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Life Skills for Students with Mental Retardation
(updated April 2000)

How can we teach life skills to students with mental retardation?

A primary purpose of special education is to help students with disabilities lead successful and personally fulfilling lives now and in the future. Curriculum for students with mental retardation should be designed to prepare students to function as independently as possible in an integrated society. This curriculum should include a broad range of skills and be chronologically age-appropriate and useful to the learner. such a curriculum fosters the development of skills that increase autonomy, encourages constructive codependence, and nurtures problem solving in the home, school, community, and workplace. (From A Functional Curriculum for Teaching Students with Disabilities. Bender, Valletutti, and Baglin, PRO-ED Publisher.)

Following are links to related Internet resources and Internet discussion groups, as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the citations.

You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:

ERIC Citations

The full text of citations beginning with an ED number (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:

  • In microfiche collections worldwide; to find your nearest ERIC Resource Collection, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm.
  • For a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com, service@edrs.com, or 1.800.443.ERIC. (no longer available)

The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:

ERIC Search Terms Used

mental retardation OR mild mental retardation OR moderate mental retardation OR severe mental retardation OR developmental disabilities OR downs syndrome

EJ497551 EC610207
Evaluating a Multicomponent Program for Enhancing the Self-Determination of Youth with Disabilities.
Abery, Brian; And Others
Intervention in School and Clinic, v30 n3 p170-79 Jan 1995
ISSN: 1053-4512
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJJUN95
A preliminary evaluation of a recently developed multicomponent educational and support program for enhancing the self-determination of youth with disabilities found that participating students (18 young adults with mental retardation) in the classroom-based competency building sessions demonstrated improved choice-making, interpersonal problem solving, self-regulation, and personal advocacy skills.
Descriptors: Competence; *Disabilities; High Schools; High School Students; Instructional Effectiveness; Interpersonal Competence; Mental Retardation; Personal Autonomy; Problem Solving; *Program Effectiveness; Program Evaluation; *Self Determination; Self Management; *Skill Development; Young Adults Identifiers: Choice Behavior; Empowerment; Self Advocacy

ED378144 SP035662
Promoting Health and Safety. Skills for Independent Living.
Agran, Martin, Ed.; And Others
1994; 221p.
ISBN: 1-55766-135-9
Available From: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., P.O. Box 10624, Baltimore, MD 21285- 0624 ($32).
Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Maryland
Journal Announcement: RIEMAY95
Target Audience: Teachers; Parents; Community; Practitioners
This guidebook provides behavioral-instructional strategies for teaching essential personal safety skills and promoting overall well-being to persons with developmental disabilities. Case studies demonstrate these strategies in practice, and detailed curriculum goals are included to guide intervention efforts. To ensure that learners both understand and perform tasks, the volume focuses on altering both behaviors and attitudes. The book's eleven chapters are as follows: (1) "Effective Behavioral- Instructional Strategies" (Ronald C. Martella, Nancy E. Marchand-Martella, and Martin Agran); (2) "Home and Community Safety Skills" (David L. Gast, Julie Wellons, and Belva Collins); (3) "Nutrition and Diet" (Mary Ann Harvey Smith); (4) "Self- Medication Skills" (Alan E. Harchik); (5) "Meeting Special Health Care Needs of Students" (Donna H. Lehr and Sally Macurdy); (6) "First-Aid Skills" (Nancy E. Marchand-Martella); (7) "Fire Safety Skills" (Diane Bannerman Juracek); (8) "Safety Skills on the Job" (Ronald C. Martella and Martin Agran); (9) "Preventing Substance Use" (Daniel Morgan); "HIV/AIDS Prevention and Education" (Christine Y. Mason and Tecla Jaskulski); and (11) "Crime Prevention and Personal Safety" (Dick Sobsey).
Descriptors: Behavioral Objectives; Case Studies; Curriculum Development; *Daily Living Skills; *Developmental Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; Guidelines; *Health Education; Health Promotion; Higher Education; *Independent Living; *Learning Strategies; Lesson Plans; *Safety Education; Skill Development; Teaching Methods

EJ549125 EC616991
Teaching Meal Planning to Youth with Mental Retardation in Natural Settings. Arnold-Reid, Gae S.; And Others
Remedial and Special Education, v18 n3 p166-73 May-Jun 1997
ISSN: 0741-9325
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJJAN98
Three adolescent roommates with mild mental retardation were provided training in planning nutritious meals based on the food groups. A multiple probe design across individuals was used to evaluate training efficacy. Results indicated that the training procedures were effective in increasing healthy food choices. All participants maintained 100% of recommended dietary allowances while keeping calories consumed at recommended levels.
Descriptors: Adolescents; *Independent Living; Instructional Effectiveness; *Mental Retardation; *Nutrition Instruction; *Self Care Skills; *Training Methods

ED403703 EC305254
Opportunities for Daily Choice Making. Innovations: AAMR Research to Practice Series, Number 8.
Bambara, Linda M.; Koger, Freya
American Association on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.
1996; 51p.
ISBN: 0-940898-44-6
ISSN: 1072-4036
Available From: American Association on Mental Retardation, 444 North Capitol Street, NW, Suite 846, Washington, DC 20001-1512 ($21.95; $19.95 members).
Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIEJUN97
Target Audience: Practitioners
This guide presents strategies for increasing choice opportunities for people with moderate to severe developmental disabilities. Because choice opportunities are easily overlooked, these strategies are intended to provide a systematic way to ensure that simple, but important, daily choices are made available. The guide describes basic principles of choice-making, explains how to teach choice-making skills to the passive learner, describes how to build in multiple choice-making opportunities within daily routines, introduces self-scheduling as a method for helping people plan their day, and addresses common questions and concerns about choice-making.
Descriptors: Daily Living Skills; Decision Making; *Developmental Disabilities; Educational Strategies; Individual Development; Interpersonal Communication; *Mental Retardation; *Personal Autonomy; *Self Determination; *Skill Development; *Training Methods
Identifiers: *Choice Behavior

ED399745 EC305084
A Functional Curriculum for Teaching Students with Disabilities. Volume I: Self- Care, Motor Skills, Household Management, and Living Skills. Third Edition.
Bender, Michael; And Others
1996; 268p.
Second edition title was: "Teaching the Moderately and Severely Handicapped." For all 3 volumes, see EC 305 084-086.
ISBN: 0-89079-635-1
Available From: PRO-ED, 8700 Shoal Creek Blvd., Austin, TX 78757-6897 ($31; $89 for the 3-volume set).
Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: BOOK (010); NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Texas
Journal Announcement: RIEFEB97
Target Audience: Practitioners
This first of three manuals providing a curriculum for students with disabilities focuses on the development of functional daily living skills. An introductory chapter provides an overview of the functional curriculum and offers guidelines for developing instructional plans for the four units of study which follow. Unit 1 is about self-care skills, including toileting, drinking and eating, dressing, undressing, personal cleanliness, and grooming. Unit 2 offers suggested interventions for gross motor skills including the use of assistive devices to aid ambulation, walking independently, and skills that enhance recreation and leisure activities. Unit 3 addresses fine motor skills including those involved in dressing, leisure time activities, vocational/work activities, and the operation of simple appliances. Unit 4 considers household management and living skills, such as planning meals, purchasing and preparing food, purchasing and maintaining clothes, and caring for one's living quarters. Each of the units presents general goals of the unit, sample lesson plans, lists of references and suggested readings, and a list of selected materials and resources. Suggested activities are grouped into teacher interventions and family interventions and then organized into four distinct age/grade levels: infant/toddler/preschool; primary; intermediate; and secondary. Attention is also paid to the alternative settings in which services are provided.
Descriptors: Adaptive Behavior (of Disabled); Basic Skills; *Curriculum; *Daily Living Skills; *Disabilities; Early Intervention; Elementary Secondary Education; *Home Management; Hygiene; Independent Living; *Instructional Development; Lesson Plans; Motor Development; Preschool Education; Psychomotor Skills; *Self Care Skills; Severe Disabilities; Severity (of Disability); Teaching Methods; Units of Study

EJ510024 EC612019
Microwave Fun: User-Friendly Recipe Cards.
Bergstrom, Tom; And Others
TEACHING Exceptional Children, v28 n1 p61-63 Fall 1995
ISSN: 0040-0599
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJJAN96
This article explains how a 12-year-old boy with profound mental retardation and autistic behaviors, living in a group home, was taught to follow number- and color- coded directions so that he could independently cook his own meals in a microwave oven. The article covers materials used, the skills taught, adaptations for classroom use, and safety aspects.
Descriptors: Autism; Case Studies; *Cooking Instruction; *Daily Living Skills; Instructional Materials; Secondary Education; *Self Care Skills; *Severe Disabilities; Severe Mental Retardation; Training Methods
Identifiers: *Microwave Ovens

ED399751 EC305090
Travel Training for Youth with Disabilities.
Bourland, Eric, Ed.
Academy for Educational Development, Inc., Washington, DC; National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.
NICHCY Transition Summary, v9 Jun 1996
Jun 1996; 26p.
Sponsoring Agency: Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC.
Contract No: H030A30003
Available From: National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, P.O. Box 1492, Washington, DC 20013-1492; telephone: 202-884-8200; toll- free telephone: 800-695-0285; e-mail nichcy@aed.org; website: http://www.aed.org/nichcy
EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: SERIAL (022); NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIEFEB97
Target Audience: Practitioners; Parents
This issue consists of a collection of articles that focus on the types of skills and programs that youth with disabilities need to travel independently. Articles include: (1) "An Introduction to Travel Training" (Margaret M. Groce) discusses the support for travel training provided by the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and identifies skills that are required for traveling independently; (2) "What Equal Access to Transportation Means" (April M. Myers) describes the travel experiences of a woman with cerebral palsy and describes where to look for travel training programs; (3) "Travel Training for Persons with Cognitive or Physical Disabilities: An Overview" (Patricia J. Voorhees) outlines phases in a comprehensive travel training program and highlights what to look for when selecting a travel training program; (4) "A Model of a Travel Training Program--The New York City Board of Education Travel Training Program" (Margaret M. Groce) reviews components and successes of this model program; (5) "Travel Training for People with Physical Disabilities" (Sanda Krantz Samberg) discusses the value of laying the foundations for traveling when children are young and the role of travel training programs; (6) "Teaching Travel Skills to Persons Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired" (Elga Joffee) identifies the key travel issues for these disabilities and discusses methods of teaching orientation and mobility; and (7) "Public Transportation and the Americans with Disabilities Act" (Rosalyn M. Simon), explains requirements for providers of public and private transportation and describes requirements for making communication services accessible. .
Descriptors: *Accessibility (for Disabled); Adult Basic Education; Child Rearing; Civil Rights Legislation; Daily Living Skills; *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; Federal Legislation; Mental Retardation; Models; Physical Disabilities; *Physical Mobility; Program Descriptions; Program Evaluation; *Skill Development; *Transportation; *Travel Training; Visual Impairments; Visually Impaired Mobility Identifiers: Americans with Disabilities Act 1990; Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

EJ474383 EC607467
Is a Functional Curriculum Approach Compatible with an Inclusive Education Model?
Clark, Gary M.
Teaching Exceptional Children, v26 n2 p36-39 Win 1994
ISSN: 0040-0599
Language: English
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); POSITION PAPER (120)
Journal Announcement: CIJAPR94
This discussion looks at the functional curriculum approach to educating students with disabilities. It addresses identifying functional knowledge and skills, starting a functional curriculum, needs of students with disabilities for such a curriculum, and the relationship of the functional curriculum to the traditional curriculum and to inclusive education.
Descriptors: *Curriculum Development; *Daily Living Skills; *Disabilities; Educational Philosophy; *Educational Principles; Elementary Secondary Education; *Mainstreaming; Social Integration; Student Needs
Identifiers: *Function Based Curriculum

ED399701 EC305032
Teaching Persons with Mental Retardation: A Model for Curriculum Development and Teaching.
Dever, Richard B.; Knapczyk, Dennis R.
ISBN: 0-697-20559-2
Available From: Brown and Benchmark Publishers, 25 Kessel Court, Madison, WI 53791- 9030.
Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: BOOK (010); TEACHING GUIDE (052)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Wisconsin
Journal Announcement: RIEFEB97
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
This text addresses curriculum development for students with mental retardation based on the premise that it is the primary job of educators to teach these individuals independence skills and also based on criticism of the academic focus of most current instructional approaches. Individual chapters consider the following topics: (1) an overview of mental retardation; (2) the aim of instruction (including an instructional definition of mental retardation and the aim of independence for persons with mental retardation); (3) the concepts of curriculum and curriculum goals (including 10 principles and goals addressing curriculum structure, content, and functions); (4) formulation of the instructional aim and curriculum goals (offering a four-step procedure for selecting and formulating goals); (5) curriculum development (with a five-step procedure suggested); (6) planning an assessment of curriculum objectives (with principles of assessment and a five-step procedure for planning an assessment); (7) conducting an assessment and developing an individualized program of instruction; (8) the program objective analysis (establishing performance standards and analyzing skill clusters); (9) providing information (techniques, feedback, fading, and motivation); (10) monitoring instructional plans (a three-step plan for developing a monitoring system); and (11) modifying instruction (appropriate responses when learners are achieving desired instructional results and when learners are not progressing satisfactorily). Appendices include a list of terminal goals, worksheets, and a checklist of potential physical problems.
Descriptors: *Curriculum Development; Educational Principles; *Educational Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; *Independent Living; *Individualized Education Programs; Instructional Design; *Mental Retardation; Self Determination; *Student Educational Objectives; Teaching Methods

EJ548291 SP526142
Leisure's Role in Enhancing Social Competencies of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities. Research Update
Lord, Michal Anne
Parks and Recreation, v32 n4 p35-36,38-40 Apr 1997
ISSN: 0031-2215
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC97
This paper examines current literature about social competencies and individuals with developmental disabilities, explaining the role of leisure in enhancing social competencies through the lifespan. After defining perceived social competence, the paper looks at how recreation and leisure can increase communication and social skills for this population.
Descriptors: Adults; Communication Skills; *Developmental Disabilities; *Interpersonal Competence; *Leisure Time; Life Satisfaction; Recreation; *Recreational Activities; *Social Development; Special Olympics

ED405725 EC305449
Life Centered Career Education: Modified Curriculum for Individuals with Moderate Disabilities.
Loyd, Robert J.; Brolin, Donn E.
Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, Va. 1997; 114p.
ISBN: 0-86586-293-1
Available From: Council for Exceptional Children, 1920 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191 ($30 nonmember; $21 member).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Virginia
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG97
Target Audience: Practitioners
This scope and sequenced functional curriculum is designed for use in schools and adult training environments with individuals who have moderate disabilities. The first chapter explains the curriculum's origins in the original Life Centered Career Education Curriculum and the research project which determined the need for and modifications necessary to make the curriculum more appropriate for individuals with moderate disabilities. An extensive chart correlating competencies and subcompetencies of this curriculum with the original curriculum is also included. The second chapter, comprising the major portion of the guide, presents instructional implementation strategies for the three domains of the curriculum: daily living skills, personal-social skills, and occupational skills. Charts break these domains into 20 competencies as well as subcompetencies and objectives. Classroom training activities and home/community-based training activities are suggested for each objective. Chapter 3 briefly addresses assessment and instructional planning strategies and integration of the curriculum into the Individualized Education Program. Appended are the Competency Rating Scale-Modified for Life Centered Career Education Modified Curriculum for Individuals with Moderate Disabilities, master forms for use with the curriculum, a modified Individualized Education Program form, and related resources.
Descriptors: Adult Education; Behavior Rating Scales; *Career Education; Classroom Techniques; Competency Based Education; *Curriculum; *Daily Living Skills; Elementary Secondary Education; Individualized Education Programs; Instructional Design; *Interpersonal Competence; Job Skills; *Moderate Mental Retardation; *Prevocational Education; Student Educational Objectives; Student Evaluation; Teaching Methods; Vocational Rehabilitation

ED376335 CE067628
Curriculum for Learners with Developmental Disabilities.
McClintock, Shelby
Mid-State Literacy Council, State College, PA. 1994; 135p.
Sponsoring Agency: Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Adult Basic and Literacy Education.
Contract No: 98-4015
EDRS Price - MF01/PC06 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Pennsylvania
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR95
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
This document contains the final report, trainer handbook for volunteer tutor trainers, and idea book for volunteer tutors from a project conducted to develop a supplemental tutor training program and life skills curriculum specifically for developmentally disabled (DD) adult learners. The final report describes how a group of DD adult learners were assessed with the BADER Individual Reading Inventory, and writing samples were collected from them. The assessment results and data from field observations of classes for DD adults, a survey of available adult education materials for DD learners, and interviews with tutors were used to develop a curriculum and tutor training program. Tutors and project staff brainstormed learning strategies for DD adult students, and the brainstorming session results were compiled into an idea book. Four training sessions were conducted, and 50 tutor- learner pairs were matched. The trainer handbook includes the following: training process overview, training agenda, sensitivity exercises, text and workbook suggestions, support services to assist volunteers, and miscellaneous forms. Described in the idea book are 49 activities grouped into the following categories: prereading; reading; writing; speaking and listening; math, measurement, and money; self-esteem; and life skills.
Descriptors: Adult Basic Education; Adult Literacy; *Daily Living Skills; *Developmental Disabilities; *Functional Literacy; Learning Activities; Listening Skills; *Literacy Education; Material Development; Mathematics Skills; *Program Development; Reading Skills; Self Esteem; Speech Skills; *Volunteer Training; Writing Skills
Identifiers: 353 Project; Pennsylvania

EJ542776 EC616291
Grocery Shopping Skills for Persons with Moderate to Profound Intellectual Disabilities: A Review of the Literature.
Morse, Timothy E.; And Others
Education and Treatment of Children, v19 n4 p487-517 Nov 1996
ISSN: 0748-8491
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJSEP97
The published literature addressing grocery shopping instruction for individuals with moderate, severe, or profound intellectual disabilities was reviewed. Discussion focuses on variables associated with effective instructional programming, including maintenance, generalization, reliability, and social validity.
Descriptors: Consumer Education; Daily Living Skills; *Food; Generalization; *Instructional Effectiveness; Maintenance; *Moderate Mental Retardation; *Purchasing; Reliability; *Severe Mental Retardation; *Teaching Methods; Validity

EJ510029 EC612024
Using a Process Social Skills Training Approach with Adolescents with Mild Intellectual Disabilities in a High School Setting.
O'Reilly, Mark F.; Glynn, Dawn
Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, v30 n3 p187-98 Sep 1995
ISSN: 0013-1237
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJJAN96
A process social skills training approach was implemented and evaluated with two high school students having mild intellectual disabilities and social skills deficits. The intervention package was successful in promoting generalization of targeted social skills from the training setting to the classroom for both students. Participants had maintained the skills at 6-week follow-up.
Descriptors: Adolescents; *Generalization; High Schools; Instructional Effectiveness; *Interpersonal Competence; Intervention; Maintenance; *Mild Mental Retardation; *Process Education; Training Methods

EJ494796 EC610004
Live-In Training Experience (LITE). A Transition Program for Youth with Disabilities.
Sands, Deanna J.; And Others
TEACHING Exceptional Children, v27 n2 p19-23 Win 1995
ISSN: 0040-0599
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJAPR95
A program was implemented to provide a community-based living and work experience for students with mild/moderate mental retardation making the transition from high school to adult life. The program focuses on independent living skills, vocational education, and functional academic instruction. It incorporates shared resources, community-based instruction, job placement, family involvement, and choice making.
Descriptors: Community Programs; *Daily Living Skills; *Education Work Relationship; Family Involvement; High Schools; Independent Living; *Mental Retardation; *Transitional Programs; Vocational Education; *Work Experience Programs Identifiers: Community Based Education

ED374639 EC303365
Teaching Choices: A Curriculum for Persons with Developmental Disabilities.
Little Friends, Inc., Naperville, IL. Nov 1992; 183p.
Sponsoring Agency: Illinois Planning Council on Developmental Disabilities, Springfield.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC08 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEFEB95
Target Audience: Practitioners; Administrators
This curriculum is intended to provide social service agencies, schools, vocational programs, and other groups concerned with persons having developmental disabilities with guidelines and practical techniques for developing training and support services that encourage choice-making. Emphasis is on allowing people with disabilities to take as much responsibility for their own decision-making as possible, without forcing them into situations where they are unprepared to cope. The first section looks at the agency's role in such areas as staffing patterns, behavior management, and development of a policy on choice-making. A section on beginning to teach choice-making skills considers learned helplessness, a variety of assessment approaches, a case study, and seven sample lesson plans. The following section provides a step-by-step procedure for identifying the individual's communication mode, identifying available options, evaluating options, developing a "plan of action," and evaluating the experience. A choice-making model worksheet is included. Next, ways to implement the curriculum in residential, vocational, and school settings are detailed. The final sections examine choice-making in sexuality and relationships, self-advocacy, and families. Some sections contain references.
Descriptors: Adults; Agencies; Children; Curriculum Development; Daily Living Skills; *Decision Making; *Developmental Disabilities; *Educational Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; Lesson Plans; Models; *Personal Autonomy; Residential Programs; Self Care Skills; *Self Management; Social Services; Teaching Methods; Vocational Rehabilitation
Identifiers: *Choice Behavior

Available from your local library or bookstore, or directly from the publisher:

Members of the Community. Lee Hamill and Ann Dunlevey. IEP Resources, PO Box 930160, Verona, WI 53593-0160. www.attainmentcompany.com

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