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Bipolar Disorder (reviewed June 2001)
What is bipolar disorder?
Bipolar disorder, which is
also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental illness involving episodes of serious mania
and depression. The person's mood usually swings from overly "high" and irritable to sad and
hopeless and then back again, with periods of normal mood in between.
Bipolar disorder typically begins in adolescence or early adulthood and continues throughout
life. It is often not recognized as an illness, and people who have it may suffer needlessly for
years or even decades.
Effective treatments are available that greatly alleviate the suffering caused by bipolar disorder
and can usually prevent its devastating complications. These include marital break-ups, job loss,
alcohol and drug abuse, and suicide. (From the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH))
Almost one-third of
6-to-12-year-old children diagnosed with major depression will develop bipolar disorders within
a few years, according to a study of 79 depressed children over 2 to 5 years reported in the May
1994 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
Psychiatry. Most became bipolar before the onset of puberty, and 32% became bipolar at
an average age of 11 years. The researchers recommend that those caring for depressed children
should be on the lookout for symptoms of manic-depressive illness. They also suggested that,
because antidepressants may worsen certain forms of manic illness in adults, prescribing
antidepressants for children should be done with care. (From the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI))
Following are links to related Internet resources and Internet discussion groups,
as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the
You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:
The full text of citations beginning with an ED number (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:
- In microfiche collections worldwide; to find your nearest ERIC Resource Collection, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm.
- For a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, or 1.800.443.ERIC.
(no longer available)
The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:
- The originating journal
- Through interlibrary loan services at your local college or public library
- From article reproduction services such as
ERIC Search Terms Used
bipolar disorder OR mental disorders
Manic Depressive Disorder in Mental Handicap.
Berney, T. P.; Jones, P. M.
Australia and New Zealand Journal of Developmental Disabilities, v14 n3-4 p219-25
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUN90
Eight cases of early onset bipolar affective disorder in adolescents with mental
impairment are described, focusing on age of onset; common characteristics such as
rapid cycling, mixed affective states, and lithium resistance; and the likelihood
that cerebral dysfunction might cause a secondary form of bipolar disorder.
Descriptors: Adolescents; Age; Case Studies; *Depression (Psychology); *Individual
Characteristics; *Mental Disorders; *Mental Retardation; Multiple Disabilities
Identifiers: *Manic Depression
Assessment and Treatment of Depression in Children and Adolescents. Second Edition.
Clarizio, Harvey F.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC11 Plus Postage.
Document Type: BOOK (010)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Michigan
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR95
Target Audience: Practitioners; Students
Despite signs of increasing agreement among mental health professionals,
controversy continues over developmental, diagnostic, and intervention issues
surrounding childhood depression. This introductory text is written for
practitioners as well as for advanced undergraduates or graduate students who are
preparing to become psychologists, social workers, counselors, or special education
teachers working with affectively disturbed children and youth. No attempt is made
to present a consistent theoretical framework. Instead, the book concentrates on
those viewpoints currently popular among mental-health specialists. Although the
text addresses the influence of biological and social forces on affective disorders,
the emphasis is on psychological factors thought to be operative in depression and
suicide among young people. The book's most distinctive features include its
research base, its developmental orientation, and its emphasis on the practitioner.
Other important aspects of the book include: some research positions on childhood
depression; information on the development of this illness; guidelines for diagnosis,
assessment, and treatment of childhood depression; and a separate chapter dealing
with suicide in school-aged youth. Each chapter contains a summary of its content
and a list of references. Twenty-seven tables present diagnostic criteria,
depression checklists, therapeutic approaches, strategies for dealing with suicidal
youth, and other information.
Descriptors: *Adolescents; Affective Measures; Child Health; *Children; Clinical
Diagnosis; *Depression (Psychology); Elementary Secondary Education; Emotional
Problems; Loneliness; Mental Disorders; Mental Health; Psychopathology; Self
Destructive Behavior; *Suicide; Therapy
Emerging from Depression: Treatment of Adolescent Depression Using the Major
Treatment Models of Adult Depression.
Long, Kathleen M.
North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks. Apr 1988. 26p.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
Geographic Source: U.S.; North Dakota
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC88
Noting that adolescents who commit suicide are often clinically depressed, this
paper examines various approaches in the treatment of depression. Major treatment
models of adult depression, which can be directly applied to the treatment of the
depressed adolescent, are described. Major treatment models and selected research
studies are reviewed in the areas of: (1) cognitive therapy; (2) cognitive and
behavior therapy; (3) cognitive therapy with pharmacotherapy; (4) the use of
pharmacotherapy for acute depression; (5) treatment of manic depression with lithium;
(6) the use of lithium in learning and behavior problems; and (7) reality therapy.
The paper concludes that a combination of therapies may be needed to treat depressed
adolescents: one therapy may be needed to treat the condition immediately, especially
if the teenager is suicidal, and another therapy may be needed later to alter
cognitive distortions and to encourage responsible choices in coping with life's
Descriptors: *Adolescents; *Behavior Modification; *Cognitive Restructuring;
Counseling Techniques; *Depression (Psychology); *Drug Therapy; Models; *Reality
Therapy; School Psychologists; Secondary Education
Depressive Personality Disorder: A Review of the Literature.
Sale, Beverley A.
89p.; Doctoral Research Paper, Biola University.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.
Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070); RESEARCH REPORT (143);
Geographic Source: U.S.; California
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC96
The question of whether or not depressive personality disorder is a distinct
disorder separate from mood disorders or other personality disorders has historically
been debated by researchers and theorists and continues to be a topic of disagreement.
Empirical studies reveal that only a modest relationship may exist between depressive
personality disorder, mood disorders, and other personality disorders. This suggests
that depressive personality disorder may be distinct from mood disorders and other
personality disorders. Further investigations should focus on clearer discrimination
between depressive personality disorder and other personality disorders. Chapters in
this review of the literature are: (1) Introduction; (2) Historical Background of
Depressive Personality, (3) Characterological Depressions as a Subtype of Dysthymia,
(4) Comorbidity of Dysthymia with Axis II Disorders, (5) Depressive Personality as a
Distinct Personality Disorder, and (7) Conclusions. An unpublished instrument,
"Diagnostic Interview for Depressive Personality (DID)" is included as an appendix.
Contains 37 references.
Descriptors: *Depression (Psychology); Emotional Problems; Literature Reviews;
Measures (Individuals); *Mental Disorders; *Moods; Personality Traits; *Psychological
Plain Talk about Depression. Plain Talk Series.
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Bethesda, Md. 1989; 5p.
Report No: DHHS-(ADM)-89-1639
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Document Type: GENERAL REPORT (140)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Maryland
Journal Announcement: RIEJUL91
Depression is defined as a "whole-body" illness, involving the body, mood, and
thoughts. Three of the most prevalent types of depressive disorders are described:
major depression, dysthymia, and bipolar disorders (formerly called manic-depressive
illness). Eleven symptoms of depression and 10 symptoms of mania are listed. Causes
of depression are discussed, focusing on genetic, psychological, and environmental
factors. Diagnostic evaluation and treatment are described. The components of a
diagnostic evaluation are discussed. Antidepressant medications are reviewed,
focusing on tricyclics, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and lithium. It is noted that
antidepressants are not habit-forming and that antianxiety drugs are not
antidepressants. Side effects of antidepressants are discussed and ways to deal with
them are presented. Psychotherapies are discussed, including the issues involved in
short-term therapy, behavior therapy, and psychodynamic therapy. Information on self-
help is presented, including realizing that depressive disorders make one feel
exhausted, worthless, helpless, and hopeless. Advice is given on what actions to
take or not to take when one is depressed. Information on how to help depressed
persons is discussed. This includes helping the depressed person to get diagnosis
and treatment and offering emotional support. Addresses of groups providing
information are included.
Descriptors: Adults; *Depression (Psychology); Etiology; Helping Relationship;
Mental Disorders; Psychiatric Services; Psychological Services; *Psychotherapy;
Referral; *Symptoms (Individual Disorders)
Depressive Disorders: Treatments Bring New Hope.
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, Md. Div. of Scientific and
Public Information. 1986; 31p.
Report No: DHHS-(ADM)-86-1491
EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIENOV87
This booklet describes the symptoms, forms, causes, and treatment of depression,
with particular focus on depression in children, adolescents, and older adults.
Symptoms include: persistent sad or "empty" mood; feelings of hopelessness, guilt, or
helplessness; loss of interest in ordinary activities; sleep disturbances; eating
disturbances; thoughts of death or suicide; and restlessness and irritability. Among
the disorders several forms are major clinical depression, dysthymia, bipolar
depression (also called manic-depressive disorder), or a combination of disorders.
Causes include genetic, biochemical, and environmental factors. Treatments include
drug, psychosocial, and electroconvulsive therapy, and (still under study)
experimental treatments. Childhood depression may go unrecognized when combined with
other types of behavior such as hyperactivity or delinquency. Depression appears to
be occurring more commonly among teenagers, whose symptoms are sometimes attributed
to the "normal adjustments" of adolescence. Symptoms of depressed older adults are
often misdiagnosed as senility or everyday problems of the aged. The depressed
person can be helped by family and friends who maintain as normal a relationship as
possible, point out distorted thinking without being critical or disapproving,
acknowledge that the depressed individual is suffering and in pain, and express
affection. Family and friends should not blame the depressed person for his or her
condition or say or do anything to exacerbate a poor self-image.
Descriptors: Adolescents; Biochemistry; Children; *Depression (Psychology); Drug
Therapy; *Emotional Disturbances; *Etiology; Genetics; Older Adults; Psychotherapy;
Diagnosis of Mood Disorders.
Seligman, Linda; Moore, Bonita Marcus
Journal of Counseling & Development, v74 n1 p65-69 Sep-Oct 1995
Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUN96
Provides an overview of mood disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual (fourth edition) criteria and other relevant information. Differential
diagnosis is facilitated through discussion of differences and similarities among
mental disorders, age and gender-related patterns of mood disorders, and useful
Descriptors: *Clinical Diagnosis; *Depression (Psychology); Evaluation; Higher
Education; Measures (Individuals); *Moods
Identifiers: Bipolar Disorder; *Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Understanding Bipolar Disorder: Implications for Mental Health Counselors.
Withrow, J. Steve; Hinkle, J. Scott
Journal of Mental Health Counseling, v12 n2 p138-50 Apr 1990
Report No: ISSN-0193-1830
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); GENERAL REPORT (140)
Journal Announcement: CIJFEB91
Provides an overview of bipolar disorder, including a discussion of diagnostic
indicators, etiological theories, and psychopharmacological treatment. Examines
treatment implications for mental health counselors, including role in psychiatric
liaison, individual counseling, marriage and family therapy, and vocational
Descriptors: Clinical Diagnosis; Counseling; Etiology; *Mental Disorders;
Identifiers: *Bipolar Disorder
Available from your local bookstore or library:
Survival Strategies for Parenting Children with Bipolar Disorder.
George T. Lynn. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. 325 Chestnut Street.
Philadelphia, PA 19106. http://www.jkp.com
The Bipolar Child: The Definitive and Reassuring Guide to Childhood's Most Misunderstood Disorder.
Demitri Papolos and Janice Papolos. Broadway Books, 1540 Broadway, New York, NY 10036.
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