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GT-Minority Identification (December 2003)

What are some methods we can use to identify giftedness in children from minority cultures?

For many years, educational professionals have been concerned about the disproportionate underrepresentation of children from some cultural, linguistic, and low income backgrounds in traditional gifted programs. These children, many of whom show potential for superior performance in areas that are not easily assessed by traditional ability measures, have not been provided with opportunities that elicit their gifts and talents and encourage them to maximize that potential.

The National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) of 1988 looked at 8th graders throughout the nation and found that 65 percent of the public schools (serving 75 percent of all public school 8th graders), had some kind of opportunity for gifted and talented students. The NELS study found that about 8.8 percent of all 8th-grade public school students participated in gifted and talented programs, and that some minority groups were more likely to be served than others. Economically disadvantaged students were significantly underserved, according to NELS data.

In January 2003, the National Academy of Sciences (http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10128.html) released a report on the seeming overrepresentation of minorities in special education and underrepresentation of those students in gifted education. The NRC reported that, nationwide, 7.47 percent of all white students and 9.9 percent of Asian students are placed in gifted programs. Meanwhile, 3.04 percent of African-American students, 3.57 percent of Hispanic students, and 4.86 percent of American Indian students are classified as gifted..

The number of students served in gifted and talented programs has grown substantially in the past decades, in part due to a focused effort by the states and funding by the Jacob K. Javits Gifted and Talented Students Education Program (http://www.ed.gov/prog_info/Javits/index.html). However, it is also clear that students from economically disadvantaged families and students with unorthodox talents are not being identified in equitable proportions.

Following are links to related ERIC Digests, Internet resources, and Internet discussion groups, as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the citations.

You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:

ERIC Citations

The full text of citations beginning with an ED number (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:

The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:

ERIC Search Terms Used



ability identification


minority OR cultural diversity OR blacks OR minority groups OR ethnic groups OR economically disadvantaged OR Minority Group Children

ED469543 EC308903
Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education.
Donovan, M. Suzanne, Ed.; Cross, Christopher T., Ed.
Publication Date: 2002
Publication Type: Books (010); Information Analysis (070); Evaluative Report (142)
Page: 496
Availability: National Academies Press, 2101 Constitution Ave., NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055 ($49.95). Tel: 800-624-6242 (Toll Free); Fax: 202-334-2793; Web site: http://www.nap.edu.
EDRS Price MF02 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Institution Name: FGK56081 _ National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.
Sponsoring Agency: EDD00001 _ Department of Education, Washington, DC. Contract No: H324A980001
Level: 2
Audience: Policymakers; Practitioners
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Note: Produced by the Committee on Minority Representation in Special Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.
ERIC Issue: RIEJUN2003
This book discusses findings and recommendations of the Committee on Minority Representation in Special Education of the National Research Council. In chapter 1, the current study of the disproportion of minorities in special and gifted education is put into historical context. In chapter 2, an analysis of federal data on the representation of minority students in special and gifted programs during the past 3 decades is provided. Chapter 3 focuses on factors that contribute to variation in cognitive and behavioral function as they differ by race or ethnicity, and chapter 4 discusses early intervention programs to improve cognitive and behavioral outcomes of children at risk. Chapter 5 looks at general education and its role in the disproportionate placement of minority students in special and gifted education. Referral is examined in chapter 6, and the assessment process for disabilities and for gifted and talented programs is addressed in chapter 7. Chapter 8 examines major challenges to the existing system and offers recommendations for substantial reform. It concludes that more effective student referral and placement require more closely integrated assessment, intervention, and monitoring in general education. The last two chapters review literature on what works for special education and gifted students and summarizes recommendations.
Major Descriptors: Disabilities; Disproportionate Representation; Gifted; Minority Group Children; Student Evaluation; Student Placement
Minor Descriptors: Child Behavior; Cognitive Development; Cultural Influences; Early Intervention; Educational Assessment; Educational Change; Educational Discrimination; Elementary Secondary Education; Preschool Education; Racial Differences; Referral; Special Education

EJ655534 EC631065
DISCOVER in High School: Identifying Gifted Hispanic and Native American Students.
Sarouphim, Ketty M.
Journal of Secondary Gifted Education; v14 n1 p30-38 Fall 2002
Publication Type: Journal articles (080); Research/Technical Report (143)
Language: English
ERIC Issue: CIJMAR2003
A study of 303 predominately Hispanic and Native American ninth graders investigated the validity of the DISCOVER assessment. Results provided evidence for an alignment of the assessment with the theory of multiple intelligences. No overall gender or ethnic differences were found in the numbers of students identified as gifted.
Major Descriptors: Ability Identification; Gifted; Minority Group Children; Multiple Intelligences; Performance Based Assessment; Test Validity
Minor Descriptors: American Indians; Evaluation Methods; Grade 9; High Schools; Hispanic Americans; Secondary Education; Student Evaluation
Identifiers: *DISCOVER Assessment Process

EJ645159 : EC629984
Using Performance Tasks in the Identification of Economically Disadvantaged and Minority Gifted Learners: Findings from Project STAR.
VanTassel-Baska, Joyce; Johnson, Dana; Avery, Linda D.
Publication Date: 2002
Gifted Child Quarterly; v46 n2 p110-23 Spr 2002
Publication Type: Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141); Evaluative Report(142)
Language: English
ERIC Issue: CIJSEP2002
This article discusses the use of performance task assessments by Project STAR for identifying students for academically gifted programs in grades 3-6. A field test of the performance assessment tasks resulted in finding an additional group of students who were 12 percent African American and 14 percent low-income children.
Major Descriptors: Ability Identification; Academically Gifted; Blacks; Economically Disadvantaged; Educational Testing; Performance Based Assessment
Minor Descriptors: Elementary Education; Evaluation Methods; Field Tests; Minority Group Children; Student Evaluation
Identifiers: *African Americans

EJ647170 EC630097
Culturally Diverse Students Who Are Gifted.
Baldwin, Alexinia Y.
Exceptionality; v10 n2 p139-47 2002
Publication Type: Non-Classroom Use (055); Information Analysis (070); Journal articles (080);
Language: English
NOTE: Special Issue: Gifted and Talented Behavior and Education.
ERIC Issue: CIJOCT2002
This article explores the identification of culturally diverse gifted students and provides the following suggestions: train teachers to look for gifted behaviors in different areas, use portfolios in assessments, change perceptions of innate abilities of students, recognize potential that can be developed, and recognize giftedness other than "school house giftedness".
Major Descriptors: Ability Identification; Cultural Awareness; Cultural Differences; Gifted; Minority Group Children; Student Evaluation
Minor Descriptors: Diversity (Student); Elementary Secondary Education; Evaluation Methods; Portfolio Assessment; Teacher Expectations of Students

EJ629118 CG557239
An Alternative Approach to the Identification of Gifted Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners: The Contribution of Dynamic Assessment.
Lidz, Carol S.; Macrine, Sheila L.
Source: School Psychology International, v22 n1 p74-96 Feb 2001
ISSN: 0143-0343
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJJAN2002
Explores the utility of an alternative approach to identification of gifted culturally and linguistically diverse learners in first to fifth grade in a school with a majority of culturally diverse students. From a population of 473 students, 25 qualified for inclusion in the academically gifted program. Study demonstrates the contribution of dynamic assessment in the identification of gifted minority children.
Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Cultural Differences; *Diversity (Student); Elementary School Students; *Gifted; *Identification; Individual Differences; Needs Assessment

ED441852 TM030887
Use of the DISCOVER Assessment for Identification Purposes: Concurrent Validity and Gender Issues.
Sarouphim, Ketty M.
Pages: 37
Publication Date: April 2000
Notes: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 24-28, 2000).
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Evaluative (142); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: Lebanon
Journal Announcement: RIENOV2000
This study examined the DISCOVER (Discovering Intellectual Strengths and Capabilities through Observation while allowing for Varied Ethnic Responses) assessment (C. Maker, A. Nielson, and J. Rogers, 1994) as a concurrent measure of the Raven Progressive Matrices (J. Raven, J. Court, and J. Raven, 1977). It also investigated gender differences in DISCOVER results. A secondary purpose was to determine the effectiveness of the DISCOVER assessment in reducing the problem of the underrepresentation of minority students in programs for the gifted. The sample consisted of 257 kindergarten, second, fourth, and fifth grade students, predominantly Navajo Indians and Mexican Americans. The results provide some evidence for concurrent validity and show that through use of the DISCOVER assessment 22.9%, of minority students were identified as gifted. A MANOVA, multivariate analysis of variance (gender by grade level), yielded no significant differences in the performance of males and females in all activities across grade levels. Chi- square tests revealed no overall significant gender differences between identification. The findings support the use of the DISCOVER assessment for identification purposes.
Descriptors: American Indians; *Concurrent Validity; Elementary Education; *Elementary School Students; *Gifted; Hispanic American Students; *Identification; Mexican Americans; *Minority Groups; Multivariate Analysis; *Sex Differences
Identifiers: *DISCOVER System; Raven Progressive Matrices

ED429752 RC021902
Rural Hispanic Children and Giftedness: Why the Difficulty in Identification?
Vanderslice, Ronna
Pages: 8
Publication Date: March 1999
Notes: In: Rural Special Education for the New Millennium. Conference Proceedings of the American Council on Rural Special Education (ACRES) (19th, Albuquerque, New Mexico, March 25-27, 1999); see RC 021 888.
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Information Analysis (070); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Oklahoma
Journal Announcement: RIESEP1999
This paper discusses problems related to identification of gifted Hispanic children in rural areas. While the federal definition of giftedness is subscribed to by most states, local districts tend to seek and find White, middle-class academic achievers. One problem associated with identification of gifted minorities is that the research and literature on minorities has focused more on deficits than on strengths. Obstacles to identification include language differences, inappropriate use of I.Q. information, differences in home and cultural backgrounds, effects of poverty, limited out-of-school educational experiences, and racial or ethnic bias. In assessing student abilities, it is essential to understand that each instrument or procedure measures only one of many facets. Measures that go beyond academic achievement must be used to find students whose abilities are not indicated by tests and school performance. Three major types of educational adaptations for the gifted Hispanic student are suggested: counseling to help students caught between conflicting cultures, the building of self-knowledge, and the development of meaningful curriculum adaptations. Six suggestions are listed to help parents, counselors, and teachers work successfully with culturally diverse gifted learners. Contains 26 references.
Descriptors: Cultural Differences; Elementary Secondary Education; Ethnic Bias; *Gifted; Gifted Disadvantaged; *Hispanic Americans; *Identification; Intelligence Quotient; *Rural Education; Rural Schools; Special Education; *Test Bias

ED359743 EC302493
National Excellence: A Case For Developing America's Talent.
Ross, Pat O'Connell; And Others
Oct 1993. Office Of Educational Research And Improvement (Ed), Washington, DC. Programs For The Improvement Of Practice. 42p.; Foreword by Richard W. Riley, Secretary of Education.
Report No: PIP-93-1201
ISBN: 0-16-042928-5
Available From: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Position Paper (120); Evaluative Report (142)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC93
Government: Federal
This report on the educational needs of American gifted and talented students identifies indicators of an educational crisis, describes the current status of education for these students, and presents recommendations to meet the educational needs of these students. Indicators demonstrating the need for change include the relatively poor performance by American students on international tests and the small number of students performing at the highest levels on National Assessment of Educational Progress tests. Recent studies have shown that gifted and talented elementary school students have mastered 35-40% of the curriculum in five basic subjects before they begin the school year; most regular classroom teachers make few, if any, provisions for talented students; highest achieving students study less than an hour a day; and only 2 cents out of every $100 spent on K-12 education supports special opportunities for talented students. A review describes how gifted and talented students are currently identified, the number of students served, the kind of support available, the kind of education most gifted and talented students receive, and characteristics of effective programs for these students. Seven recommendations are offered: (1) set challenging curricular standards; (2) establish high-level learning opportunities; (3) ensure access to early childhood education; (4) increase learning opportunities for disadvantaged and minority children with outstanding talents; (5) broaden the definition of gifted (a broadened definition based on the federal Javits Gifted and Talented Education Act is offered); (6) encourage appropriate teacher training and technical assistance; and (7) match world performance.
Descriptors: Ability Identification; Comparative Education; *Definitions; Early Childhood Education; Educational Assessment; *Educational Needs; *Educational Objectives; Educational Quality; Elementary Secondary Education; *Excellence in Education; Expenditure per Student; Futures (of Society); *Gifted; Gifted Disadvantaged; Special Education; *Talent; Talent Identification
Identifiers: Javits Gifted and Talented Students Act

EJ547431 EC616879
Challenging Expectations: Case Studies of High-Potential, Culturally Diverse Young Children.
Tomlinson, Carol Ann; And Others
Gifted Child Quarterly, v41 n2 p5-17 Spr 1997
ISSN: 0016-9862
Language: English
Document Type: Journal Article (080); Research Report (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC97
Reports findings from case studies of eight gifted minority children in second and third grade who participated in a Project START (Support To Affirm Rising Talent). Discusses factors that promoted and discouraged success in the regular classroom and in transition to special services for gifted learners.
Descriptors: Case Studies; *Cultural Differences; Diversity (Student); *Educational Strategies; Ethnic Groups; *Gifted; *Minority Group Children; *Performance Factors; Primary Education; Program Effectiveness; Special Programs

EJ553958 EC617575
Early Identification of Gifted Minority Kindergarten Students in Newark, NJ.
Feiring, Candice; Louis, Barbara; Ukeje, Ikechukwu; Lewis, Michael; Leong, Philip
Gifted Child Quarterly; v41 n3 p76-82 Sum 1997
Document Type: Journal-Articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)
ISSN: 0016-9862
Language: English
Document Type: Journal Article (080); Project Description (141)
Journal Announcement: CIJAPR98
A screening and assessment procedure has been developed in Newark, New Jersey, to identify gifted inner city minority kindergarten students. The procedure uses the Brigance K & 1 Screen, a new Gifted Screening intelligence measure, and the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. The procedure has increased identification of gifted students among entering first graders from .2 percent to 2 percent.
Descriptors: *Gifted ; *Early Identification; *Screening Tests; Minority Groups; Primary Education; Kindergarten Children; *Ability Identification; Inner City; Urban Education; Disadvantaged Youth; Minority Groups
Identifiers: *New Jersey, Newark; Brigance K and 1 Screen; McCarthy Scales of Childrens Abilities

ED410323 UD031797
Strategies for Identifying the Talents of Diverse Students. ERIC/CUE Digest, Number 122.
Schwartz, Wendy
ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, New York, NY. May 1997
4p. Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Contract No: RR93002016. Report No: EDO-UD-97-3
ISSN: 0889-8049
Available From: ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, Institute for Urban and Minority Education, Box 40, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (free).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: ERIC Product (071); ERIC Digests (Selected) (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC97
To reduce the possibility that children who do not fit stereotypical profiles of gifted children will be passed over, identifying students from diverse backgrounds for talent should be a multipronged effort. Outreach is especially important in areas when parents may be absorbed in meeting their family's immediate needs. To facilitate identification at school, teacher training programs now provide education about cultural and talent diversity among gifted students and about the ways learning style differences can mask evidence of special talents. The children themselves, and the adults in their lives, may not even be aware of their talents, but schools can use the following methods of identifying giftedness to make sure that students receive fair consideration: (1) standardized tests; (2) observation; (3) self-identification through biographical inventories; and (4) portfolios. Identifying the special talents of students from diverse backgrounds is just the first step toward helping them achieve their full potential.
Descriptors: Ability Identification; Cognitive Style; Cultural Awareness; *Cultural Differences; *Diversity (Student); *Early Identification; Elementary Education; *Evaluation Methods; *Gifted; Minority Groups; Outreach Programs; School Role; Talent; *Talent Identification; Teacher Role; Urban Youth
Identifiers: ERIC Digests

ED423104 RC021661
Identifying and Assessing Gifted and Talented Bilingual Hispanic Students. ERIC Digest.
Castellano, Jaime A.
Publication_Date: 1998
Publication_Type: 071; 073
Page: 4; 1
Availability: ERIC/CRESS, P.O. Box 1348, Charleston, WV 25325-1348 (free).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Contract No: RR93002012
Report_No: EDO-RC-97-9
Level: 1
Language: English
Geographic_Source: U.S.; West Virginia
Note: 4p.
This Digest discusses the ongoing effort to develop new methods for identifying talent and giftedness among bilingual and limited-English-proficient Hispanic students. To provide better profiles for the identification of all gifted children, research suggests use of both qualitative and quantitative instruments. Several instruments are recommended for assessing disadvantaged children, including culturally and linguistically diverse students, and for use with Spanish-speaking students. Most school districts serving gifted and talented bilingual Hispanic students use multiple criteria in the screening and identification process. Multiple criteria may include ethnographic or dynamic assessment, portfolios, test scores, teacher observation, behavioral checklists, writing samples, and input from parents and community members. Certain student traits may alert teachers to consider further assessment. Although Hispanic females have shown a consistent trend of doing better academically than males, they remain seriously underrepresented in higher education. To increase participation of Hispanic female students in programs for the gifted and talented, both parents and educators must be advocates. As more culturally and linguistically diverse students enter the nation's schools, local programs must be in place to identify and educate the gifted and talented among them and must allow their participation while they are learning English.
Major_Descriptors: Females; Gifted; Hispanic Americans; Limited English Speaking; Talent Identification
Minor Descriptors: Access to Education; Bilingual Students; Elementary Secondary Education; Evaluation Criteria; Evaluation Methods; Screening Tests; Spanish Speaking
Identifiers: ERIC Digests

EJ516097 EC612543
Identifying Academic Potential in Students from Under-Represented Populations: Is Using the Ravens Progressive Matrices a Good Idea?
Mills, Carol J.; Tissot, Sherri L.
Gifted Child Quarterly, v39 n4 p209-17 Fall 1995
ISSN: 0016-9862
Language: English
Document Type: Journal Article (080); Research Report (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAY96
Target Audience: Researchers
The Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) and the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) were evaluated as possible instruments for identifying academically talented students in minority populations. A significantly higher proportion of minority children scored well on the RPM than on a traditional measure. Issues and concerns about using the APM as the sole identification measure are raised.
Descriptors: *Ability Identification; *Academically Gifted; *Culture Fair Tests; Elementary Secondary Education; Eligibility; Measures (Individuals); *Minority Groups; *Nonverbal Tests; Performance Tests; Screening Tests; Student Evaluation
Identifiers: *Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices; *Raven Progressive Matrices

ED388020 EC304375
Towards a New Paradigm for Identifying Talent Potential. Research Monograph 94112.
Frasier, Mary M.; Passow, A. Harry
National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, Storrs, CT. Dec 1994 97p.; Executive Summary on p.vii-xix also published separately. Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Contract No: R206R00001
Available From: NRC/GT, University of Connecticut, 362 Fairfield Road, U-7, Storrs, CT 06269-2007.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Position Paper (120)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Connecticut
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR96
This monograph presents a paradigm for identifying giftedness among all groups of young people. Section 1 presents a review and critique of traditional identification approaches and highlights the limitations that tests may have for identifying talent potential among groups currently underrepresented in gifted programs. Section 2 examines the values and environmental influences of several cultures, to identify the additional challenges faced by high achieving, ethnically diverse students. Within-group cultural differences are also considered. The third section reports the results of an exploratory study which examined the characteristics of economically disadvantaged and limited English proficient gifted students. Section 4 looks at behaviors that characterize gifted performance, noting research results which suggest that there may be well-known "absolute" behaviors which characterize high performance cross-culturally, as well as specific behaviors which manifest themselves in particular cultural contexts. Emerging insights from the Javits Gifted and Talented Students' Education Act are addressed in the fifth section. The final section provides a synthesis of the previously presented ideas and proposes a five-element paradigm of giftedness, including: (1) new constructs of giftedness; (2) absolute and specific behaviors; (3) cultural and contextual variables; (4) authentic assessment; and (5) identification through learning opportunities. Executive Summary is also published separately.
Descriptors: *Ability Identification; Behavior Patterns; *Cultural Differences; Cultural Influences; Economically Disadvantaged; Educational Legislation; Elementary Secondary Education; Ethnic Groups; Federal Legislation; *Gifted; Limited English Speaking; Minority Groups; Models; *Student Characteristics; Student Evaluation; *Talent; Talent Identification
Identifiers: *Jacob K Javits Gifted Talented Stdnt Educ Act 1988

ED372591 EC303225
Updated Report on State Policies Related to the Identification of Gifted Students.
Coleman, Mary Ruth; And Others
North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill. Gifted Education Policy Studies Program. Apr 1994
69p.; Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Contract No: R206A00596
EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Research Report (143)
Geographic Source: U.S.; North Carolina
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC94
Target Audience: Policymakers
An analysis was conducted of state policies concerning the identification of gifted students, especially those traditionally underserved (the culturally diverse, economically disadvantaged, and students with disabilities). Content analysis of each state's documents focused on six major areas: (1) legislation, (2) definitions of "gifted," (3) standard identification practices, (4) nonstandard identification practices, (5) due process and grievance procedures, and (6) specific references to gifted students from special populations. The analysis revealed that a range of attention is being given to these special populations and that state policies tend to be permissive and inclusive regarding identification and services. Some states have developed communication, recruitment, and child-find strategies to increase public awareness. Forty-three states have screening policies to locate gifted students. Formal identification strategies often rely on the use of multiple criteria. In their identification processes, 46 states incorporate outside-of- school activities; 43 include measures of creativity; and many states permit input from teachers, parents, students, and others. Forty states specifically mention culturally diverse gifted students, and 40 mention economically disadvantaged children. Students with learning disabilities are addressed by 40 states, and students with sensory and physical disabilities are mentioned by 36 states. Appended are the content analysis matrix and guidelines.
Descriptors: *Ability Identification; Content Analysis; Cultural Differences; Definitions; Due Process; Economically Disadvantaged; *Educational Policy; Elementary Secondary Education; Eligibility; *Gifted; Gifted Disabled; Gifted Disadvantaged; Minority Groups; State Legislation; *State Standards

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