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GT-Curriculum Compacting (April 2001)

What is curriculum compacting and how can it be used to improve teaching and learning?

Curriculum compacting is a flexible, research-supported instructional technique for modifying the regular curriculum to meet the needs of high ability students. This technique is a form of content acceleration that enables high-ability students to skip work they already know and substitute more challenging content. The goals of compacting are to streamline work that may be mastered at a pace commensurate with the student's ability, create a challenging learning environment, guarantee proficiency in basic curriculum, and buy time for enrichment and acceleration (Reis and Renzulli, 1992).

According to Reis and Renzulli, the following eight steps are involved:

  1. Select the learning objectives for a given subject.
  2. Find or create an appropriate way to pretest or alternatively assess competencies related to these objectives.
  3. Identify students who may have mastered the objectives, or have the potential to master them at a faster than normal pace, or pretest all students in the classroom.
  4. Pretest students-before beginning instruction-on one or more of the objectives.
  5. Streamline practice, drill or instructional time for students who have learned the objectives.
  6. Provide instructional options for students who have not yet attained all the pretested objectives, but generally learn faster than their classmates.
  7. Organize and recommend enrichment or acceleration options for eligible students.
  8. Keep records of the process and instructional options available to students whose curriculum has been compacted for reporting to parents and forward these records to next year's teachers.
    (From the National Research Center on Gifted and Talented: http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/nrcgt/vcurcomp.html)

You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:

ERIC Citations

The full text of citations beginning with an ED number (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:

  • In microfiche collections worldwide; to find your nearest ERIC Resource Collection, point your web browser to: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal.
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The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:

ERIC Search Terms Used

curriculum compacting (identifier)

ED433631 EC307376
A Guide for Starting and Improving Gifted and Talented High School Programs: Program Options, Teaching Strategies, Models, Forms and Examples.
Publication Date: 1999
Publication Type: 055
122 pp.
EDRS Price MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.
Institution Name: BBB32861 _ Idaho State Dept. of Education. Special Education Section.
Note: For "The Best Practices Manual for Gifted and Talented Programs in Idaho [Revised Version]," see ED 416 664.
This manual is designed to help Idaho school districts establish or improve programs for gifted and talented (G/T) high school students. It describes specific program options and administrative issues relating to gifted education. Chapter 1, "Starting and Administering a G/T High School Program," answers common questions about G/T high school programs, provides a seven-step plan for program implementation, and provides practical recommendations that will help G/T high school programs run smoothly. Chapter 2, "Program Options," describes various program options available in G/T high school programs, including: advanced placement courses, the International Baccalaureate Program, mentorship programs, independent study, and leadership program options. The following chapter, "Teaching Strategies," describes various teaching strategies that enhance learning for G/T high school students, including: curriculum compacting, teaching creative and critical thinking, creative problem solving, Socratic questioning, shared inquiry, teaching G/T students in the regular classroom, real-world tasks, curriculum differentiation, and a multiple intelligence approach. The final chapter, "Models," provides a brief summary of two G/T high school models: the Purdue Secondary Model for Gifted Education and the Autonomous Learner Model. The appendix provides information on funding sources, assessment instruments, early college entrance programs, competitions, and miscellaneous opportunities for G/T high school students; forms and examples are also included.
Descriptors: Advanced Placement Programs; Creative Thinking; *Enrichment Activities; *Gifted; High Schools; Inclusive Schools; Independent Study; International Programs; Mentors; Multiple Intelligences; Problem Solving; Program Administration; Program Development; Student Evaluation; Talent; *Talent Development; Teaching Methods; Teaching Models
Identifiers: Curriculum Compacting; *Differentiated Curriculum (Gifted); Idaho

ED444306 EC307996
The Inclusive Classroom. Meeting the Needs of Gifted Students: Differentiating Mathematics and Science Instruction. It's Just Good Teaching Series.
Stepanek, Jennifer
Publication Date: 1999
Publication Type: 055
56 pp.
Availability: NWREL, Document Reproduction Service, 101 S.W. Main St., Suite 500, Portland, OR 97204-3297. Tel: 503-275-9519; Fax: 503-275-0458; e-mail: products@nwrel.org; Web site: http://www.nwrel.org/msec.
EDRS Price MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
Institution Name: BBB35288 _ Northwest Regional Educational Lab, Portland, OR. Mathematics and Science Education Center.
Sponsoring Agency: EDD00036 _ Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Contract_No: RJ96006501
Audience: Practitioners; Teachers
This booklet offers teachers a variety of strategies and resources for providing different levels of content and activities that will challenge all students, including gifted learners. It begins by discussing evolving definitions of giftedness and theories of intelligence. Means of identifying gifted students and indicators of mathematical and scientific giftedness are then presented. The next section addresses teaching gifted students in inclusive classrooms and ability grouping. Recommendations about grouping students include: (1) heterogeneous groups are most appropriate when students are working on open-ended problem-solving tasks or science inquiry activities; (2) homogeneous groups are more appropriate when students are working on skill development or reviewing material that they have already learned; (3) grouping strategies should be flexible, and students should be allowed to work independently at least occasionally according to their preferences; (4) students should have opportunities to select their own groups based on common interests; and (5) all students need to learn the skills of working together before cooperative learning activities will be successful. Following sections address strategies for developing conducive learning environments, including support for gifted minority students and gifted girls, differentiating content, differentiating processes, and differentiating products. Profiles of two inclusive classrooms are provided.
Descriptors: Ability Grouping; *Ability Identification; *Academically Gifted; Classroom Environment; *Curriculum Design; Elementary Secondary Education; Females; Flexible Progression; *Grouping (Instructional Purposes); Inclusive Schools; *Mathematics Instruction; Minority Group Children; Problem Based Learning; *Science Instruction; Student Characteristics; Talent Development; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Curriculum Compacting; *Differentiated Curriculum (Gifted)

ED430331 EC307178
Gifted Education: A Critical Discussion.
Toth, Nancy W.
Publication Date: 1999
Publication Type: 070
21 pp.
EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; New Mexico
In light of recent trends to serve gifted students in regular classrooms, this paper reviews a variety of cost effective options for meeting the needs of gifted students. It notes effects of the inclusion philosophy which encourages education of all students in regular education classrooms, a lack of funds for special programs for gifted students, and the decline in textbook difficulty levels. The following options for accommodating gifted students are discussed: acceleration (early admission, grade-skipping, early graduation, or concurrent enrollment in college); cluster or ability grouping; curriculum compacting (the modification or streamlining of curriculum); enrichment (including both part time pull-out enrichment and in-class enrichment activities); mentoring with an expert in the student's area of interest; and independent study. Research indicates that gifted students make the greatest progress when they are grouped homogeneously and offered a differentiated curriculum. The paper concludes that teachers need to advocate for acceleration or ability grouping and, whether their efforts are successful or not, they need to implement strategies within the classroom to challenge gifted students.
Descriptors: *Academically Gifted; Acceleration (Education); Classroom Techniques; *Curriculum Development; *Delivery Systems; Elementary Secondary Education; Enrichment Activities; Inclusive Schools; Independent Study; *Instructional Design; Mentors; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Curriculum Compacting; *Differentiated Curriculum (Gifted)

EJ570221 EC619638
Curriculum Compacting and Achievement Test Scores: What Does the Research Say?.
Reis, Sally M; Westberg, Karen L; Kulikowich, Jonna M; Purcell, Jeanne H.
Gifted Child Quarterly; v42 n2 p123-29 Spr 1998.
Document Type: Journal Articles (080); Research Reports (143)
This study examined the effects of curriculum compacting on the achievement test scores of a national sample of 336 high ability students from second through sixth grade heterogeneous classrooms in rural, suburban, and urban settings. Curriculum compacting is a strategy for eliminating curricular material that students have already mastered and replacing it with more appropriate learning activities. Teachers from three treatment and control groups in this experimental study selected one to two students from their classes who demonstrated superior ability and advanced content knowledge prior to instruction. They were able to eliminate between 40% 50% of curricula for these students across content areas. Pre and post student achievement was examined using the Iowa Test of Basic Skills, and out-of-grade-level (one grade higher) tests were used to guard against ceiling effects. The results indicated that the achievement test scores of students whose curriculum was compacted did not differ significantly from students whose curriculum was not compacted. These findings from a national study minimize teachers' fears about declines in students' achievement test scores due to compacting.
Descriptors: *Gifted; *Talent; *Instructional Design; *Instructional Effectiveness; *Academic Achievement; *Achievement Tests; Elementary Education; Educational Strategies; Scores
Identifiers: *Curriculum Compacting

EJ558178 EA534299
Talent Development Through Curriculum Differentiation.
Renzulli, J. S.; Reis, S. M.
NASSP Bulletin, v82 n595 p61-64 Feb 1998
ISSN: 0192-6365
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJJUL98
The Schoolwide Enrichment Model, originally designed for academically gifted students, is currently used to develop the gifts and talents of a much wider pool of students. One SEM component, the Total Talent Portfolio, focuses attention on student interests and learning-style preferences. This article explains how SEM, combined with curriculum compacting, can be used to challenge able students. Case studies are provided.
Descriptors: Case Studies; *Cognitive Style; *Curriculum Enrichment; Models; Program Descriptions; Secondary Education; *Student Evaluation; *Talent Development
Identifiers: Curriculum Compacting; *Differentiated Curriculum (Gifted); *Schoolwide Enrichment Model

EJ558177 EA534298
Giftedness and Egalitarianism in Education: A Zero Sum?
Winner, Ellen; von Karolyi, Catya
NASSP Bulletin, v82 n595 p47-60 Feb 1998
ISSN: 0192-6365
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJJUL98
All students have strengths that should be identified and fostered. Some children are outstanding and would be stultified by the standard curriculum. Gifted kids are precocious, march to different drummers, and are obsessively interested in certain subjects. They can be introverted, fiercely independent, and emotionally vulnerable. Advanced classes and special schools should not be dismantled in the name of egalitarianism.
Descriptors: Acceleration (Education); *Advanced Courses; Elementary Secondary Education; *Equal Education; *Gifted; *Homogeneous Grouping; *Individual Differences; *Personality Traits; Residential Schools; Special Education
Identifiers: Curriculum Compacting; *Differentiated Curriculum (Gifted)

EJ530668 EC614077
Making the Most Out of Inclusive Setting.
Goree, Krystal
Gifted Child Today Magazine, v19 n2 p22-23,43 Mar-Apr 1996
ISSN: 1076-2175
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJFEB97
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
This article considers ways to keep a gifted student interested while teaching basic skills to others in an inclusive classroom setting. The challenges that an inclusive environment presents to the teacher are described. Strategies recommended to provide gifted students with a differentiated curriculum include curriculum compacting, independent study, and mentoring.
Descriptors: *Academically Gifted; Curriculum Development; *Curriculum Enrichment; Elementary Secondary Education; Heterogeneous Grouping; *Inclusive Schools; Independent Study; Mentors; *Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Curriculum Compacting; *Differentiated Curriculum (Gifted)

EJ519091 SP524804
Total School Improvement.
Renzulli, Joseph S.; Purcell, Jeanne H.
Our Children, v1 n1 p30-31 Sep-Oct 1995
ISSN: 1083-3080
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJJUN96
Target Audience: Parents
Three basic activities can infuse classrooms with enjoyment and creativity: use of a total talent portfolio, practice of curriculum compacting, and creation of enrichment clusters. These three activities underlie the Schoolwide Enrichment Model, a blueprint for total school improvement.
Descriptors: *Creative Teaching; Elementary Education; Elementary Schools; Elementary School Students; *Enrichment Activities; *Parent Teacher Cooperation; *Portfolios (Background Materials); *Student Motivation
Identifiers: *Curriculum Compacting; *Schoolwide Enrichment Model

EJ497626 EC610418
Meeting the Needs of the Gifted in the Regular Classroom: The Practices of Exemplary Teachers and Schools.
Westberg, Karen L.
Gifted Child Today Magazine, v18 n1 p27-29,41 Jan-Feb 1995
ISSN: 1076-2175
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJJUN95
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
To meet the needs of high achieving students within regular elementary classrooms, teachers can utilize such effective practices as curriculum compacting services, students' ownership of learning, reflective teaching practices, students' choices, challenging curricula, flexible teaching, teacher collaboration, and independent student projects.
Descriptors: *Classroom Techniques; *Educational Practices; Elementary Education; *Gifted; Inclusive Schools; *Mainstreaming; Teaching Methods

EJ489447 EC609282
The Impact of Staff Development on Teachers' Ability to Modify Curriculum for Gifted and Talented Students.
Reis, Sally M.; Westberg, Karen L.
Gifted Child Quarterly, v38 n3 p127-35 Sum 1994
Special Issue: Teachers and Talent Development.
ISSN: 0016-9862
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJJAN95
Three levels of staff development were provided to 300 elementary teachers to train them in curriculum compacting for high ability students. Teachers eliminated about half of the content for targeted students. Teachers receiving the most intensive training created higher quality compactor forms for students and used more replacement strategies and more diverse options for targeted students.
Descriptors: *Curriculum Development; Elementary Education; *Gifted; *Inservice Teacher Education; Instructional Effectiveness; *Outcomes of Education; Staff Development
Identifiers: *Curriculum Compacting

ED388027 EC304382
What Educators Need To Know about...Series. Ability Grouping and Curriculum Compacting and Gifted Students and Cooperative Learning and Mentoring and Student Motivation.
Siegle, Del, Ed.; And Others
National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, Storrs, CT. 1994
22p.; Some pages are very dark and may not copy well.
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Contract No: R206R00001
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Connecticut
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR96
Five pamphlets (Practitioner's Guides) present guidelines from the National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented at the University of Connecticut. The guidelines are supported by theory-driven quality research that is problem-based, practice-relevant, and consumer-oriented. Each pamphlet has a section summarizing research from the literature or topic notes as well as identifying specific implications for the classroom. Practitioner's Guides are titled: (1) "What Educators Need To Know about Ability Grouping" (Del Siegle, Editor); (2) "What Educators Need To Know about Curriculum Compacting" (Del Siegle, Editor); (3) "What Educators Need To Know about Gifted Students and Cooperative Learning" (Del Siegle, Editor); "What Educators Need To Know about Mentoring" (Diana Whitton and Del Siegle, Editors); and (5) "What Educators Need To Know about Student Motivation" (Pamela Clinkenbeard and Marcia A. B. Delcourt, Editors).
Descriptors: *Ability Grouping; Acceleration (Education); Classroom Techniques; *Cooperative Learning; Curriculum Development; Educational Methods; Elementary Secondary Education; *Gifted; *Mentors; *Student Motivation
Identifiers: *Curriculum Compacting

ED372553 EC303185
Providing Curriculum Alternatives To Motivate Gifted Students. ERIC Digest E524.
Winebrenner, Susan; Berger, Sandra
Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, Va.; ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education, Reston, VA. Jun 1994
3p., Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC., Contract No: RR93002005
Report No: EDO-EC-93-7
Available From: Council for Exceptional Children, 1920 Association Dr., Reston, VA 22091-1589 ($1 each, minimum order $5 prepaid).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: ERIC PRODUCT (071); ERIC DIGESTS (SELECTED) (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Virginia
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC94
This brief information sheet presents two strategies to motivate gifted students and is based on the book, "Teaching Gifted Kids in the Regular Classroom" by Susan Winebrenner. The curriculum compacting strategy allows students to spend less time with the regular curriculum and more time with extension and enrichment activities. The contracts strategy involves written agreements between teachers and students that outline what students will learn, how they will learn it, in what period of time, and how they will be evaluated. Specific guidelines are offered for implementing both compacting and contracts for: first, pretestable subject areas where students move between an instructional group and extension activities; and, second, subject matter that is not pretestable because of subject unfamiliarity to students. Guidelines are also offered for evaluating alternative work accomplished in both types of subject area.
Descriptors: *Acceleration (Education); Elementary Secondary Education; *Enrichment Activities; Evaluation Methods; *Gifted; Individualized Instruction; Mainstreaming; *Performance Contracts; *Student Evaluation; *Student Motivation; Student Projects

EJ461227 EC605458
An Analysis of Content Elimination and Strategies Used by Elementary Classroom Teachers in the Curriculum Compacting Process.
Reis, Sally M.; Purcell, Jeanne H.
Journal for the Education of the Gifted, v16 n2 p147-70 Win 1993
Theme Issue: National Research Center.
ISSN: 0162-3532
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJAUG93
Target Audience: Researchers; Practitioners
This study examined effects of three increasing levels of curriculum compacting on the instructional practices of 470 elementary school teachers with gifted students in regular classes. Teachers were able to eliminate between 24% and 70% of the curriculum across content areas for more capable students but required assistance in designing challenging replacement activities.
Descriptors: Curriculum Development; *Educational Practices; Elementary Education; *Enrichment Activities; *Gifted; Instructional Design; *Mainstreaming; *Talent; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Curriculum Compacting

ED379847 EC303720
Why Not Let High Ability Students Start School in January? The Curriculum Compacting Study. Research Monograph 93106.
Reis, Sally M.; Westburg, Karen L.;Kulikowich, Jonna; Caillard, Florence; Hebert, Thomas; Plucker, Jonathan; Purcell, Jeanne H.; Rogers, John B.; Smist, Julianne M.
National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, Storrs, CT. Jul 1993; 165p.
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Contract No: R206R00001
Available From: NRC/GT, The University of Connecticut, 362 Fairfield Rd., U-7, Storrs, CT 06269-2007.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC07 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Connecticut
Journal Announcement: RIEJUL95
This study examined the effects of curriculum compacting, a curriculum modification technique for gifted and talented students, with approximately 436 elementary teachers and 783 students in 27 school districts throughout the United States. The study was designed to investigate the types and amount of curriculum content that could be eliminated for high ability students by teachers who received various levels of staff development. It also examined effects of curriculum compacting on students' achievement, content area preferences, and attitudes toward learning. Teachers were randomly assigned to one of four groups, three treatment groups that received increasing levels of staff development or a control group. After receiving staff development services, teachers in each of the treatment groups implemented curriculum compacting for one or two high ability students in their classrooms. A battery of pre/post achievement tests and a questionnaire regarding attitude toward learning were administered to identified students. Results indicated that the compacting process can be implemented in a wide variety of settings with positive effects for both students and teachers. Results also identified effective and efficient methods for training teachers to make appropriate curricular modifications for gifted and talented students. Appendices provide information on treatment and control group instrumentation and eight statistical tables.
Descriptors: *Academically Gifted; *Classroom Techniques; *Curriculum Development; Educational Methods; Educational Practices; Elementary Education; Individualized Instruction; *Inservice Teacher Education; *Instructional Effectiveness; Mainstreaming; Staff Development; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Curriculum Compacting; Differentiated Curriculum (Gifted)

ED359708 EC302270
Accelerated Education Methods for Intellectually Gifted Secondary Students.
Reiss, Patricia L.; Follo, Eric J.
Mar 1993
67p.; Paper presented at the Annual Midwest Educational Research Association Conference (11th, Kansas City, MO, March 4-6, 1993).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Michigan
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC93
Target Audience: Practitioners
This literature review describes and evaluates five accelerative methods for teaching intellectually gifted students at the secondary level. The review stresses the importance of matching student characteristics and instructional type, citing research demonstrating that intellectually gifted students achieve at higher levels when their educational needs are assessed on an individual basis. The five programming options include: (1) curriculum compacting, (2) subject acceleration, (3) mentorships, (4) dual enrollment (in both high school and college), and (5) early admission to college. Discussion of each option contains a description, lists of advantages and disadvantages, and conclusions. A final discussion offers guidelines for matching student characteristics with each of the programming options. Appendices provide materials from the mentoring program of one school district.
Descriptors: *Academically Gifted; *Acceleration (Education); College Admission; College School Cooperation; Curriculum Development; *Early Admission; *Educational Methods; Higher Education; High Schools; High School Students; Individualized Programs; *Mentors; Student Needs
Identifiers: *Curriculum Compacting

EJ451479 EA527208
Using Curriculum Compacting to Challenge the Above-Average.
Reis, Sally M.; Renzulli, Joseph S.
Educational Leadership, v50 n2 p51-57 Oct 1992
ISSN: 0013-1784
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJFEB93
A major problem facing schools is lack of curricular differentiation and academic challenge for the most academically able students. Also, contemporary textbooks have been "dumbed down." Curriculum compacting is a flexible, research-based technique enabling high-ability students to skip work they already know and substitute more challenging content. A recent study and program development advice are included.
Descriptors: *Academically Gifted; *Curriculum Design; Elementary Secondary Education; *High Achievement; *Individualized Instruction; Reading Achievement; *School Restructuring; Textbook Standards
Identifiers: *Curriculum Compacting

EJ451480 EA527209
Acceleration: What We Do vs. What We Know.
Rogers, Karen B.; Kimpston, Richard D.
Educational Leadership, v50 n2 p58-61 Oct 1992
ISSN: 0013-1784
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJFEB93
Although previous reviews of acceleration outcomes have been markedly positive, practitioners have markedly negative perceptions of acceleration's efficacy. This article reviews and evaluates academic, social, and emotional benefits of early school entrance, grade skipping, nongraded classrooms, curriculum compacting, grade telescoping, concurrent enrollment (in school and college), subject acceleration, advanced placement, mentorship, credit by examination, and early college admission.
Descriptors: *Academically Gifted; *Acceleration (Education); *Advanced Placement; Elementary Secondary Education; *Outcomes of Education; *Student Promotion

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