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Teaching Science to Students with Disabilities (updated July 2003)

What strategies can be used for teaching science to students with disabilities?

Teachers in inclusive classrooms regularly face the difficult task of having to modify the curriculum to reach all of their students, many of whom have special needs. Students with disabilities, whether physical, emotional, or cognitive in nature, respond to the curriculum differently from other students. For example, depending on the disability itself and other factors affecting their ability to succeed academically, students may need modifications such as advance and graphic organizers, instructional scaffolding, additional practice and time to complete assignments, and/or alternative media (e.g., large-print materials, audiotapes, or electronic materials). Without specific modifications, the standard curricular materials can be inadequate for these students, and too frequently they can find themselves blocked from access to essential aspects of the curriculum. Teachers must adjust the materials or their presentation to break down the barriers and assist these students in learning.

The IDEA Amendments of 1997 require that students with disabilities have access to the general education curriculum. This legislative requirement makes the accessibility of curricular materials an issue of even greater importance than it otherwise would be. To meet the goal of equal access to the curriculum for everyone, to enable each student to engage with his or her lessons in a meaningful way, teachers must be prepared to provide useful alternatives in terms of both curricular materials and instructional delivery. Well-adapted materials without an effective method of teaching are practically useless, but with the proper tools and instructional methods, a good teacher encourages each member of the class to participate directly in the learning experience.

(From Preface, ERIC/OSEP Mini-Library on Adapting Curricular Materials. 1999. Volume 1, Toward Successful Inclusion of Students with Disabilities: The Architecture of Instruction; Volume 2, Adapting Reading and Math Materials for the Inclusive Classroom (Kindergarten through Grade Five); and Volume 3, Adapting Language Arts, Social Studies, and Science Materials for the Inclusive Classroom (Grades Six Through Eight). Mini-Library available from CEC's ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education. 1.888.CEC.SPED. Stock No. P5304. $21.60/CEC members; $30.95/non-members. ISBN 0-86586-340-7)

Following are links to related Internet resources and Internet discussion groups, as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the citations.

You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:

ERIC Citations

The full text of citations beginning with an ED number (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:

  • In microfiche collections worldwide; to find your nearest ERIC Resource Collection, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm.
  • For a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com, service@edrs.com, or 1.800.443.ERIC. (no longer available)

The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:

ERIC Search Terms Used

disabilities or special education


science education or science instruction or science activities

EJ613032 EC625743
Modifying Science Activities and Materials To Enhance Instruction for Students with Learning and Behavioral Problems.
Ormsbee, Christine K.; Finson, Kevin D.
Intervention in School and Clinic; v36 n1 p10-21 Sep 2000
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJMAR2001
This article discusses the inclusion of students with learning and behavioral disabilities into general education science classes. It provides suggestions for instructional modifications and includes a sample science activity that was redesigned to support students with learning and behavioral concerns.
Descriptors: *Academic Accommodations (Disabilities); *Behavior Disorders; *Inclusive Schools; *Learning Disabilities; *Science Activities; *Science Instruction; Classroom Techniques; Elementary Secondary Education

EJ622099 SE564754
Hands-on Science as a Motivator for Children with Emotional/Behavioral Disabilities.
Welton, Evonn N.; Smith, Walter S.; Owens, Katharine D.; Adrian, Michael G.
Journal of Elementary Science Education; v12 n2 p33-37 Fall 2000
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJAUG2001
Describes the infusion of hands-on science into a classroom for children with emotional/behavioral disabilities. The abundance of age-appropriate science materials in this classroom contrasts with more typical, unadorned rooms designed to minimize temptation. Carefully organized lessons engage students in what they perceive to be real science, thereby reducing reliance on structured behavioral management techniques.
Descriptors: *Disabilities; *Hands on Science; *Special Needs Students; Academic Achievement; Curriculum Development; Elementary Secondary Education; Science Instruction
Identifiers: *Disability Management

EJ581618 EC620754
Teaching the Scientific Method to At-Risk Students and Students with Learning Disabilities through Concept Anchoring and Explicit Instruction.
McCleery, Jennifer A.; Tindal, Gerald A.
Remedial and Special Education; v20 n1 p7-18 Jan-Feb 1999
Language: English
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT1999
This study evaluated an experimental science program which altered both content and instructional methods in teaching science to at-risk and learning-disabled middle school students. Content was framed with concepts and principles, and instruction was explicit, using rules to guide classroom activities for six students in a pull-away setting. Comparison with more traditional hands-on instruction indicated the approach's effectiveness.
Descriptors: *High Risk Students; *Learning Disabilities; *Science Instruction; *Scientific Concepts; *Scientific Methodology; *Teaching Methods; Concept Formation; Instructional Effectiveness; Middle Schools
Identifiers: *Direct Instruction

EJ660004 SE568228
Inclusive Resources for Science and Special Educational Needs.
Fenton, Adrian
Education in Science; n200 p14-15 Nov 2002
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJMAY2003
Introduces a CD-ROM that provides support for inclusive science and special education. Provides a full-scale investigation, resources for lessons, and management strategies for special needs students in science, and includes the themes of coastline protection, micro-scale chemistry, torches and color, fast plants, and flashcards software. Descriptors: *Educational Strategies; *Science Education; *Special Education; CD ROMs; Elementary Education; Instructional Materials; Middle Schools; Special Needs Students

EJ652796 SE567627
Developing Science Materials for Pupils with Special Educational Needs for the Key Stage 3 Strategy.
Bancroft, Jill
School Science Review; v83 n305 p19-27 Jun 2002
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJJAN2003
Summarizes the approach taken by a project that creates science teaching and learning materials for the Key Stage 3 Science Strategy in special schools. Includes the principles, a multi-sensory approach, the use of imaginative contexts which motivate and engage pupils, the matching of activities to pupils' literacy and numeracy capabilities, and the identification of appropriate teaching and learning strategies.
Descriptors: *Curriculum Development; *Inclusive Schools; *Instructional Materials; *Science Instruction; *Special Education; Foreign Countries; Learning Strategies; Special Needs Students
Identifiers: United Kingdom

EJ619693 EC626441
Concept Mapping Effects on Science Content Comprehension of Low-Achieving Inner-City Seventh Graders.
Guastello, E. Francine; Beasley, T. Mark; Sinatra, Richard C.
Remedial and Special Education; v21 n6 p356-65 Nov-Dec 2000
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJJUL2001
Low-achieving seventh-grade students were assigned to two science intervention groups, a read-and-discuss teacher-directed method group and a group in which a model of concept mapping that connected major and minor concepts followed the lesson. Results indicate that using graphic representations was more effective than the traditional approach.
Descriptors: *Concept Mapping; *Diagrams; *High Risk Students; *Science Instruction; *Scientific Concepts; *Teaching Methods; Grade 7; Junior High Schools; Visual Stimuli

EJ643162 EC629654
Connecting Math and Science for All Students.
Cawley, John F.; Foley, Teresa E.
TEACHING Exceptional Children; v34 n4 p14-19 Mar-Apr 2002
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJAUG2002
Target Audience: Practitioners; Teachers
This article describes a way to provide systematic connections between mathematics and science for students with disabilities through hands-on lessons, word problems, and opportunities for problem-solving. Sample units are presented that integrate science and mathematics at the K-8 level and explore interrelationships among multiplication and division, ratio, and proportions.
Descriptors: *Disabilities; *Hands on Science; *Mathematics Instruction; *Ratios (Mathematics); *Science Instruction; *Word Problems (Mathematics); Division; Elementary Education; Elementary School Mathematics; Junior High Schools; Lesson Plans; Multiplication; Problem Solving; Secondary School Mathematics

EJ648550 CG558720
Enhancing Science Performance in Students with Learning Disabilities Using Cover, Copy, and Compare: A Student Shows the Way.
Smith, Tawnya J.; Dittmer, Karen I.; Skinner, Christopher H.
Psychology in the Schools; v39 n4 p417-26 Jul 2002
Language: English
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJNOV2002
In the current study a multiple baseline across tasks design was used to determine if the self-managed academic intervention known as cover, copy, and compare (CCC) could be used to enhance accuracy in identifying parts of the human heart in three students with learning disabilities. Results showed that immediately after implementing the CCC intervention students' accuracy improved.
Descriptors: *Learning Disabilities; *Science Instruction; *Self Management; *Teaching Methods; Academic Achievement

EJ627169 SE565262
Teaching an Introductory Physical Geology Course to a Student with Visual Impairment.
Asher, Pranoti
Journal of Geoscience Education; v49 n2 p166-69 Mar 2001
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJNOV2001
Describes teaching methods used to teach a visually impaired student in an introductory geology course. Methods include meeting with the student and making arrangements to provide all the handouts and syllabi for the course prior to the class; detailed planning of all lectures, class activities, and laboratory exercises; and a mechanism for providing feedback to the student.
Descriptors: *Introductory Courses; *Physical Disabilities; *Teaching Methods; *Visual Impairments; Geology; Higher Education; Science Education

EJ577317 EC620237
Using an Activities-Based Approach To Teach Science to Students with Disabilities.
Salend, Spencer J.
Intervention in School and Clinic; v34 n2 p67-72,78 Nov 1998
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJAUG1999
Target Audience: Practitioners; Teachers
Offers guidelines for enhancing science instruction for students with disabilities by adapting, implementing, and assessing an activities-based approach. This approach features a structured learning cycle, emphasis on the relationship of science to students' lives, experiential learning, interdisciplinary themes, cooperative learning groups, instructional technology and multimedia, and evaluation of student performance.
Descriptors: *Active Learning; *Disabilities; *Instructional Design; *Science Instruction; Cooperative Learning; Educational Technology; Elementary Secondary Education; Experiential Learning; Instructional Effectiveness; Learning Activities; Relevance (Education); Teaching Methods; Thematic Approach

ED409161 SE060085
Tips for Science Teachers Having Students with Disabilities.
Burgstahler, Sheryl
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Washington
Journal Announcement: RIENOV97
Target Audience: Practitioners; Teachers
This document highlights strategies for teaching science students with common learning disabilities. For each learning disability listed, there are sections on courtesy and several teaching methods with mitigative teaching strategies. Highlighted disabilities include Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), Emotional Disabilities, Epilepsy, Hearing Impairments, Motor/Orthopedic Impairments, Learning Disabilities, and Vision Impairments. Among some recommended strategies discussed are teacher presentation, laboratory (active and passive), group interaction and discussion, research, testing, field experiences (active and passive), reading, and assistive devices, services, and materials.
Descriptors: *Educational Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; *Learning Disabilities; Physical Disabilities; *Science Instruction; Teaching Guides; Teaching Methods

ED397583 EC304911
Laboratory Barriers in Science, Engineering, and Mathematics for Students with Disabilities.
Heidari, Farzin
Jun 1996
18p.; The study was conducted under a grant from the Regional Alliance for Science, Engineering, and Mathematics, New Mexico State University.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; New Mexico
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC96
Target Audience: Teachers; Administrators; Practitioners
This report addresses the barriers college students with disabilities face in the laboratory setting. In engineering, mathematics, and science education most courses require laboratory work which may pose challenges to those with disabilities. Instructors should be aware of the individual needs of students with disabilities and make necessary accommodations. The legal requirements on accessibility are reviewed in both the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act. Services for students with disabilities that may be available at postsecondary institutions are explained. The characteristics that should be considered for the design of innovative tools or for modifying existing equipment in the laboratory settings are examined. Factors are highlighted that should be considered before the modification of laboratories. The design and production of a disability-accessible Computer Assisted Design/Computer Assisted Mathematics station are described and illustrated. An appendix lists 25 sites on the World Wide Web for helping students with disabilities in the areas of science, mathematics, and engineering. A second appendix lists 12 assistive technology sources.
Descriptors: *Accessibility (for Disabled); *Assistive Devices (for Disabled); College Students; Compliance (Legal); Computer Assisted Design; Computer Assisted Instruction; *Disabilities; Engineering Education; *Federal Legislation; Higher Education; Internet; *Laboratories; Laboratory Procedures; Laboratory Safety; Legal Responsibility; Mathematics Education; Mobility Aids; Physical Mobility; Postsecondary Education; Required Courses; Science Education; Structural Elements (Construction)
Identifiers: Americans with Disabilities Act 1990; Rehabilitation Act 1973 (Section 504); World Wide Web

ED420142 EC306485
The Use of Cooperative Group Management Software for Hands-On Science Activities To Improve Communication between Students with Disabilities and Their Peers.
Natal, Dottie
Imagen Multimedia Corp., Lompoc, CA. 1997
Sponsoring Agency: Department of Education, Washington, DC.
Contract No: RW96013016
EDRS Price - MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; California
Journal Announcement: RIENOV98
This report describes the development of an educational software program to assist youth with disabilities in participating in discourse in regular school settings. The software was designed to manage cooperative groups as students engaged in hands-on science activities and was specifically developed for teaching the subject of batteries and bulbs. Ten classrooms in which special education students were enrolled with regular education students were observed, and the types and quantities of verbal interactions between disabled students and peers were reported. Eight groups of four or five students (each group containing one special education student) were then pulled from these classrooms and the software was tested with these students. Evaluation indicated that the cooperative learning activities and the software provided the structure needed to include students with disabilities and increased communication between disabled students and their peers. Evaluation also indicated non-disabled peers were able to help keep students with disabilities on task and that there was a high level of engagement in the learning activities. Appendices include the texts for sample lessons at different reading levels, a technical specifications document, parent permission forms, sample student workbook pages, and sample teacher manual pages.
Descriptors: *Computer Managed Instruction; Computer Software; *Cooperative Learning; *Disabilities; Educational Technology; Elementary Secondary Education; Experiential Learning; Group Dynamics; *Hands on Science; Inclusive Schools; *Interpersonal Communication; Material Development; Peer Relationship; Peer Teaching; *Science Instruction; Teaching Methods

ED399724 EC305055
Improving Science Instruction for Students with Disabilities: Proceedings. Working Conference on Science for Persons with Disabilities (Anaheim, California, March 28-29, 1994).
Stefanich, Greg P.; Egelston-Dodd, Judy, Ed.
Science Association for Persons with Disabilities, Cedar Falls, IA. 1995
154p.; For the 1993 conference proceedings, see EC 305 054.
Sponsoring Agency: National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC07 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Iowa
Journal Announcement: RIEFEB97
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
This proceedings report includes papers presented at a conference on teaching science to students with disabilities. In the first paper, "Family Pedigrees: A Model Lesson Illustrating Strategies for Teaching Students with Disabilities in a Mainstreamed High School Biology Class" (Kathleen Ball and Edward C. Keller, Jr.), strategies are described for including a student with motor/orthopedic disabilities in classroom activities and a model lesson on Mendelian genetics is presented. In the second paper, "Integrating Students with Learning Disabilities into Regular Science Education Classrooms: Recommended Instructional Models and Adaptations" (Katherine Norman and Dana Caseau), the learning styles of students with learning disabilities are explained and different instructional models are described. "A Demonstration Lecture in Physics for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students in Mainstream Settings: 'The Doppler Effect'" (Harry G. Lang) provides specific strategies and handouts for teaching students with hearing impairments. "Heat Conduction (A Science Lesson for Junior High Students Who Are Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing)" by Robert Storm, provides objectives and step-by-step instructions for teaching heat conduction. "Guidelines for Teaching Science to Students Who Are Visually Impaired" (Benjamin Van Wagner) describes specific accommodations and adaptive equipment that teachers can use. Conference participants' suggestions to practicing teachers, a list of conference participants, and conference evaluation information are appended.
Descriptors: Biology; *Disabilities; *Educational Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; Genetics; Hearing Impairments; Inclusive Schools; Learning Disabilities; Lesson Plans; Mainstreaming; Physical Disabilities; Physics; *Science Activities; Science Curriculum; *Science Instruction; Teaching Methods; Teaching Models; Visual Impairments

ED408731 EC305602
Working Together: Science Teachers and Students with Disabilities. DO-IT Program.
Washington Univ., Seattle. 1996
5p.; Additional funding received from NEC Foundation of America and US WEST Communications.
Sponsoring Agency: National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA.
Available From: DO-IT, 4525 15th Avenue NE, University of Washington, Box 35482, Seattle, WA 98105-4527; telephone/TTY: 206-685-DOIT; fax: 206-685-4045.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Washington
Journal Announcement: RIENOV97
Target Audience: Practitioners; Teachers
This brochure describes ways that science teachers and students with disabilities can work together to develop creative alternatives for the challenges in gaining and demonstrating knowledge faced by these students. In the first section, "Gaining Knowledge", lists of difficulties faced by students with disabilities are placed in columns opposite to types of accommodations. Some of the accommodations described include: providing materials in alternative formats; providing scientific equipment with Braille and large print markings; providing an FM system or interpreter; making electronic communications available; providing extra time and access to materials via a computers equipped with speech and large print output; and flexible scheduling arrangements for students who have health impairments. The second section "Demonstrating Knowledge", details accommodations that can be made for students with disabilities who cannot demonstrate mastery of a subject by writing, speaking, or working through a problem in a lab. Accommodations include providing worksheets and tests in alternative formats, allowing extra times or alternative testing arrangements, and providing in-class access to a computer with alternative input devices. The brochure includes a list of key electronic resources at the University of Washington related to the DO-IT (Disabilities Opportunities Internetworking Technology) program.
Descriptors: *Access to Education; *Disabilities; Educational Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education; *Science Instruction; Science Laboratories; Science Materials; *Teacher Role
Identifiers: *Academic Accommodations (Disabilities); *Testing Accommodations (Disabilities)

ED419325 EC306411
Successful Science: Technology and Support for Students with Disabilities. NCIP Profiles Series. Videotape. Education Development Center, Newton, MA. National Center to Improve Practice.
Available From: National Center to Improve Practice, Education Development Center, Inc., 55 Chapel St., Newton, MA 02158-1060; telephone: 617-969-7100, ext. 2412; TTY: 617-969-4529; fax: 617-969-3440; World Wide Web: http://www.edc.org/FSC/NCIP/
Video Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Massachusetts
Journal Announcement: RIEOCT98
Target Audience: Practitioners
This videotape recording (20 minutes) and print profile illustrate how educators are using technology to help students with disabilities succeed in science. In the first segment of the video, several elementary classrooms in Cambridge, Massachusetts, are visited where students with and without disabilities carry out inquiry-based science with the support of technology, media, and materials. In the second segment, Project ASSIST is showcased, a model designed to ensure that every student succeeds in inquiry-based science by fostering collaboration among classroom teachers, special education teachers, technology specialists, library media specialists, and science staff development teachers. A brief introduction by Judy Heumann, Assistant Secretary for the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services, sets the context for why this work is both timely and essential. The print profile provides more in-depth information about the technology features in the video and the Project ASSIST model. Technology profiled includes: the Internet; IntelliKeys; digital cameras; inspiration software; CD-ROM multimedia encyclopedias; and projection microscopes. A special section offers guidelines for using the video and print profile in staff development.
Descriptors: *Appropriate Technology; *Assistive Devices (for Disabled); *Computer Uses in Education; *Disabilities; *Educational Technology; Elementary Education; Elementary School Science; Hands on Science; Inclusive Schools; Internet; Models; Multimedia Materials; Science Activities; *Science Education; Science Instruction; Staff Development; Teacher Collaboration; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: IntelliKeys

EJ526626 SE556180
Enhancing the Learning Environment for Deaf Students in the Science Classroom.
Brickman, Bette; Workman, Sandra
Journal of Science for Persons with Disabilities, v3 n1 p40-43 Spr 1995
Journal availability: Science Assn. for Persons with Disabilities, 3322 West 2200 North, Ogden, UT 84404.
Language: English
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJNOV96
Presents instructional tips for science instructors whose class includes deaf students from different educational backgrounds. Discusses visual enhancement, writing and reading, speaking and class participation, and laboratory interactions.
Descriptors: Classroom Environment; *Deafness; *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; *Mainstreaming; *Teaching Methods; *Visual Aids

EJ528343 SE556250
A Constructivist Paradigm in Science Education for Students Who Are Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing.
Egelston-Dodd, Judy; Himmelstein, Jeff
Journal of Science for Persons with Disabilities, v4 n1 p20-27 Spr 1996
Journal availability: Science Assn. for Persons with Disabilities, 225 N. Ely Drive, Northville, MI 48167.
Language: English
Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC96
Presents a model lesson that demonstrates how teachers can provide experiences to close the conceptual gaps for deaf students and provide a common base before launching into new concepts. Discusses the constructivist paradigm, misconceptions, the Learning Cycle, strategies for teaching deaf students, and assessment of learning for students who are deaf and hard of hearing.
Descriptors: *Constructivism (Learning); *Disabilities; Educational Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; Misconceptions
Identifiers: *Learning Cycle Teaching Method

EJ559517 EC618102
Use of a Recall Enhancement Routine and Strategies in Inclusive Secondary Classes.
Bulgren, Janis A.; Deshler, Donald D.; Schumaker, Jean B.
Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, v12 n4 p198-208 Fall 1997
ISSN: 0938-8982
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJAUG98
Eleven teachers of inclusive seventh-grade life science classes were trained to use a teaching routine that stressed finding and using mnemonic devices to enhance students' recall of information. Evaluation indicated that trained teachers who used the method and their students, especially students with learning disabilities, were better than controls at selecting and explaining a mnemonic device.
Descriptors: Biological Sciences; Classroom Techniques; Grade 7; *Inclusive Schools; *Inservice Teacher Education; Junior High Schools; *Learning Disabilities; *Learning Strategies; Memorization; *Mnemonics; *Recall (Psychology)

EJ564514 SE559646
Special Education Teachers Use Science-Technology-Society (STS) Themes To Teach Science To Students with Learning Disabilities.
Caseau, Dana; Norman, Katherine
Journal of Science Teacher Education, v8 n1 p55-68 Feb 1997
ISSN: 1046-560X
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJNOV98
Reviews instructional practices in the classroom environment and science teaching in special education. Recommends science-technology-society (STS) as a way of teaching science to meet the academic and social needs of disabled students.
Descriptors: *Disabilities; Educational Innovation; Elementary Secondary Education; Mainstreaming; Science and Society; *Science Instruction; Special Education

EJ546500 SE558039
Computer Technology, Science Education, and Students with Learning Disabilities.
Kumar, David; Wilson, Cynthia L.
Journal of Science Education and Technology, v6 n2 p155-60 Jun 1997
ISSN: 1059-0145
Language: English
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); POSITION PAPER (120)
Journal Announcement: CIJNOV97
Explores ways in which computer technology could be used to teach science to students with learning disabilities. Discusses the role of computer technology in individualizing the mode of delivery, developing expert tutors, anchoring instruction, integrating science with other subjects, reducing cognitive load on working memory, and motivating students to stay on task.
Descriptors: *Computer Uses in Education; *Educational Strategies; *Educational Technology; Elementary Secondary Education; *Learning Disabilities; Science Instruction; *Teaching Methods

ED424088 SE061237
Teaching Science in Content Areas to Students with Special Needs.
Richardson, Rita Coombs; Norman, Katherine
9p.; Paper presented at the International Consortium for Research in Science and Math Education (Port of Spain, Trinidad, February 25-28, 1998).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Louisiana
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR99
This paper provides information on teaching science to students with special needs. The focus is placed on students with learning disabilities who may behave inappropriately due to frustration about their academic deficits. This perception is often brought about by a predominant mode of instruction in schools which is text-driven, teacher-centered, and conveyed through visual and auditory channels. A discussion of the role of an integrated curriculum in meeting the needs of students with disabilities is included, and thematic unit development is explained with a specific example provided. The example contains a butterfly and insect module developed in three ability levels that integrates skills in research sequence, prediction, comprehension, sequencing, vocabulary, summarizing, editing, spelling, dictionary skills, and punctuation.
Descriptors: Discovery Learning; Educational Change; Elementary Secondary Education; *Integrated Curriculum; Interdisciplinary Approach; *Learning Disabilities; Learning Theories; *Metacognition; *Science Education

EJ558823 SE559112
Enabling the Learning Disabled.
Williams, Carrie Wehmann; Hounshell, Paul B.
Science Teacher, v65 n1 p29-31 Jan 1998
ISSN: 0036-8555
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJJUL98
Addresses the dearth of materials in science for the learning disabled student. Suggests some teaching strategies such as a student assignment journal, the usefulness of mnemonics, and incorporating technology such as computers as much as possible. Also discusses classroom organization, assessment strategies, and how to build confidence. Descriptors: Computer Uses in Education; Educational Technology; Evaluation; *Learning Disabilities; Learning Problems; Mnemonics; *Remedial Instruction; *Science Instruction; Secondary Education; Teaching Methods

EJ565745 SE559899
Low-Cost Science Teaching Equipment for Visually Impaired Children.
Gupta, H. O.; Singh, Rakshpal
Journal of Chemical Education, v75 n5 p610-12 May 1998
ISSN: 0021-9584
Language: English
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC98
Provides plans for simple, inexpensive teaching aids and equipment for visually impaired children. Details for building null detectors, electronic thermometers, and calorimeters are included.
Descriptors: Educational Resources; Elementary Secondary Education; *Hands on Science; *Laboratory Equipment; Learning Strategies; Science Activities; *Science Equipment; Special Education; *Visual Impairments

EJ546510 SE558049
Chemistry for the Visually Impaired.
Ratliff, Judy L.
Journal of Chemical Education, v74 n6 p710-11 Jun 1997
ISSN: 0021-9584
Language: English
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJNOV97
Discusses modifications to general education or introductory chemistry courses that allow visually impaired students to participate productively. Describes a strategy for teaching about elements and density, and the construction of a conductivity tester for visually impaired students.
Descriptors: *Chemistry; *Educational Strategies; Higher Education; *Introductory Courses; Physical Disabilities; Science Equipment; Scientific Concepts; Teaching Methods; *Visual Impairments
Identifiers: Conductance

EJ480217 SE552329
Chemical Bonding for Blind Students.
Walker, Noojin
Science Scope, v17 n6 p71-72 Mar 1994
Special Issue: Science for All.
ISSN: 0887-2376
Language: English
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUL94
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
A teacher shares three instructional aids that she used to teach blind as well as sighted students the basic principles of chemical bonding.
Descriptors: *Activity Units; *Blindness; *Chemical Bonding; Chemistry; Disabilities; Instructional Materials; Junior High Schools; Learning Activities; *Mainstreaming; Middle Schools; *Science Activities; Science Education; *Science Instruction; Scientific Concepts; Teaching Methods

Available from your local book store or library:
A Practical Guide for Teaching Science to Students with Special Needs in Inclusive Settings. Margo Mastropieri and Thomas Scruggs. PRO-ED Publishers. 8700 Shoal Creek Blvd., Austin, TX 78757. 800.897.3202. http://www.proedinc.com

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