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GT-Programs (updated November 2003)

My school system is planning to establish a gifted program. What resources are available?

Developing program models for gifted students rests with the states or school districts within a state. There is no "one right way" to develop programs for these students, who are so varied in their interests, talents, abilities, and learning styles. Thus, programs should be flexible and dynamic, multi-leveled, and designed to meet the individual needs of each child who receives services. The goal is to expand students' abilities, not just to establish a program (Shaklee, 2003).

The definition of a "gifted program" has expanded during the past decade to encompass a variety of philosophies, structures, and models. Many programs are inclusive and place all gifted students with a regular education teacher. Within this model, students may be "pulled out" for enriching activities, acceleration in one or more subjects, or perhaps to work with a designated mentor. Programs have expanded beyond the classroom wall to include virtual schools, distance learning, or the use of computer software purchased by a school. Most programs are offered to students from grade 3 to grade 8. PreK or Kindergarten programs are almost nonexistent. High school programs encompass honors and advanced placement (AP) classes, international baccalaureate (IB) programs, regional science technology or arts high schools, and concurrent enrollment in a college or university. Many of these public school programs require competitive entrance. Administration for these programs may rest with the state Department of Education or local school district.

According to the 2001-2002 State of the States report, published by the Council of State Directors of Programs for the Gifted, 20 states administer gifted programs under Special Education or Exceptional Students divisions. The remainder of states that offer programs administer them under Curriculum and Instruction, General Education, or Gifted and Talented. In 29 states, gifted education is mandated through one of the following: A state law specific to gifted education (n=14), a law specific to disabilities and gifted education (n=7) or administrative rule (n=6), or state-level policy (n=3). However, only 21 states provide funding for gifted programs. In addition, many states use "permissive" wording rather than requiring school divisions to provide services.

Procedures within mandates vary by state. For example, 14 states require Individualized Education Programs (IEP) or some form of group educational plan. Yet, only a few states reported providing educational services for gifted students with disabilities. In most cases, that meant that the student met the state's disability eligibility criteria.

Some states mandate identification and require school divisions to use the state definition of "gifted" or the state rules (n=29), leaving details such as choice of test instruments up to the school districts. Thirteen states do not mandate identification. The numbers do not add up to 100 percent because the remainder of the states did not respond to the questionnaire.

The entire 193-page report by the Council of State Directors of Programs (CSDPG) for the Gifted can be obtained by sending a check or money order for $35, payable to the CSDPG, to:

    Dr. Kristy Ehlers, State Director
    Gifted and Talented Education
    Oklahoma Department of Education
    2500 N. Lincoln Blvd., Suite 316
    Oklahoma City, OK 73105

Following are links to related Internet resources and Internet discussion groups, as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the citations.

You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:

ERIC Citations

The full text of citations beginning with an ED number (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:

The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:

ERIC Search Terms Used



program development OR curriculum design OR curriculum development OR educational change

ED473008 EC309394
Discovering Programs for Talent Development.
Parke, Beverly N.
Publication Date: 2003
This book presents 65 programs that are readily available in most school districts and communities and assesses each program's potential for serving the needs of talented students, based on levels of content acceleration, in-depth topic immersion, and interest exploration. The book begins by discussing hidden programs that are already in schools that are effectively serving gifted and talented students. Chapter 2 explores different definitions of talent, the multiple intelligences model, defining characteristics of talented students, and developing profiles of ability to match students to programs that best correspond with their learning needs. It includes a description a talent development program at one middle school. Chapter 3 identifies ten telltale signs of a hidden program and chapter 4 discusses how to assemble comprehensive, individualized programs for talent development using the Program Mosaic Model. Chapter 5 contains the descriptions of the 65 programs, along with targeted grade level and further information resources. The text closes with a list of the preK-12 gifted program standards of the National Association for the Gifted, standards for programs including the gifted and talented program for the Association for the Gifted, and sample forms.
Major Descriptors: Enrichment Activities; Gifted; Program Development; Special Programs; Talent; Talent Development;
Minor Descriptors: Academic Standards; Elementary Secondary Education; Inclusive Schools; Multiple Intelligences; Preschool Education; Program Design; Student Characteristics; Student Evaluation;
Publication Type: 010; 055
Page: 187
Availability: Corwin Press, Inc., Sage Publications Company, 2455 Teller Rd., Thousand Oaks, CA 91320 ($32.95). Tel: 800-818-7243(Toll Free); Fax: 800-417-2466 (Toll Free); e-mail: info@sagepub.com; Web site: http://www.corwinpress.com.
EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Level: 2
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; California
ERIC Issue: RIESEP2003

EJ657351 EC631316
What Is Schoolwide Enrichment?: How Gifted Programs Relate to Total School Improvement.
Renzulli, Joseph S.; Reis, Sally M.
Publication Date: 2002
Gifted Child Today; v25 n4 p18-25,64 Fall 2002
This article describes the Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) and examines the relationship between gifted programs and total school improvement using the SEM. Goals of SEM include a school SEM specialist, a strong research base, a broadened conception of human potential, and educational experiences grounded in a high-end theory of learning.
Major Descriptors: Acceleration (Education); Educational Environment; Enrichment Activities; Gifted; Talent Development; Teaching Models;
Minor Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education; Program Design; Program Development;
Identifiers: *Schoolwide Enrichment Model
Publication Type: 055; 080
Language: English
ERIC Issue: CIJAPR2003

EJ624854 EC627227
Standards and Standards Plus: A Good Idea or a New Cage?
Renzulli, Joseph S.
Publication Date: 2001
Journal of Secondary Gifted Education; v12 n3 p139-40 Spr 2001
Discussion of the standards issue in gifted education stresses the value of program models characterized by academic freedom and development of creative expression and urges that lists of standards and high-stakes testing do not replace a rich curriculum.
Major Descriptors: Curriculum Development; Gifted; High Stakes Tests; Standards;
Minor Descriptors: Academic Freedom; Elementary Secondary Education; Minimum Competency Testing; Program Development; Teaching Models;
Publication Type: 080; 120
Language: English
Note: Special Millennium Issue: Gifted Education in the 21st Century.
ERIC Issue: CIJOCT2001

ED459570 EC308758
Re-Forming Gifted Education: Matching the Program to the Child.
Rogers, Karen B.
Publication Date: 2001
This guidebook is designed to assist schools in providing appropriate education experiences for all gifted and talented children, regardless of the child's talent area, age, ethnic origin, or economic level. Chapters address: (1) the development of an educational plan, what is reasonable to ask schools to do, and what kind of teacher is best for a gifted child; (2) characteristics of different gifted children, the five domains of giftedness and talent, and determining whether a child's strength is a gift or a talent; (3) evaluation of five key areas to aid in developing an effective educational plan; (4) determining the type of education a gifted child should receive, curriculum modifications, and guidelines for assessing modifications; (5) subject-based acceleration; (6) grade-based acceleration; (7) grouping within the school, whole-class strategies, small group strategies, and a possible set of steps for a teacher; (8) additional program provision in schools, such as in-school enrichment options for gifted children, projects and self-direction, tutoring, and content and curriculum modification provisions; (9) out-of-school provisions for gifted children; and (10) developing a child's plan and guidelines for school and parent cooperation.
Major Descriptors: Ability Identification; Acceleration (Education); Curriculum Design; Educational Planning; Gifted; Grouping (Instructional Purposes);
Minor Descriptors: Academically Gifted; Elementary Secondary Education; Heterogeneous Grouping; Homogeneous Grouping; Needs Assessment; Parent School Relationship; Student Evaluation; Talent; Talent Development;
Publication Type: 010; 055
Page: 504
Availability: Great Potential Press, Inc., P.O. Box 5057, Scottsdale, AZ 85261 ($28). Tel: 602-954-4200; Fax: 602-954-0185; Web site: http://www.giftedbooks.com.
EDRS Price: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Level: 3
Audience: Parents; Practitioners
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Arizona
Note: Great Potential Press, Inc. formerly Gifted Psychology Press, Inc.
ERIC Issue: RIEMAY2002

EJ639193 EC629037
Differentiated Instruction in the Regular Classroom: What Does It Mean? How Does It Look?
Tomlinson, Carol Ann
Publication Date: 2001
Understanding Our Gifted; v14 n1 p3-6 Fall 2001
This article discusses how regular classroom teachers can use high level curriculum as a catalyst for identifying and nurturing gifted students. It describes the characteristics of a differentiated classroom, how differentiation might look for advanced learners, why differentiated instruction is needed for advanced learners, and how parents can support differentiation.
Major Descriptors: Classroom Environment; Curriculum Design; Gifted; Inclusive Schools; Parent Teacher Cooperation; Teaching Methods;
Minor Descriptors: Child Advocacy; Elementary Secondary Education; Talent Development;
Identifiers: *Curriculum Differentiation
Publication Type: 055; 080
Language: English
ERIC Issue: CIJJUN2002

EJ661018 EC631745
Planning Effective Curriculum Experiences for Gifted Learners.
Van Tassel-Baska, Joyce
Publication Date: 2002
Understanding Our Gifted; v15 n1 p6-8 Fall 2002
The Instructional Design Model is presented for planning effective curriculum for gifted learners. The model first focuses on what basic curriculum dimensions are necessary for serving gifted students and then clarifies the fundamental purposes of a gifted program. Next steps include identifying and assessing learning outcomes.
Major Descriptors: Curriculum Design; Curriculum Development; Gifted; Teaching Methods; Teaching Models;
Minor Descriptors: Educational Planning; Educational Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; Outcomes of Education; Program Evaluation;
Publication Type: 080; 141
Audience: Practitioners
Language: English
ERIC Issue: CIJJUN2003

EJ652131 EC630671
Meeting the Needs of Gifted Learners through Innovative High School Programs.
Buchanan, Nina; Woerner, Bill
Publication Date: 2002
Roeper Review; v24 n4 p213-19 Sum 2002
In this article, five high schools are examined that successfully meet the needs of gifted and talented students through innovative curricular programs, which feature small learning communities and supportive structures such as small advisory groups, real world connections, authentic assessment, and teachers who facilitate learning.
Major Descriptors: Curriculum Design; Educational Innovation; Gifted; Institutional Characteristics; Performance Based Assessment; Teacher Student Relationship;
Minor Descriptors: High Schools; Secondary Education; Service Learning; Small Schools; Success; Talent;
Publication Type: 080; 141; 142
Language: English
Note: Theme Issue: Innovative Programs and Home Schooling To Meet the Needs of Gifted Learners.
ERIC Issue: CIJJAN2003

EJ549029 EC616307
The International Baccalaureate: A Program for Gifted Secondary Students.
Poelzer, G. Harold; Feldhusen, John F.
Roeper Review ;v19 n3 p168-71 Mar 1997.
Document Type: Journal Articles (080); Reports Descriptive (141)
This article suggests the International Baccalaureate Program (IB) as an alternative secondary program for gifted youth. After tracing the history of the IB program, comparing the IB program to other programs, and outlining the curriculum and requirements, the article shows how the IB meets the needs of gifted students. Descriptors: *Academically Gifted; *Curriculum Design; *Academic Standards; *International Programs; *Advanced Courses; *Instructional Effectiveness; Secondary Education; Program Development; Special Programs Identifiers: *International Baccalaureate
Language: English

EJ518075 EC613161
Talent Recognition and Development: Successor to Gifted Education.
Treffinger, Donald J; Feldhusen, John F.
Journal for the Education of the Gifted;v19 n2 p181-93 Win 1996.
Document Type: Journal Articles (080); Opinion Papers (120)
A new paradigm of education, talent development, may be the successor to gifted education. The talent development perspective involves extension and redefinition of the nature of giftedness or talents, identification, and programming. Emphasis is on identifying and nurturing talents in all students, rather than selecting and serving the "gifted few."
Descriptors: *Gifted; *Talent; *Talent Development; *Educational Philosophy; *Educational Trends; *Models; Trend Analysis; Talent Identification; Definitions; Program Development
Language: English

EJ560991 EC618297
The Changing Role of the Gifted Education Specialist.
Hertzog, Nancy B.
TEACHING Exceptional Children; v30 n3 p39-43 Jan-Feb 1998
Document Type: Journal Article (080); Reports Descriptive (141)
Target Audience: Practitioners
One school district's experience in moving to a more elaborate, expansive, and integrative gifted education program illustrates the new roles and responsibilities of gifted education specialists. These include providing instructional support for classroom teachers, direct educational services, coordination of out-of-school resources and programs, and advice on curriculum and instruction.
Descriptors: *Gifted ; *Talent ; *Inclusive Schools; *Specialists ; *Staff Role; Elementary Secondary Education; Teacher Collaboration; Curriculum Development
Identifiers: *Gifted Education Specialists
Audience: Practitioners
Language: English

EJ505155 EC611476
Gifted Education at a Crossroads: The Program Status Study.
Purcell, Jeanne H.
Gifted Child Quarterly, v39 n2 p57-65 Spr 1995
ISSN: 0016-9862
Language: English
Document Type: Journal Article (080); Research Report (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT95
This study examined the status of local gifted education programs in 19 states and reasons attributed by 1,579 educators for the status of the programs. Programs in states with gifted education mandates and good economic health were intact and expanded, while programs in states without mandates or in poor economic health were threatened.
Descriptors: Administrator Attitudes; *Economic Factors; Educational Legislation; Elementary Secondary Education; Financial Problems; Financial Support; *Gifted; Government School Relationship; *Program Development; Program Termination; *Special Programs; *State Legislation; Teacher Attitudes

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