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Paraprofessionals (updated December 2002)

What role do paraprofessionals play in the education of students with disabilities?

There is a growing trend to use paraprofessionals to support students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms. However, few states have programs to train or certify paraprofessionals and few universities teach special education teachers how to utilize them. As their responsibilities increase and become more specialized and comprehensive, the need for training becomes more important. Paraprofessionals help in the inclusive classroom in a variety of ways and have a direct effect on students’ academic performance. Paraprofessionals need a knowledge of inclusion practices, as well as knowledge of different forms of classroom instruction and instructional modifications. They provide tutoring and implement teacher-developed instruction, provide personal care for students with disabilities, observe the student and provide suggestions related to instruction for the student, and participate in team meetings. It is important that their role in the educational process be clarified and that there be good communication between them and the classroom teacher.

Following are links to ERIC digests and selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the citations.

You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:

ERIC Citations

The full text of citations beginning with an ED number (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:

  • In microfiche collections worldwide; to find your nearest ERIC Resource Collection, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm.
  • For a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com, service@edrs.com, or 1.800.443.ERIC. (no longer available)

The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:

ERIC Search Terms Used

special education OR disabilities!


paraprofessional school personnel OR teacher aides

ED438638 EC307660
Minnesota Paraprofessional Guide.
Wallace, Teri; Bernhardt, Jolana; Utermarck, Jennifer 1999 103pp.
Publication Type: NON-CLASSROOM USE (055)
Availability: Publications Office, Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota, 109 Pattee Hall, 150 Pillsbury Dr., SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 ($8). Tel: 612-624-4512; Web site: http://ici.umn.edu/products/resourceguides.html.
EDRS Price: MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.
Institution Name: Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Inst. on Community Integration.
Sponsoring agency: Minnesota State Dept. of Children, Families, and Learning, St. Paul.
This guide was developed to provide teachers, related service personnel, administrators, paraprofessionals, and other individuals charged with assisting in the development of Minnesota's paraprofessional workforce, with information and strategies to build strong, effective, supportive teams to ensure successful educational services for all students. It begins by discussing the evolving role of paraprofessionals as instructional supports and key members of the educational team. Federal and state legislation relating to paraprofessionals is reviewed and characteristics of Minnesota paraprofessionals are highlighted. The guide then includes sections that address: (1) the six guiding principles of Minnesota paraprofessionals; (2) the roles of educational team members working with paraprofessionals; (3) paraprofessional competencies, including competencies relating to: understanding special education, characteristics of learners, assessment and diagnosis, instructional content and practice, supporting the teaching and learning environments, managing student behavior, communicating and collaborative partnerships, and professionalism and ethical practices; (4) competencies for individuals who direct the work of paraprofessionals; and (5) creating an Individualized Professional Development Plan. Appendices include core competencies and specialized competencies for Minnesota paraprofessionals, a core paraprofessional skills inventory, a specialized paraprofessional skills inventory, a support assistant work plan request, a job description worksheet, and an Individualized Professional Development Plan.
Descriptors: Credentials; Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; Inclusive Schools; Minimum Competencies; Paraprofessional School Personnel; Professional Development; Supervision; Qualifications; Standards; Teacher Role; Teamwork
Identifiers: Minnesota

ED336896 EC300628
Who Will Teach Our Children?...Use of Bilingual Paraprofessionals in Special Education.
Charter, Patricia Flores
1991 13p.
EDRS Price: MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141); NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055) Geographic Source: U.S.; California
Journal Announcement: RIEFEB92
Target Audience: Administrators; Practitioners
In response to the shortage of qualified bilingual special education personnel to work with Limited English Proficient (LEP) special needs students, a program was developed in Vista Unified School District in North San Diego County, California, which involves training bilingual paraprofessionals to serve in special education settings. The paraprofessionals work with Spanish-speaking students who have primary language goals and objectives on their individualized education programs. Following a brief program description, a guide to the effective use of bilingual paraprofessionals in special education is provided, covering: advantages and disadvantages of using bilingual paraprofessionals; administrative planning options and support for use of bilingual paraprofessionals in special education; use of bilingual paraprofessionals in the classroom setting; training needs of special education certificated personnel in the use of bilingual paraprofessionals; and training needs of bilingual paraprofessionals in special education.
Descriptors: Bilingual Education; *Bilingualism; *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; *Limited English Speaking; *Paraprofessional School Personnel; Program Implementation; Spanish Speaking; *Special Education; Teacher Aides

ED436868 EC307541
A Core Curriculum & Training Program To Prepare Paraeducators To Work in Inclusive Classrooms Serving School Age Students with Disabilities. Second Edition. 1999 246pp.
Pickett, Anna Lou; Faison, Karen; Formanek, John
Publication Type: Teaching Guides (052)
EDRS Price: MF01/PC10 Plus Postage.
Institution Name: City Univ. of New York, NY. Center for Advanced Study in Education.
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (ED), Washington, DC. Div. of Personnel Preparation.
Contract No: H029K00037-92
These instructional materials are designed to provide personnel developers and trainers with resources that can be used to improve the performance of paraeducators working in inclusive classrooms servicing school age students with disabilities. The competency-based program helps participants to learn skills they can apply immediately, to accept new practices, and to increase their understanding of education issues. The modules cover: (1) strengthening the teacher and paraeducator team, paraeducator roles and responsibilities, communication and problem solving; (2) human and legal rights of children and youth with disabilities and their families; (3) principles of human development and factors that may impede typical human development; (4) the instructional process (individualized education programs, assessment, data collection, goals and objectives, instructional interventions, strategies for one to one instruction and reinforcing lessons, approaches to teaching reading, arithmetic and mathematics, language arts, and computer literacy); (5) appreciating diversity; and (6) emergency, health, and safety procedures. The format for the instructional modules includes: instructional objectives, time required, equipment and resources required, suggested training activities and exercises, background information for the trainer, and handouts and transparencies. Training procedures involve small group discussions, brainstorming, problem solving, case studies, and role plays.
Descriptors: Child Development; Communication Skills; Competency Based Education; Disabilities; Diversity (Student); Elementary Secondary Education; Family Involvement; Inclusive Schools; Individualized Education Programs; Interprofessional Relationship; Literacy; Mathematics Instruction; Paraprofessional School Personnel; Staff Role; Reading Instruction; Safety; Student Rights; Teaching Methods; Team Training; Training; Transitional Programs

ED386430 SP036179
A Training Program Designed To Develop Knowledgeable Paraprofessionals with Improved Job Performance Skills To Meet the Needs of Teachers and Special Education Students.
Davis, Julie H.
May 1995 81p.; M.S. Final Report, Nova Southeastern University.
EDRS Price: MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: DISSERTATION (040)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Florida
Journal Announcement: RIEJAN96
The paper reports on a practicum project to assess the training needs of paraprofessionals and to develop a training program to meet those needs. The first section of the paper is a literature review, which revealed few studies that have addressed the efficacy of paraprofessionals, though research that has been done indicates that paraprofessionals working with handicapped children have a direct effect on the students' academic performance. The literature also reveals that few states systematically train or certify paraprofessionals, and few universities teach preservice teachers how to utilize paraprofessionals in the classroom. The training program was designed to help improve the knowledge of disabilities, working relationships, and job performance skills of a target group of 12 special education paraprofessionals who work with K-2 students with handicaps in a rural Maine island school. Twenty-five skills were identified as those a paraprofessional should possess for job success; a needs assessment survey was administered to participants. Overall, entry skills and knowledge of the target group assessed ranged from 20 percent to 60 percent level of proficiency, well below the 80 percent or above level of proficiency preferred in the literature and among professionals surveyed for the study. The objectives for the program were for the paraprofessionals to increase their knowledge of disabilities, working relationships, and job performance skills by a program objective of 80 percent. The target group participated in a 12-week training session developed from a needs analysis assessment. Each of the weekly work sessions is described in the report. Project evaluations and assessments indicated that all program objectives were met, with the target group improving dramatically in all areas. Recommendations for staff development budget and expenditures, plus topics to be covered are outlined. Ten appendices provide: Maine Department of Education Special Education Regulations; Needs Assessment; Summary of Needs Assessment; Pretest for Paraprofessionals; Posttest for Paraprofessionals; Results of Pre-Assessment for Paraprofessionals; Summary of Results of Pre/Post Evaluations; Pre/Post Professional Evaluation of Paraprofessionals; Paraprofessional Training Evaluation; and Paraprofessional Certificate of Participation.
Descriptors: *Disabilities; *Educational Opportunities; Higher Education; *Paraprofessional School Personnel; Primary Education; Rural Schools; *Special Education; Special Education Teachers; *Staff Development; *Training Methods; Training Objectives; Workshops
Identifiers: Maine; *Training Needs

ED402720 EC305234
Inclusion: An Essential Guide for the Paraprofessional: A Practical Reference Tool for All Paraprofessionals Working in Inclusionary Settings.
Hammeken, Peggy A.
1996 143p.
ISBN: 0-9644271-6-8
Available From: Peytral Publications, P.O. Box 1162, Minnetonka, MN 55345; telephone: 612-949-8707; fax: 612-906-9777 ($19.95).
EDRS Price: MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Minnesota
Journal Announcement: RIEMAY97
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
This guide for paraprofessionals offers practical guidelines for assisting in inclusive classrooms. The guide presents an overview of the special education system and an assortment of strategies and ideas to implement in the general classroom environment. An introduction explains the philosophy of inclusion and differentiates it from mainstreaming. Chapter 1 briefly discusses inclusion practices and their benefits. Chapter 2 presents an overview of special education with sections on student placement, specific handicapping conditions, the roles of the various members of the multidisciplinary team, and the necessity for confidentiality. Chapter 3 focuses on the paraprofessional's role and responsibilities, with sections on scheduling and regular communication with parents and teachers. Chapter 4 considers the working relationship between the paraprofessional and the general education teacher and covers the classroom environment, principles of working with students, and different forms of classroom instruction. Chapter 5 briefly considers types of instructional modifications for students with disabilities. Chapter 6 discusses modification strategies in depth, such as modifying textbooks and daily assignments in written language, spelling, and mathematics. This chapter also describes ways to modify the learning environment; enhance the student's organizational skills; adapt directions; and deal with large group instruction, classroom assessment, an d behavior and attention difficulties. An appendix includes 17 reproducible forms to assist with inclusive schooling. A glossary defines common special education terms. Descriptors: Classroom Environment; *Classroom Techniques; *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; Individualized Instruction; Paraprofessional School Personnel; Regular and Special Education Relationship; Special Education; Staff Role; Teacher Aides; Teaching Methods; Teamwork
Identifiers: *Academic Accommodations (Disabilities)

EJ499254 EC610497
The Irvine Paraprofessional Program: Using Paraprofessionals in Serving Students with ADHD.
Kotkin, Ronald A.
Intervention in School and Clinic, v30 n4 p235-40 Mar 1995
ISSN: 1053-4512
Journal Announcement: CIJJUL95
This article presents a rationale for inclusion of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in regular classrooms; identifies current problems with inclusive practices; and offers a model program, the Irvine Paraprofessional Program. This program focuses on the use of paraprofessional teacher assistants, inservice training on behavior modification, use of a token economy, and social skills training.
Descriptors: *Attention Deficit Disorders; Behavior Modification; *Classroom Techniques; Demonstration Programs; Elementary Secondary Education; *Hyperactivity; *Inclusive Schools; Inservice Teacher Education; Interpersonal Competence; Mainstreaming; *Paraprofessional School Personnel; Postsecondary Education; Teaching Methods; *Teaching Models; Token Economy

ED398700 EC304992
Transition: The Role of the Paraprofessional. Module Seven. Facilitator's Edition and Student's Edition. Strategies for Paraprofessionals Who Support Individuals with Disabilities Series.
Krawetz, Nancy, Comp.
Hutchinson Technical Coll., MN.; Minnesota State Board of Technical Colleges, St. Paul.; Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.; Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Inst. on Community Integration. Nov 1995 363p.; For other modules, see EC 304 986-991.
Sponsoring Agency: Administration on Developmental Disabilities (DHHS), Washington, D.C.; Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (ED), Washington, DC.
Contract No: 84029F20009; 90000302
Available From: University of Minnesota, The Institute on Community Integration (UAP), 150 Pillsbury Drive, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 ($25 facilitator edition; $15 student edition).
EDRS Price: MF01/PC15 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Minnesota
Journal Announcement: RIEJAN97
Target Audience: Teachers; Students; Practitioners
The seventh in a series of federally supported modules for training paraprofessional school personnel working with students with disabilities, this module presents information on assisting individuals with disabilities in their transition from school to adult life. Both a facilitator's edition and a student's edition are provided. Chapter 1 discusses transition and the transition team. Chapter 2 provides information on interagency collaboration. The roles and responsibilities of paraprofessionals are examined in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 presents effective communication and problem-solving strategies. Student assessment and goal setting are discussed in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 focuses on student and family involvement in transition planning. Chapter 7 explores the transition to employment. Choosing a home living arrangement and supporting students as they learn home living skills are reviewed in Chapter 8. Chapter 9 explores the transition to postsecondary education. Chapters 10 and 11 discuss fostering community involvement and planning for recreation and leisure options. Five appendices provide additional information on the Individualized Education Plan, disaiblity-related legislation, transition assessment, personal futures planning, and transition resources. The facilitator's edition offers learning activities and information sheets to be used as transparencies.
Descriptors: *Agency Cooperation; Curriculum Guides; Daily Living Skills; *Disabilities; *Education Work Relationship; Employment; Independent Living; Individualized Education Programs; Leisure Education; Lesson Plans; *Paraprofessional School Personnel; Parent Participation; Postsecondary Education; Recreational Activities; School Aides; Secondary Education; Self Determination; *Staff Development; Staff Role; Student Evaluation; Student Participation; Teacher Aides; Teamwork; *Transitional Programs

EJ494803 EC610011
Teaching Instructional Aides and Peer Tutors To Decrease Problem Behaviors in the Classroom.
Martella, Ronald C.; And Others
TEACHING Exceptional Children, v27 n2 p53-56 Win 1995
ISSN: 0040-0599
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJAPR95
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
This article describes a systematic program that special education teachers can use to teach instructional aides and peer tutors to use effective teaching practices. The article specifically focuses on delivering appropriate instructional commands, providing specific praise, and using appropriate error correction procedures. Descriptors: *Behavior Problems; *Classroom Techniques; Elementary Secondary Education; Paraprofessional School Personnel; *Peer Teaching; Special Education; Staff Development; *Teacher Aides; Teaching Methods; Tutoring
Identifiers: Behavior Management

ED392786 SP036537
Training Programs for Paraeducators in the United States: A Review of the Literature.
Morgan, Jill; And Others
1995 39p.
EDRS Price: MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Utah
Journal Announcement: RIEJUL96
Thirty training programs for paraeducators in the United States were identified through a literature search and from information gathered at national conferences. A comparison of program purposes and content revealed that, while motivation for program development may be similar among program developers, there is little apparent consensus on content. From a list of almost 40 training topics identified, topics which occurred most often were "behavior management" and "monitoring, assessment, and evaluation." Research and position papers relating to this topic were also identified. Research items consisted largely of surveys of education personnel regarding suitable topics for paraeducator training. "Behavior" management and "assessment" were again among the most frequently occurring topics, reflecting the changing roles and titles of paraprofessional personnel in education. Reasons for these findings are discussed and suggestions made for future research on this topic. It was also noted that less than 50 percent of states were represented by training programs, research, and/or position papers.
Descriptors: *Educational Research; Elementary Secondary Education; *Evaluation Criteria; *Evaluation Methods; Higher Education; *Inservice Teacher Education; *On the Job Training; *Paraprofessional School Personnel; Special Education; Training
Identifiers: *Behavior Management

ED391279 EC304528
Role Clarification: Strategies To Strengthen the Instructional Team.
Mueller, Patricia H.
Dec 1995
45p.; Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps (San Francisco, CA, November 30-December 2, 1995).
EDRS Price: MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Vermont
Journal Announcement: RIEJUN96
This collection of materials provides guidance on the specific roles of teachers and paraprofessionals on instructional teams serving students with disabilities. Individual materials include lists, checklists, questionnaires, and forms addressing: a definition of "paraeducators"; roles of teachers; duties performed by instructional paraeducators; professional and ethical responsibilities of all paraeducators; basic strategies for clear communication between teachers and paraeducators; what paraeducators need to know about teachers; acceptable and unacceptable duties and responsibilities of the paraprofessional; an activity to help teachers and paraeducators sort out their individual roles; the teacher's work style; the paraprofessional's work style; a planning form for a paraeducator job description; a sample paraeducator job description; a sample instructional assistant job description; a sample agenda for weekly staff meetings; strategies for scheduling conference time; principles of giving and taking supervision; a sample observation checklist; strategies for scheduling observation time; on-the-job training planning guide; paraeducator training needs; tips for teachers and paraeducators who work as a team; a philosophy for the utilization, training, and supervision of paraprofessionals in education; ethical considerations for paraeducators; and factors contributing to burnout among paraeducators. Contains a short list of resources and additional authors and the address of The National Paraprofessional Organization.
Descriptors: *Disabilities; Educational Philosophy; Elementary Secondary Education; Ethics; Job Analysis; Job Skills; *Occupational Information *Paraprofessional School Personnel; *Role Perception; *Supervision; Teacher Role; *Teamwork

EJ495406 RC510423
Toward a Positive and Effective Teacher and Paraprofessional Relationship.
Palma, Gloria M.
Rural Special Education Quarterly, v13 n4 p46-48 Fall 1994
ISSN: 8756-8705
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJAPR95
Discusses importance of paraprofessionals in rural special education. Suggests that positive teacher-paraprofessional relationships are obtained through valuing each other's respective roles; giving credit where due; involving paraprofessionals in planning and decision making; showing paraprofessionals the why as well as the how of lessons; providing instructions using we and us, instead of you; providing verbal and nonverbal feedback.
Descriptors: Collegiality; Elementary Secondary Education; Faculty Mobility; *Interprofessional Relationship; Nonprofessional Personnel; *Paraprofessional School Personnel; *Rural Schools; Special Education; *Special Education Teachers; Teacher Aides; *Teacher Attitudes

ED463104 RC023406
Managing Paraeducators in Rural Inclusive Classrooms.
Dover, Wendy F.
2002 8p.
EDRS Price: MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Note: In: No Child Left Behind: The Vital Role of Rural Schools. Annual National Conference Proceedings of the American Council on Rural Special Education (ACRES) (22nd, Reno, NV, March 7-9, 2002); see RC 023 405.
Announcement: RIESEP2002
Paraeducators are being used in inclusive classrooms to support special education students. Supervision and management of paraeducators was once the responsibility of the special educator working with the paraeducator. However, teacher shortages in rural schools result in paraeducators spending most of their time in general education classrooms. Paraeducators are required by special education law to be supervised and managed, and supervision implies more direct control than management. Rural education has the lead in the use of paraeducators, and the following specific suggestions for paraeducator management are drawn from the rural experience: one certified staff or administrator should be assigned as the official manager; parameters should be set for the paraeducator's responsibilities to ensure that the paraeducator does not perform tasks or take on responsibilities that belong to certified staff; duties and specific tasks of paraeducators should be defined and assigned in writing; general education teachers should be empowered by explaining their role as immediate supervisor and by assigning them specific management tasks; paraeducators should be monitored and provided constructive feedback on their performance; collaborative meetings with paraeducators should be held regularly, although finding time for such meetings may require creativity; and the roles and task assignments of paraeducators should be considered in student planning. (Contains 15 references.) (TD)
Descriptors: Educational Cooperation; Elementary Secondary Education; Feedback; Inclusive Schools; Paraprofessional School Personnel; Personnel Management; Regular and Special Education Relationship; Rural Schools; Special Education; Supervisory Methods; Supervisor Supervisee Relationship
Identifiers: Teacher Aide Evaluation

ED398695 EC304987
Providing Cross-Cultural Support Services to Individuals with Disabilities and Their Families. Module Two. Facilitator's Edition and Student's Edition. Strategies for Paraprofessionals Who Support Individuals with Disabilities Series.
Slobof, Jenelle; And Others
Hutchinson Technical Coll., MN.; Minnesota State Board of Technical Colleges, St. Paul.; Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.; Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Inst. on Community Integration. Feb 1996
265p.; For other modules, see EC 304 986-992.
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (ED), Washington, DC.
Contract No: 84029F20009
Available From: University of Minnesota, The Institute on Community Integration (UAP), 150 Pillsbury Drive, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 ($25 facilitator edition; $15 student edition).
EDRS Price: MF01/PC11 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Minnesota
Journal Announcement: RIEJAN97
Target Audience: Teachers; Students; Practitioners
This module presents information for training paraprofessional school staff on providing cross-cultural support services to individuals with disabilities and their families. Both a facilitator's edition and a student's edition are provided. Chapter 1 offers an introduction to diversity and direct service and includes sections on terminology and cultural competence. Chapter 2 discusses self-identification and ways to learn about other cultures. Chapter 3 provides information on institutional cultural competence, including institutional and media bias. Individual cultural competence is discussed in chapter 4. Chapter 5 looks at similarities and differences between cultures. Using culturally sensitive and inclusive language is reviewed in chapter 6. Chapter 7 gives tips on being a culturally competent paraprofessional. Chapter 8 reviews previous information. The facilitator's edition offers learning activities and information sheets to be used as transparencies. A glossary of terms and a resource list of videotapes, books, journal articles, newsletters, and other publications are appended.
Descriptors: *Cultural Awareness; Cultural Context; *Cultural Differences; Cultural Influences; Curriculum Guides; *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; Inclusive Schools; Lesson Plans; *Paraprofessional School Personnel; School Aides; *Staff Development; Staff Role; Teacher Aides
Identifiers: Diversity (Student)

EJ516186 EC612732
Paraprofessionals: The Bridge to Successful Full Inclusion.
Wadsworth, Donna E.; Knight, Diane
Intervention in School and Clinic, v31 n3 p166-71 Jan 1996
ISSN: 1053-4512
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJMAY96
This article offers six training suggestions for preparing paraprofessionals to work successfully with students having disabilities in an inclusive setting. These include providing preservice training through a centralized interdisciplinary training team, modeling the use of appropriate behavior management techniques, and communicating the importance of team collaboration.
Descriptors: Classroom Techniques; *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Paraprofessional School Personnel; *Staff Development; Training Methods

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