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Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) (updated July 2002)
What is oppositional defiant disorder and how is it distinguished from
other types of antisocial behavior?
The following information is from Internet Mental Health.
The International Classification of Disease (ICD-10) Classification of Mental
and Behavioural Disorders, published by the World Health Organization, Geneva,
F91.3 Oppositional Defiant Disorder
This type of conduct disorder is characteristically seen in children below the age of 9
or 10 years. It is defined by the presence of markedly defiant, disobedient, provocative
behaviour and by the absence of more severe dissocial or aggressive acts that violate
the law or the rights of others. The disorder requires that the overall criteria for F91
be met: even severely mischievous or naughty behaviour is not in itself sufficient for
diagnosis. Many authorities consider that oppositional defiant patterns of behaviour
represent a less severe type of conduct disorder, rather than a qualitatively distinct
type. Research evidence is lacking on whether the distinction is qualitative or
quantitative. However, findings suggest that, in so far as it is distinctive, this is true
mainly or only in younger children. Caution should be employed in using this category,
especially in the case of older children. Clinically significant conduct disorders in
older children are usually accompanied by dissocial or aggressive behaviour that go
beyond defiance, disobedience, or disruptiveness, although, not infrequently, they are
preceded by oppositional defiant disorders at an earlier age. The category is included
to reflect common diagnostic practice and to facilitate the classification of disorders
occurring in young children.
The essential feature of this disorder is a pattern of persistently negativistic, hostile,
defiant, provocative, and disruptive behaviour, which is clearly outside the normal
range of behaviour for a child of the same age in the same sociocultural context, and
which does not include the more serious violations of the rights of others as
reflected in the aggressive and dissocial behaviour specified for categories F91.0 and
F91.2. Children with this disorder tend frequently and actively to defy adult requests or
rules and deliberately to annoy other people. Usually they tend to be angry,
resentful, and easily annoyed by other people whom they blame for their own
mistakes or difficulties. They generally have a low frustration tolerance and readily
lose their temper. Typically, their defiance has a provocative quality, so that they
initiate confrontations and generally exhibit excessive levels of rudeness,
uncooperativeness, and resistance to authority.
Frequently, this behaviour is most evident in interactions with adults or peers whom
the child knows well, and signs of the disorder may not be evident during a clinical
ICD-10 copyright 1992 by World Health Organization.
Internet Mental Health copyright 1995-1996 by Phillip W. Long, M.D.
Following are links to related Internet resources and Internet discussion groups,
as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the
You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:
NOTE: While the ERIC database contains
information on some mental health disorders and behavior disorders, you might obtain
results by accessing a world wide web site such as the
National Institute of Mental Health or a database
such as PsychNET from the American Psychological Association.
The full text of citations beginning with an ED number (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:
- In microfiche collections worldwide; to find your nearest ERIC Resource Collection, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm.
- For a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com, email@example.com, or 1.800.443.ERIC.
(no longer available)
The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:
- The originating journal
- Through interlibrary loan services at your local college or public library
- From article reproduction services such as
ERIC Search Terms Used
Oppositional Defiant Disorder and the Need for Family-Centered Practice in Schools.
Markward, Martha J.; Bride, Brian
Children & Schools, v23 n2 p73-83 Apr 2001
Examines the extent to which children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) need family-centered interventions. Provides an overview of ODD, highlighting
interventions found to be most effective in working with this population of children. Relative to recommended practices, notes the need for family-centered practice and the resulting implications for school social workers.
Descriptors: *Behavior Disorders; *Children; *Counseling Techniques; *Family
Counseling; Intervention; School Counseling; *School Social Workers; Social Work
Identifiers: *Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Comparison of Day Treatment and Outpatient Treatment Programs for Young
Adolescents with ODD.
Brammer, Robert; Sandorsky, Stacy
Notes: Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Psychological
Association (108th, Washington, DC, August 4-8, 2000).
This paper compares scores on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at the initial
interview and at the 90-day follow-up interview for children in day treatment
settings with those children receiving weekly psychotherapy. The participants
included 143 children between 10 and 15 years of age who were diagnosed with
Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Analysis revealed that the demographic variables accounted for only 0.8% of the adjusted variance, but it was a significant predictor of changes from initial and ending CBCL scores. Only the participants' gender predicted improvements on the CBCL, with males showing more improvement over time. Treatment setting had no affect on improved behavior for either diagnostic group. Although the findings in this report are generally nonsignificant, they are important because they differ from the preponderance of research supporting day treatment programs. Further research is needed to compare day treatment programs to established outpatient treatments.
Descriptors: Adolescents; Attention Deficit Disorders; Behavior Problems; Behavior Rating Scales; Children; Clinics; *Health Facilities; Hyperactivity; Outcomes of Treatment; Psychotherapy; Sex Differences
Identifiers: Child Behavior Checklist; *Frequency Analysis; *Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Mis-Diagnosis and Dual Diagnosis of Gifted Children: Gifted and LD, ADHD,
OCD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder.
Webb, James T.
Notes: Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Psychological
Association (108th, Washington, D.C., August 4-8, 2000).
Many gifted and talented children are often misdiagnosed by psychologists and other health professionals as having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Disorder (OD), Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), or another of the mood disorders. The misdiagnosis can stem from mistaken assumptions being made about the social and emotional characteristics of gifted children. Gifted children are at psychological risk due to other internal characteristics and situational factors. These factors can lead to interpersonal and psychological difficulty that turn into a misdiagnosis and inadequate treatment. The most universal internal factor is the intense nature of most gifted children. This intensity can generate anxiety and depression, and create challenges for those who care for them. Situational problems that gifted children find themselves in at school can lead to boredom, especially where there is a lack of appropriate differentiated education. It is essential for professionals to gain an understanding of gifted, talented children so that they no longer conclude that certain inherent characteristics of giftedness represent pathology.
Descriptors: *Academically Gifted; Attention Deficit Disorders; *Behavior Disorders; *Clinical Diagnosis; Educational Environment; Elementary Secondary Education; Hyperactivity; *Intelligence; Learning Disabilities; School Psychologists; *Student Evaluation
Identifiers: Obsessive Compulsive Behavior; Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Children and Adolescents: How Do Girls Differ from Boys?
Kann, R. Traci; Hanna, Fred J.
Journal of Counseling & Development, v78 n3 p267-74 Sum 2000
Although much research has been conducted to learn more about disruptive behavior disorders, little is known about gender differences in the disorders. Article discusses the diagnosis, risk factors, and treatment of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder while incorporating information specific to girls to investigate how disruptive behavior disorders differ for girls.
Descriptors: *Adolescents; At Risk Persons; *Behavior Disorders; *Children;
Clinical Diagnosis; Elementary Secondary Education; *Females; *Sex Differences
Identifiers: *Oppositional Defiant Disorder
The Outcome of Parent Training Using the Behavior Management Flow Chart with
a Mother and Her Twin Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Danforth, Jeffrey S.
Child & Family Behavior Therapy, v21 n4 p59-80 1999
Direct observation, telephone interviews, and standardized rating scales showed
that parent training reduced oppositional and aggressive child behavior, improved parenting behavior, and reduced maternal stress. Six-month follow-up revealed stable outcomes. Results are consistent with prior research on behavioral parent training with the Behavior Management Flow Chart.
Descriptors: Attention Deficit Disorders; *Behavior Problems; *Child Rearing;
Hyperactivity; *Intervention; Parent Child Relationship; Parent Education;
Identifiers: Oppositional Behavior
A Protective Process Model of Parent-Child Affective Quality and Child
Mastery Effects on Oppositional Behaviors: A Test and Replication.
Spoth, Richard; Redmond, Cleve; Shin, Chungyeol; Huck, Shirley
Journal of School Psychology, v37 n1 p49-71 Spr 1999
Examines a model of the effects of parent-child affective quality and young
adolescent sense of mastery on young adolescent oppositional behavior. The model includes direct and indirect effects of parent-child affective quality on those behaviors. Testing with two samples generally supported the hypothesized model.
Descriptors: Adolescents; Attendance; Family (Sociological Unit); *Mastery Learning; Models; *Parent Child Relationship; Tests
Identifiers: *Oppositional Behavior; Protective Factors; *Replication
Conduct Disorder and Comorbidity.
Stahl, Nicole D.; Clarizio, Harvey F.
Psychology in the Schools, v36 n1 p41-50 Jan 1999
Provides critical examination of research published during past ten years
addressing Conduct Disorder (CD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder,
Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and internalizing disorders. Concludes
comorbidity varies with age, gender, informant, diagnostic criteria, and nature of the sample. Implications of comorbidity for etiology, diagnosis, treatment, law, and policy, and preventive efforts in work with children and adolescents with CD are offered for school psychologists.
Descriptors: Age Differences; Attention Deficit Disorders; *Behavior Disorders;
Classification; Etiology; Evaluation; Hyperactivity; Identification; Intervention; Laws; Policy; *Research; School Psychologists; Sex Differences
Identifiers: *Comorbidity; Internalization; Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Defiant Teens: A Clinician's Manual for Assessment and Family Intervention.
Barkley, Russell A.; Edwards, Gwenyth H.; Robin, Arthur L.
Availability: Guilford Press, 72 Spring St., New York, NY 10012; Tel: 800-365-7006 (Toll Free); e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Web Site: http://www.guilford.com ($32).
This manual presents an 18-step program designed both to teach parents the skills they need to manage difficult adolescent behavior and to improve family relationships overall. Steps 1 through 9 modify the approach presented in Russell Barkley's earlier edition, "Defiant Children," to focus on developmental concerns of adolescence. Clear procedures for assessing defiance in teens and working with parents, alone or in groups, to reverse problem behavior are delineated. Steps 10 through 18 are conducted with parents and their teenagers together, utilizing a family therapy model developed by Arthur Robin and Sharon Foster. Clinicians are shown how to help all family members learn to negotiate, communicate, and problem-solve more effectively, while facilitating adolescents' individuation and autonomy. Reproducible forms enable clinicians to gauge the nature, diversity, and severity of parent-adolescent conflicts; assess for oppositional defiant disorder; and evaluate parental psychological adjustment. Handouts for families reinforce crucial ideas and skills imparted in-session.
Descriptors: *Adolescent Development; Adolescents; Attention Deficit Disorders;
Behavior Development; *Behavior Disorders; Communication Skills; *Developmental
Psychology; *Family Counseling; Family Relationship; Parenting Skills; Problem
Identifiers: *Adolescent Behavior; Oppositional Behavior
Reducing Disruptive Behavior in General Education Classrooms: The Use of
Hoff, Kathryn E.; DuPaul, George J.
School Psychology Review, v27 n2 p290-303 1998
Investigates the use of self-management in a general education classroom to
decrease the disruptive behavior of three elementary school students with ADHD or ODD. Results indicate that self-management intervention leads to decreases in disruptive behavior. The data add to existing literature that suggest self-management as an alternative to traditional contingency management approaches.
Descriptors: *Attention Deficit Disorders; Behavior Disorders; Elementary Education; Elementary School Students; Hyperactivity; Intervention; *Self Management
Identifiers: Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Your Defiant Child: 8 Steps to Better Behavior.
Barkley, Russell A.; Benton, Christine M.
Availability: Guilford Press, 72 Spring Street, New York, NY 10012; Tel: 800-365-7006 (Toll Free), 212-431-9800; Fax: 212-966-6708; e-mail: email@example.com
(hardcover: ISBN-1-57230-405-7, $29.95; paperback: ISBN-1-57230-321-2, $14.95).
Every child has "ornery" moments, but more than 1 in 20 American children exhibit behavioral problems that are out of control. This book was written to help parents struggling with an unyielding or combative child. The book's eight-step program emphasizes consistency and cooperation, promoting changes through a system of praise, rewards, and mild punishment. Part 1 of the book, "Getting to Know Your Defiant Child," contains chapters: (1) "Is Something Wrong with My Child?"; (2) "Why Is This Happening to My Family?"; (3) "What Should I Do about It?"; and (4) "Words To Live By: The Foundation of Better Behavior." Part 2, "Getting Along with Your Defiant Child," contains chapters detailing the eight steps of the program: (5) "Step 1: Pay Attention!"; (6) "Step 2: Start Earning Peace and Cooperation with Praise"; (7) "Step 3: When Praise Is Not Enough, Offer Rewards"; (8) "Step 4: Use Mild Discipline--Time-out and More"; (9) "Step 5: Use Time-out with Other Misbehavior"; (10) "Step 6: Think
Aloud and Think Ahead--What To Do in Public"; (11) "Step 7: Help the Teacher Help Your Child"; and (12) "Step 8: Moving toward a Brighter Future." The book's appendix contains a checklist to help evaluate whether your child has conduct disorder. A list of resources concludes the book.
Descriptors: *Behavior Change; *Behavior Problems; Change Strategies; *Child
Behavior; *Child Rearing; Children; Compliance (Psychology); Discipline;
Discipline Problems; Obedience; *Parent Child Relationship; Resistance
Identifiers: Oppositional Behavior; Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Parenting Stress in Mothers of Young Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Other Severe Behavior Problems.
Ross, Christine N.; Blanc, Holly M.; McNeil, Cheryl B.; Eyberg, Sheila M.;
Hembree-Kigin, Toni L.
Child Study Journal, v28 n2 p93-110 1998
Examined parenting stress associated with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in
children diagnosed with single, dual, or multiple disruptive-behavior disorders.
Mothers of dual- and multiple-diagnosis children reported more behavior problems and higher levels of child-related stress than single-diagnosis mothers. Mothers of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-only and ODD-only children did not differ in levels of child-related stress.
Descriptors: Attention Deficit Disorders; *Behavior Disorders; Behavior Problems; Clinical Diagnosis; *Mothers; Problem Children; *Stress Variables; *Young Children
Identifiers: Oppositional Behavior
DSM-IV Diagnosis of Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder:
Implications and Guidelines for School Mental Health Teams.
Atkins, Marc S.; McKay, Mary McKernan; Talbott, Elizabeth; Arvanitis, Patrice
School Psychology Review, v25 n3 p274-83 1996
Notes: Special topic: "Implications of DSM-IV for the Practice of School
Psychology." For related articles, see CG 554 122-130.
Reviews the DSM-IV criteria for conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant
disorder (ODD), comparing their counterparts in DSM-III-R. Results from DSM-IV field trials indicate interrater and test-retest reliability were only marginally improved compared to prior criteria. Although overlooked in DSM-IV, community factors, gender differences, and academic functioning are important considerations in school-based assessment and intervention.
Descriptors: *Antisocial Behavior; *Behavior Problems; Child Behavior; *Diagnostic Tests; Elementary Secondary Education; *Mental Health Workers; Personality Assessment; *Psychological Evaluation; Sex Differences
Identifiers: *Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Oppositional Behavior
Early-Onset Conduct Problems: Does Gender Make a Difference?
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, v64 n3 p540-51 Jun 1996
Baseline assessments of 64 girls and 158 boys (ages 4-7 years) diagnosed with
oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or early-onset conduct problems, or both, were examined for gender-linked differences in behavior symptoms. Results indicated significant gender differences in behavioral symptoms according to independent home observations. Discusses other findings.
Descriptors: Adjustment (to Environment); Behavior; *Behavior Problems; Behavioral Science Research; *Children; Early Intervention; Emotional Problems; Problem Children; Sex; *Sex Differences
Identifiers: Oppositional Behavior
On the Reinforcing Effects of the Content of Verbal Attention.
Fisher, Wayne W.; And Others
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, v29 n2 p235-38 Sum 1996
Functional analysis of destructive behavior of a four-year-old boy with autism and oppositional defiant disorder was able to delineate the specific form of verbal attention that was responsible for behavioral maintenance. Treatment based on the analysis reduced the behavior to near-zero levels.
Descriptors: *Attention; *Autism; *Behavior Disorders; *Behavior Modification; Case Studies; Evaluation Methods; Intervention; Maintenance; Outcomes of Treatment; *Reinforcement; Verbal Communication; Young Children
Identifiers: *Functional Analysis; *Oppositional Defiant Disorder
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