; Teacher Collaboration
Identifiers: Missouri

ED404804 EC305322
Related Services Supporting Inclusion: Congruence of Best Practices in Special Education and School Reform. Issue Brief.
Rainforth, Beverly
1996, 5 p.
Document Type: Non-Classroom Use (055)
Availability: Consortium on Inclusive Schooling Practices, National Association of State Boards of Education, 1012 Cameron Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; telephone: 703-684-4000; fax: 703-836-2313.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Contract Number: 86V-40007
Target Audience: Practitioners
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Virginia
This issue brief discusses three key strategies for providing special education and related service support to all students with disabilities in general education settings: (1) interdisciplinary instruction, (2) team teaching, and (3) block scheduling. Interdisciplinary instruction in the special education context is extended to include speech and language, motor, and social-emotional development as part of "embedded skills instruction" in an integrated curriculum. It requires that related service personnel and teachers coordinate curriculum planning and share instructional strategies and teaching responsibilities. Team teaching involves related service personnel sharing both planning and teaching responsibilities for small groups, including students whose Individualized Education Programs call for specific services, in the general education classroom. Block scheduling in the special education context refers to the way related services are scheduled so students can be supported during longer periods of time in general classroom activities. Related service personnel add up the hours allocated for a given student and multiply them by the number of special education students being served in that classroom to get the block of time to be spent in a given classroom.
Descriptors: *Block Scheduling; *Disabilities; *Inclusive Schools; *Interdisciplinary Approach; *Team Teaching; Ancillary School Services; Classroom Techniques; Delivery Systems; Educational Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; Mainstreaming; Pupil Personnel Services; Teacher Collaboration; Teaching Models

EJ539173 EC614295
Legal Issues in Special Education: Assistive Technology and Supportive Services.
Weiss, Keith E.; Dykes, Mary Kay
Physical Disabilities: Education and Related Services; v14 n1 p29-36 Fall 1995
Document Type: Journal Articles (080); Position Papers (120)
Language: English
Outlines the legal issues surrounding the provision of school support services and assistive technology for children with disabilities. The definition of assistive technology and related services is examined, with findings from relevant case law provided. Information is provided on interpretation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the implications of the Americans with Disabilities Act.
Descriptors: *Ancillary School Services; *Assistive Devices (for Disabled); *Compliance (Legal); *Court Litigation; *Disabilities; *Federal Legislation; Elementary Secondary Education; Laws; Legal Responsibility; Public Policy; Pupil Personnel Services; Services; Technology
Identifiers: Americans with Disabilities Act 1990; Rehabilitation Act 1973 (Section 504)

ED429756 RC021906
The IDEA 1997 Accommodation, Modification Plans and Related Services Compliance Requirements for Rural Schools According to Recent Court Decisions.
Tate, Jim
1999, 8 p.
Rural schools do not receive special compliance exemptions under the Individuals with Document Type: Information Analyses (070); Conference Papers (150)
EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Oklahoma
Notes: In: Rural Special Education for the New Millennium. Conference Proceedings of the American Council on Rural Special Education (ACRES) (19th, Albuquerque, New Mexico, March 25-27, 1999); see RC 021 888.
Journal Announcement: RIESEP1999
Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This paper examines the responsibilities of schools to students with disabilities, as outlined in IDEA regulations and court decisions, as well as implications for rural schools with limited funding and resources. Issues discussed include the proportion of federal funds intended for local schools, oversight of state agency compliance with federal regulations concerning funding distribution, the IDEA definition of a child with a disability, age requirements for identification and provision of special education and related services, court decisions about when a school's responsibility to a student ends, statutory categories of disability, the unconditional nature of the IDEA requirement of a free appropriate education for all students with disabilities, development of state-level child identification systems, development of state standards for special education, the state's responsibility to ensure appropriate use of federal and state special education funding, funding changes in the 1997 amendments to IDEA, presumption that children with and without disabilities will be educated together wherever possible, availability of a continuum of alternative placement options, qualitative standards, provision of special services unavailable in the school district, provision of extensive accommodations, and exclusion of medical services. Contains 16 references. (SV)
Descriptors: *Compliance (Legal); *Court Litigation; *Rural Schools; *School Responsibility; *Special Education; *Student Rights; Disabilities; Educational Legislation; Elementary Secondary Education; Federal Legislation; Rural Education
Identifiers: *Individuals with Disabilities Education Act; Related Services

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