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Dyslexia (updated April 2000)

What are academic interventions for children and adults with dyslexia?

The word dyslexia is derived from the Greek "dys" (meaning poor or inadequate) and "lexis" (words or language). Dyslexia is a learning disability characterized by problems in expressive or receptive, oral or written language. Problems may emerge in reading, spelling, writing, speaking, or listening. Dyslexia is not a disease; it has no cure. Dyslexia describes a different kind of mind, often gifted and productive, that learns differently. Dyslexia is not the result of low intelligence. Intelligence is not the problem. An unexpected gap exists between learning aptitude and achievement in school. The problem is not behavioral, psychological, motivational, or social. It is not a problem of vision; people with dyslexia do not "see backward." Dyslexia results from differences in the structure and function of the brain. People with dyslexia are unique; each having individuals strengths and weaknesses. Many dyslexics are creative and have unusual talent in areas such as art, athletics, architecture, graphics. electronics, mechanics, drama, music, or engineering. Dyslexics often show special talent in areas that require visual, spatial, and motor integration. Their problems in language processing distinguish them as a group. This means that the dyslexic has problems translating language to thought (as in listening or reading) or thought to language (as in writing or speaking).

Individuals with dyslexia learn best with a multisensory delivery of language content. Instruction that is multisensory employs all pathways of learning at the same time, seeing, hearing, touching, writing, and speaking.

Following are links to related Internet resources and Internet discussion groups, as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the citations.

You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:

ERIC Citations

The full text of citations beginning with an ED number (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:

  • In microfiche collections worldwide; to find your nearest ERIC Resource Collection, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm.
  • For a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com, service@edrs.com, or 1.800.443.ERIC. (no longer available)

The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:

ERIC Search Terms Used



teaching methods OR classroom techniques OR educational strategies


instructional design OR instructional effectiveness OR learning strategies

EJ612935 EC625606
Title: Songs of Experience: Commentary on "Dyslexia the Invisible" and "Promoting Strategic Writing by Postsecondary Students with Learning Disabilities: A Report of Three Case Studies"
Author(s) Gersten, Russell; Smith-Johnson, Joyce
Source: Learning Disability Quarterly, v23 n3 p171-74 Sum 2000
Publication Date: 2000
ISSN: 0731-9487
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Opinion papers (120)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAR2001
This introductory commentary discusses the following articles on studies that used in-depth case studies of students with learning disabilities to document individuals' progress over time, as well as the relationship between reading and writing instruction and students' development of self-regulation. The benefits of qualitative research are emphasized.
Descriptors: *Case Studies; Elementary Secondary Education; *Exceptional Child Research; *Instructional Effectiveness; *Learning Disabilities; Outcomes of Education; *Qualitative Research; Reading Instruction; Research Methodology; Research Needs; Writing Instruction

EJ605019 EC624675
Title: Effective Language Arts Instruction for Students with Dyslexia
Author(s) Wadlington, Elizabeth
Source: Preventing School Failure, v44 n2 p61-65 Win 2000
Publication Date: 2000
ISSN: 1045-988X
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT2000
This article explains dyslexia and characteristics of students with dyslexia and discusses types of instruction that are most appropriate for students with dyslexia, including multisensory instruction, explicit instruction, and phonemic awareness. It provides techniques for enabling students with dyslexia to succeed in reading, writing, listening, speaking, and spelling.
Descriptors: Classroom Techniques; *Dyslexia; Elementary Secondary Education; Listening Skills; *Reading Instruction; Speech Skills; *Spelling; *Student Characteristics; Symptoms (Individual Disorders); *Teaching Methods; *Writing Instruction

ED439539 EC307718
Title: The Source for Dyslexia and Dysgraphia
Author(s) Richards, Regina G.
Pages: 308
Publication Date: 1999
ISBN: 0-7606-308-1
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Availability: LinguiSystems, Inc., 3100 4th Ave., East Moline, IL 61244-9700 ($37.95). Tel: 800-776-4332 (Toll Free); Tel: 800-933-8331 (Toll Free/TDD); e-mail: service@linguisystems.com; Web site: http://www.linguisystems.com.
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Guides--Non-classroom (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIESEP2000
Target Audience: Practitioners
This book describes the processing styles inherent in dyslexia and dysgraphia for teacher identification of such students and provides strategies and compensations for students with these disabilities. Strategies for dyslexia and dysgraphia are combined in this book because both of these processing differences are language-based and represent a struggle with written language. Specific chapters address: (1) similarities between dyslexia and dysgraphia; (2) characteristics and common myths about dyslexia; (3) understanding why students avoid writing and Levine's first 4 stages of writing; (4) symptoms of dyslexia; (5) symptoms of dysgraphia; (6) the diagnostic process and pencil grip positions; (7) determining whether to compensate or remediate, bypass strategies, and interventions at breakdown points; (8) phonological awareness, early literacy auditory levels, and more advanced auditory levels; (9) reading and spelling; (10) decoding and encoding figures and syllabification mnemonics; (11) spelling; (12) the writing process and remedial and bypass strategies; (13) written expression, visual organizers, proofreading, transition or linking words, key words for thinking and writing, and confusable words; and (14) strategies for recall and teaching strategies that benefit dyslexic learners. The text includes simulations to help those without disabilities understand the experiences of individuals with dyslexia and dysgraphia.
Descriptors: Clinical Diagnosis; Cognitive Processes; *Decoding (Reading); Disability Identification; *Dyslexia; Elementary Secondary Education; Handwriting; Intervention; Phoneme Grapheme Correspondence; *Reading Instruction; Recall (Psychology); Remedial Instruction; *Spelling; *Symptoms (Individual Disorders); Teaching Methods; Writing Difficulties; *Writing Instruction
Identifiers: *Dysgraphia

EJ593160 EC623286
Title: Kindergarten Prevention of Dyslexia: Does Training in Phonological Awareness Work for Everybody?
Author(s) Schneider, Wolfgang; Ennemoser, Marco; Roth, Ellen; Kuspert, Petra
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities, v32 n5 p429-36 Sep-Oct 1999
Publication Date: 1999
Notes: Special Series: Prevention and Treatment of Dyslexia.
ISSN: 0022-2194
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJAPR2000
A study examined effects of phonological awareness training on 191 German kindergartners. Comparisons of children at risk with average and advanced children revealed that training gains were similar for all of these groups. Furthermore, training had comparable long-term effects on reading and spelling in grades 1 and 2 for each group.
Descriptors: *Dyslexia; *Early Intervention; Foreign Countries; Instructional Effectiveness; Kindergarten Children; *Phonics; *Prevention; Primary Education; *Reading Ability; *Spelling
Identifiers: Germany; *Phonological Awareness

ED430366 EC307219
Title: The NICHD Research Program in Reading Development, Reading Disorders and Reading Instruction: A Summary of Research Findings. Keys to Successful Learning: A National Summit on Research in Learning Disabilities.
Author(s) Lyon, Reid G.
Author Affiliation: National Center for Learning Disabilities, Inc., New York, NY.(BBB31021)
Pages: 9
Publication Date: 1998
Sponsoring Agency: Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC. (EDD00017)@National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD. (BBB00456)
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Availability: The National Center for Learning Disabilities, 381 Park Avenue South, Suite 1401, New York, NY 10016; Web site: http://www.ncld.org
Language: English
Document Type: Information Analysis (070)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIEOCT1999
This monograph is a synthesis of research findings of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development research program concerning how children learn to read, why some children and adults have difficulties learning to read, and effective ways to help children learn to read. The review covered studies performed over the last 33 years at 41 research sites throughout the world with more than 34,500 children and adults. Evidence and findings are outlined for each of these three areas. Among nine conclusions concerning how children learn to read is that reading is not a natural process and learning to read is a lengthy process that begins substantially before formal schooling. The 15 conclusions for why some individuals have difficulties learning to read are grouped into those concerned with prevalence, developmental course, and psychometric characteristics and those concerned with environmental, experiential, and individual difference factors. In presenting conclusions about reading instruction, the seven conclusions focus on which teaching approaches and strategies are most beneficial for which children at which stages of reading development.
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes; Dyslexia; Elementary Secondary Education; *Instructional Effectiveness; *Learning Disabilities; *Reading Difficulties; *Reading Instruction; *Research and Development; Teaching Methods; *Theory Practice Relationship

EJ568430 CS755501
Title: Educational Implications Relating Neuroanotomical Research and Developmental Dyslexia.
Author(s) Kender, Joseph P.; Kender, Mark A.
Source: Reading Horizons, v38 n3 p217-25 1998
Publication Date: 1998
ISSN: 0034-0502
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Classroom--Teacher (052); Information Analysis (070); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAR1999
Reviews some of the most pertinent current research on possible causes of dyslexia.
Offers guidelines for the prognosis and treatment of dyslexics and literary options for reading teachers and specialists to use in working with dyslexia.
Descriptors: *Brain; *Dyslexia; Literature Reviews; *Neurological Impairments; *Reading Difficulties; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Brain Functions; Neuroanatomy

EJ553714 CS754292
Title: Teaching Writing to Dyslexic Students: A Guide for the Composition Instructor.
Author(s) Corrigan, John R.
Source: Teaching English in the Two-Year College, v24 n3 p205-11 Oct 1997
Publication Date: 1997
ISSN: 0098-6291
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Classroom--Teacher (052); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJAPR1998
Offers suggestions for teaching dyslexic students from a graduate student who teaches composition and is himself dyslexic. Recommends the following strategies: one-on-one help, study skills assignments, individual strategies, step-by-step process, oral discussion, topics of interest to the student, and questions to build confidence.
Descriptors: *Dyslexia; Higher Education; Learning Disabilities; *Learning Strategies; *Student Needs; Study Skills; Writing Assignments; *Writing Instruction

ED406814 EC305520
Title: How To Teach Your Dyslexic Child To Read: A Proven Method for Parents and Teachers.
Author(s) Baumer, Bernice H.
Pages: 163
Publication Date: 1996
ISBN: 1-55972-334-3
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Availability: Birch Lane Press, Carol Publishing Group, 120 Enterprise Avenue, Secaucus, NJ 07094; Telephone: 201/866-0490; Fax: 800/866-1966 ($15.95 paperback).
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Guides--Non-classroom (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIESEP1997
Target Audience: Parents; Practitioners; Teachers
Designed for parents and teachers of students with dyslexia, this book uses accessible terms, charts, graphics, and lesson plans to provide step-by-step instructions for teaching reading. Part 1 of the book discusses different types of learning disabilities, followed by case studies that illustrate how children overcame each particular disability. Part 2 describes how a child with dyslexia should be taught from kindergarten through the third grade. It also gives detailed instructions for teaching phonics, spelling, and syllabication. Part 3 contains the pictures, charts, and wordlists that are an integral part of tutoring the child. Word charts are for practice in recognizing and pronouncing phonics sounds, and syllable sheets are for practice in dividing words into syllables and learning how to spell them. The book addresses how to discover the child's learning pace, how to lengthen a child's short attention span, how much drill and review are necessary once a phonics concept has been introduced, and how to teach vocabulary words. An appendix includes publishers' names and addresses.
Descriptors: Beginning Reading; Case Studies; Drills (Practice); *Dyslexia; Educational Strategies; Elementary Education; Lesson Plans; *Phonics; Reading Improvement; *Reading Instruction; *Spelling; Tutoring; Word Lists

EJ535555 CS752687
Title: Strategies to Help Improve Reading Ability in Children with Dyslexia.
Author(s) Mollica, Louisa A.
Source: Reading Improvement, v33 n3 p181-85 Fall 1996
Publication Date: 1996
ISSN: 0034-0510
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Classroom--Teacher (052); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAY1997
Describes six strategies for implementation in a reading remediation program for dyslexic children. Provides an example and rationale. Discusses reading difficulties most often found in dyslexic children.
Descriptors: *Dyslexia; Elementary Education; *Reading Difficulties; *Reading Improvement; *Reading Strategies; *Remedial Reading; Teaching Methods

EJ533006 PS525626
Title: Teaching Students with Dyslexia in the Regular Classroom. Author(s) Wadlington, Elizabeth; And Others
Source: Childhood Education, v73 n1 p2-5 Fall 1996
Publication Date: 1996
ISSN: 0009-4056
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Opinion papers (120)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAR1997
Provides a definition of dyslexia and characteristics of students who have this condition. Claims that when teaching dyslexic students, teachers may need to change the academic environment to enable students to demonstrate what they know. Provides suggestions to teachers on how the needs of dyslexic students can be met in the regular classroom.
Descriptors: *Child Development; *Classroom Environment; *Dyslexia; Early Childhood Education; Individual Differences; Instructional Design; Language Acquisition; Psychological Needs; *Reading Difficulties; *Student Needs; Study Skills; *Teacher Role

EJ518018 EC613033
Title: Academic Interventions for Children with Dyslexia Who Have Phonological Core Deficits. Author(s) Frost, Julie A.; Emery, Michael J.
Source: TEACHING Exceptional Children, v28 n3 p80-83 Spr 1996
Publication Date: 1996
ISSN: 0040-0599
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUN1996
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
This article briefly defines phonological core deficits in cases of dyslexia; considers student classification based on federal and state learning disability placement guidelines; and suggests 10 interventions such as teaching metacognitive strategies, providing direct instruction in language analysis and the alphabetic code, and teaching reading and spelling in conjunction.
Descriptors: Classification; Definitions; *Dyslexia; Elementary Secondary Education; *Intervention; *Phonology; *Reading Instruction; *Remedial Reading; Student Placement; Teaching Methods

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