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Positive Behavior Support for Students with Behavior Disorders
(updated July 2001)

What teaching strategies can be used to educate students with behavior disorders?

This file includes information about behavior disorders.

Following are links to related ERIC Digests, frequently asked questions (FAQs), Internet resources, and Internet discussion groups, as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the citations.

You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:

ERIC Citations

The full text of ERIC documents (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:

  • In microfiche collections worldwide; to find your nearest ERIC Resource Collection, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm.
  • For a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com, service@edrs.com, or 1.800.443.ERIC. (no longer available)

The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:

ERIC Search Terms Used

behavior disorders


teaching methods OR classroom techniques OR educational strategies OR instructional effectiveness OR learning strategies

EJ601363 EC624064
Title: Collaborating To Teach Prosocial Skills.
Author(s) Allsopp, David H.; Santos, Karen E.; Linn, Reid
Source: Intervention in School and Clinic, v35 n3 p141-46 Jan 2000
Publication Date: 2000
ISSN: 1053-4512
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJAUG2000
This article describes a collaborative prosocial skills program. Steps of the intervention include forming teams of educators, targeting necessary prosocial skills, developing an instructional plan, determining the setting and collaborative roles, delivery instruction, and providing opportunities for student practice, reinforcement, and self-monitoring. Several real-life cases are provided as examples.
Descriptors: Antisocial Behavior; Behavior Change; *Behavior Disorders; Case Studies; Elementary Secondary Education; *Emotional Disturbances; *Interpersonal Competence; Intervention; *Teacher Collaboration; *Teaching Methods; Teamwork
Identifiers: *Social Skills Training

ED439580 EC307812
Title: Positive Behavior Support for People with Developmental Disabilities: A Research Synthesis.
Author(s) Carr, Edward G.; Horner, Robert H.; Turnbull, Ann P.; Marquis, Janet G.; McLaughlin, Darlene Magito; McAtee, Michelle L.; Smith, Christopher E.; Ryan, Kaarin Anderson; Ruef, Michael B.; Doolabh, Ajit; Braddock, David, Ed.
Author Affiliation: American Association on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.(BBB28032)
Pages: 119
Publication Date: 1999
Notes: Portions of this paper were presented at the annual meeting of the American Association on Mental Retardation, New York, May 1997.
Sponsoring Agency: Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC. (EDD00017)
Contract No: H023E50001
ISBN: 0-940898-60-8
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.
Availability: American Association on Mental Retardation, 444 North Capitol St., NW, Suite 846, Washington, DC 20001-1512.
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Information Analysis (070); Reports--Research (143)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIESEP2000
This book, prepared in response to a request from the United States Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, reviews the published literature on positive behavior interventions and uses this database to provide four main content areas for research. Positive behavior support (PBS) is defined as an approach for dealing with problem behavior that focuses on the remediation of deficient contexts (such as environmental conditions and/or behavioral repertoires) that by functional assessment are documented to be the source of the problem. The research published on PBS between 1985 and 1996 (n=107 articles) was reviewed with respect to four categories of variables: demographics, assessment practices, intervention strategies, and outcomes. Results indicated that: (1) PBS is widely applicable to people with serious problem behavior; (2) the field is growing rapidly overall, but especially in the use of assessment and in interventions that focus on correcting environmental deficiencies; (3) using stringent criteria of success, PBS is effective in reducing problem behavior in one-half to two-thirds of cases; (4) success rates nearly double when intervention is based on a prior functional assessment; and (5) consumer needs that emphasize comprehensive lifestyle support, long-term change, practicality and relevance, and direct support for consumers themselves are inadequately addressed by the research base. Recommendations are made for bridging the research-to-practice gap.
Descriptors: Behavior Change; *Behavior Disorders; *Behavior Modification; Classroom Techniques; Demography; Elementary Secondary Education; *Environmental Influences; Intervention; Outcomes of Treatment; *Positive Reinforcement; Program Evaluation; *Research Utilization; Theory Practice Relationship
Identifiers: *Functional Behavioral Assessment; *Positive Behavioral Support

EJ577366 EC620287
Title: Social Skills Training: Should We Raze, Remodel, or Rebuild?
Author(s) Gresham, Frank M.
Source: Behavioral Disorders, v24 n1 p19-25 Nov 1998
Publication Date: 1998
Notes: Special Issue: Emerging Trends and Issues in Research for the Education and Treatment of Children with Behavioral Disorders.
ISSN: 0198-7429
Language: English
Document Type: Information Analysis (070); Journal articles (080); Reports-- Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJAUG1999
Reviews past and present conceptualizations and summarized narrative and meta- analytic reviews of social skills training (SST) outcome studies. Overall, modest effect sizes are reported in the meta-analytic literature, suggesting that SST is a relatively weak intervention strategy. Recommendations for rebuilding SST are provided.
Descriptors: *Behavior Disorders; Elementary Secondary Education; *Emotional Disturbances; Generalization; Instructional Effectiveness; *Interpersonal Competence; Intervention; Meta Analysis; *Outcomes of Education; Skill Development; Social Behavior
Identifiers: *Social Skills Training

EJ571919 EC619876
Title: Fight, Flight, or Better Choices: Teaching Nonviolent Responses to Young Children.
Author(s) Guetzloe, Eleanor; Rockwell, Sylvia
Source: Preventing School Failure, v42 n4 p154-59 Sum 1998
Publication Date: 1998
ISSN: 1045-988X
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAY1999
Target Audience: Practitioners
Discusses factors associated with violent behavior in young children and strategies for addressing those factors, including using the "Turtle Technique" for practicing withdrawal and problem-solving, using social-learning curricula, using success-oriented instructional strategies for teaching academics, listing and practicing alternative behaviors, and establishing appropriate reward schedules.

ED435162 EC307494
Title: Interventions for Chronic Behavior Problems. NICHCY Research Brief. RB1.
Author(s) Kupper, Lisa, Ed.
Author Affiliation: National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.(BBB29829)
Pages: 10
Publication Date: October 1999
Notes: "This Research Brief is a synthesis of information presented in Project FORUM's 'Interim Alternative Educational Settings: Related Research and Program Considerations' (Bear, 1999)." See ED 427 483.
Sponsoring Agency: Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC. (EDD00017)
Contract No: H326N980002
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage. Availability: NICHCY, PO Box 1492, Washington DC 20013. Tel: 800-695-0285 (Toll Free, V/TTY); Tel: 202-884-8200 (V/TTY); e-mail: nichcy @aed.org; Web site: .
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Information Analysis (070)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR2000
Target Audience: Practitioners
This paper is designed to help educators understand research findings on promising interventions for students with a history of behavior problems. It reviews programs for preventing such problems from recurring among children and adolescents with chronic antisocial behavior. Findings from the review indicate: (1) assessment of the student's behavior must be linked with interventions that follow the student through different placements; (2) multiple interventions are necessary for improving the behavior of most students; (3) interventions must address not only the problem behavior but a constellation of related behaviors and contributing factors; (4) interventions must be sustained and include specific plans for promoting maintenance over time and generalization; (5) a combination of proactive, corrective, and instructive classroom management strategies is needed; (6) interventions must be developmentally appropriate and address strengths and weaknesses of the individual student and the student's environment; (7) parent education and family therapy are critical components of effective programs for antisocial children; (8) interventions are most effective when provided early in life; (9) interventions should be guided by policies that emphasize positive interventions over punitive ones; and (10) interventions should be fair, consistent, culturally and racially nondiscriminatory, and sensitive to cultural diversity.
Descriptors: *Antisocial Behavior; Behavior Change; *Behavior Disorders; *Behavior Modification; *Classroom Techniques; Cultural Awareness; Early Intervention; Educational Environment; Elementary Secondary Education; Generalization; *Intervention; Parent Participation; Policy Formation; Positive Reinforcement; *Prevention; Program Effectiveness; Program Evaluation; Student Placement

EJ604910 EC624510
Title: Effective Behavior Support: A Systems Approach to Proactive Schoolwide Management.
Author(s) Lewis, Timothy J.; Sugai, George
Source: Focus on Exceptional Children, v31 n6 p1-24 Feb 1999
Publication Date: 1999
ISSN: 0015-511X
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT2000
This article describes Effective Behavioral Support, a systems approach to enhancing the capacity of schools to adopt and sustain use of effective processes for all students. Implementation across four major areas of the school system is discussed, including: (1) schoolwide; (2) nonclassroom; (3) classroom, and (4) individual student. A sample individual positive behavioral support plan is included.
Descriptors: *Behavior Disorders; *Behavior Modification; *Change Strategies; *Classroom Techniques; Educational Environment; Educational Planning; Elementary Secondary Education; Positive Reinforcement; *Program Implementation; *Systems Approach; Teamwork

EJ597156 EC623549
Title: Self-Monitoring, Cueing, Recording, and Managing: Teaching Students To Manage Their Own Behavior.
Author(s) McConnell, Mary E.
Source: TEACHING Exceptional Children, v32 n2 p14-21 Nov-Dec 1999
Publication Date: 1999
ISSN: 0040-0599
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Journal articles (080); Reports-- Descriptive (141)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUN2000
Target Audience: Practitioners; Teachers
This article describes the following processes for encouraging self-management in middle-school students in inclusive classrooms: identify a problem behavior, define the target, collect baseline data, schedule a conference with the student, select self-management procedures, teach the student to use self-management procedures, implement self-monitoring, monitor student progress, and follow-up.
Descriptors: *Behavior Disorders; *Behavior Modification; Classroom Techniques; *Inclusive Schools; *Middle School Students; Middle Schools; *Self Control; *Self Management; Student Participation

ED442250 EC307888
Title: Investigation of the Reciprocal Sequence of Interaction Behaviors of Teachers and Students around Disruptive Behaviors.
Author(s) Nelson, J. Ron
Author Affiliation: Arizona State Univ., Tempe.(BEI03675)
Pages: 43
Publication Date: 1998
Sponsoring Agency: Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC. (EDD00017)
Contract No: H023N70048
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Research (143)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Arizona
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC2000
This report summarizes the procedures and results from a 3-year research project that investigated the reciprocal sequence of interaction behaviors between teachers and students around disruptive behaviors in general education classrooms. The study was conducted in six elementary and two middle schools serving relatively large numbers of students who exhibited disruptive classroom behaviors. Two groups of students (grades 1-8) served as participants in the present study: target and criterion students. The 99 target students exhibited high rates of disruptive behaviors and/or severe forms of such behaviors whereas the 278 criterion students did not exhibit externalizing behaviors. The study was primarily descriptive in nature and focused on naturally occurring events in general education classrooms. Results of the study indicate that the probability of target students complying with teachers' attempts to correct their disruptive behavior was relatively low; teachers were more likely to respond to the disruptive behaviors of target students with a reprimand than in the case of criterion students; target students primarily responded negatively to teachers' attempts to correct their behaviors; and students were more likely to exhibit lower rates of disruptive behaviors when teachers were using direct instruction or effective instruction methods.
Descriptors: *Behavior Disorders; *Behavior Modification; *Classroom Communication; *Classroom Techniques; Elementary Education; Middle Schools; *Teacher Behavior; *Teacher Student Relationship

EJ571927 EC619884
Title: Positive Behavioral Support: Strategies for Teachers.
Author(s) Ruef, Michael B.; Higgins, Cindy; Glaeser, Barbara J. C.; Patnode, Marianne
Source: Intervention in School and Clinic, v34 n1 p21-32 Sep 1998
Publication Date: 1998
ISSN: 1053-4512
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAY1999
Target Audience: Practitioners
Describes what is meant by "positive behavioral support" (PBS) for students with challenging behavior, the value of exploring why a student exhibits challenging behavior, and certain key PBS strategies teachers can implement in their classrooms. Relevant resources for those interested in implementing PBS are provided.

EJ601393 EC624112
Title: The School Context and Risk for Aggression: Implications for School-Based Prevention and Intervention Efforts.
Author(s) Van Acker, Richard; Talbott, Elizabeth
Source: Preventing School Failure, v44 n1 p12-20 Fall 1999
Publication Date: 1999
Notes: Special Topic: Adolescent Aggression and Violence: Continuing Problems for Society.
ISSN: 1045-988X
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJAUG2000
This article discusses key aspects of school-based efforts to identify school context variables that can either ameliorate or exacerbate the risk for violence and aggression. A review of risk factors for aggression is followed by discussion of intervention in early childhood, intervention throughout middle childhood and adolescence, teaching prosocial behavior, and recommendations for affecting the school context positively.
Descriptors: Age Differences; *Aggression; At Risk Persons; *Behavior Disorders; Educational Environment; Elementary Secondary Education; Interpersonal Competence; *Intervention; *Prevention; Prosocial Behavior; Teaching Methods; *Violence

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