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Assistive Technology FAQ (updated November 2002)

How can the use of assistive technology increase the success of students with disabilities in their educational settings?

Assistive technology consists of tools that enhance the functional capabilities of persons with disabilities. Assistive technology is defined in the IDEA as "any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities." Braille readers, wheel chairs, adapted computers, augmentative or alternative communication devices, and hearing aids are examples of assistive technology. These devices expand access to the general education curriculum for individuals with disabilities and also give them a feeling of independence. Amendments to IDEA in 1997 require that assistive technology devices be considered for all children identified as having an exceptional education need. Teachers should consider characteristics of the child and of the different technologies as they decide which device would be most beneficial. Technology that supports students need not always be high tech. Computers and other complicated or expensive devices are not always needed. Often low tech solutions, such as graphic organizers, can greatly improve learning for an individual with disabilities.

Following are links to related ERIC Digests, Internet resources, and Internet discussion groups, as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the citations.

You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:

ERIC Citations

The full text of citations beginning with an ED number (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:

  • In microfiche collections worldwide; to find your nearest ERIC Resource Collection, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm.
  • For a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com, service@edrs.com, or 1.800.443.ERIC. (no longer available)

The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:

ERIC Search Terms Used

disabilities OR special education


computer uses in education OR assistive devices (for disabled) OR communication aids (for disabled)

EJ549555 PS526837
Assistive and Adaptive Technology--Supporting Competence and Independence in Young Children with Disabilities.
Brett, Arlene
Dimensions of Early Childhood, v25 n3 p14-15,18-20 Sum 1997
ISSN: 1068-6177
Argues that computers and related technology can be an important asset in the classrooms of young children with disabilities. Suggests that this technology can promote mobility, communication, and learning; increase independence; augment abilities; compensate for learning challenges; overcome learned helplessness; and foster competence and independence.
Descriptors: *Computer Uses in Education; Developmental Disabilities; Disabilities; Early Childhood Education; Educational Philosophy; *Educational Technology; *Inclusive Schools; Learning Disabilities; *Normalization (Disabilities); Social Integration; Special Education; *Special Needs Students Identifiers: Computer Related Learning Environments; Computer Use; Developmentally Appropriate Programs; Special Needs Children

ED407762 EC305480
A Book of Possibilities: Activities Using Simple Technology. Academic Collection.
Canfield, Helen; Locke, Peggy
1996; 128p.
Available From: AbleNet Inc., 1081 Tenth Avenue, SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414-1312; toll-free telephone: 800-322-0956; (Stock #-Part 2-BPAC) ($27).
Document Not Available from EDRS.
Geographic Source: U.S.; Minnesota
Target Audience: Practitioners; Teachers
Methods are presented for educators in the use of assistive technology to increase the participation of elementary students with severe disabilities in math, science, language arts and spelling, social studies, and reading activities. Over 80 curriculum-based activities using technologies that can be adapted to fit multiple environments and users are included. The manual first describes "tools of the trade" that are quick to assemble, readily available, easy to use, and most appropriate for individuals with severe and profound disabilities, such as: switches, battery device adapters, battery control units, electrical control units, and communication aids. For each tool, a list is given of what is needed to design the tool and how to create it. A cross-reference activities guide is provided for each of the subject areas that matches skills with the tools needed. A list of commercial sources for assistive technology is also provided. The rest of the manual is divided into five different subject areas with relevant lesson plans included in each. The lesson plans identify the subject, grade level, skill, and the tools needed. Additional hints and suggestions for implementing the lesson plans are located in the margins throughout the text.
Descriptors: *Assistive Devices (for Disabled); *Communication Aids (For Disabled); *Electric Circuits; Elementary Education; *Inclusive Schools; Language Arts; Lesson Plans; Mainstreaming; Mathematics Instruction; Reading Instruction; Science Instruction; *Severe Disabilities; Social Studies; Spelling; *Student Participation

ED405687 EC305388
Alternate and Augmentative Communication: An Overview and Manual Communication: Boards and Displays and Electronic Communication Devices: A Look at Features. Information Support Packets #4, #5, and #6.
Capilouto, Gilson J.
South Carolina State Vocational Rehabilitation Dept., West Columbia. Center for Rehabilitation Technology Services. Oct 1996; 25p. Sponsoring Agency: National Inst. on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC.
Contract No: H133E20002-95
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; South Carolina
Target Audience: Community
Three booklets offer guidelines for individuals with communication disorders and their families concerning: (1) alternate and augmentative communication (AAC); (2) manual communication (boards and displays); and (3) electronic communication devices. The first booklet considers the type of individual who can benefit from the use of AAC and what the user needs to be able to do. It offers a questionnaire to help determine whether an individual could benefit from AAC and a glossary of 12 relevant terms. Also provided is a list of seven publications, seven organizations, and four references. The second booklet is a guide to manual communication boards. Guidelines address when a manual system is an appropriate choice and evaluate the user's present skills through a 13-item questionnaire. A second questionnaire assists in evaluating the appropriateness of a specific system for a given user. Additional information (with illustrations) discusses what the display should look like and vocabulary selection. A listing of suppliers of manual communication boards is provided. The third booklet discusses features of electronic communication devices, such as methods of accessing, language usage, speech output, and visual display.
Descriptors: Assistive Devices (for Disabled); *Augmentative and Alternative Communication; Check Lists; *Communication Aids (for Disabled); *Communication Disorders; *Electronic Equipment; Equipment Evaluation; Evaluation Methods; *Manual Communication Identifiers: *Communication Boards

ED413706 EC305980
Kids Included through Technology Are Enriched: A Guidebook for Teachers of Young Children.
Carlson, Brenda; Samels, Karen
PACER Center, Inc., Minneapolis, MN. 1997; 130p.
Sponsoring Agency: Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC06 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; Minnesota
Target Audience: Parents; Practitioners; Teachers
This guidebook is designed to provide information on technology to teachers and service providers who work with children with special needs. It may also be helpful for parents and caregivers of young children. Topics include: the definition of assistive technology; the philosophy of using technology with young children and a rationale that demonstrates benefits for youngsters who have special needs; how technology supports early learning, particularly self-expression, communication, social interactions, and education; assessing for helpful technology; identifying the tools of assistive technology; team tasks in assessment; choosing computer technology for the classroom, including selecting appropriate software and peripheral devices; introducing other devices such as a trackball, mouse keys, touch screen, drawing tablets, and electronic pointing devices; keyboard modifications and alternative keyboards; switch technology; augmentative and alternative communication; effective practices for teaching children to communicate; integrating technology into the early childhood classroom, including how to design lessons with technology; how to use technology for teachers' administrative tasks; assistive technology in a cultural context; assistive technology in the Individualized Education Program or the Individualized Family Service Plan; and funding issues. Appendices include teacher resources, an explanation of legal issues, and a list of resource organizations.
Descriptors: *Appropriate Technology; *Assistive Devices (for Disabled); *Augmentative and Alternative Communication; *Computer Assisted Instruction; Computer Software Selection; Cultural Differences; Curriculum Development; *Disabilities; Early Childhood Education; *Educational Technology; Individualized Education Programs; Individualized Family Service Plans; Special Needs Students; Student Evaluation; Young Children

EJ524506 EC613782
Talking Instead of Typing: Alternate Access to Computers via Speech Recognition Technology.
Cavalier, Albert R.; Ferretti, Ralph P.
Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, v11 n2 p79-85 Sum 1996
The importance of alternative access to computers for persons with developmental disabilities and the ways in which speech recognition technology has been used to reach this goal are discussed. Illustrative studies of the use of speech recognition by persons with disabilities are reviewed, and implications for the effective application of this technology are described.
Descriptors: Accessibility (for Disabled); Adults; Assistive Devices (for Disabled); *Communication Aids (for Disabled); *Developmental Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; *Input Output Devices; *Man Machine Systems; *Speech Communication; Technological Advancement Identifiers: *Speech Recognition

ED404826 EC305347
Accommodating Students with Disabilities: A Guide for School Teachers.
Chang, Moon K.; And Others
Alabama State Univ., Montgomery. Coll. of Education.; Alabama Univ., Birmingham. Coll. of Medicine. 1996; 41p.; For a related document, see EC 305 348.
Sponsoring Agency: National Inst. on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC.
Contract No: N133B30025-95A
EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; Alabama
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
This guide is designed as a resource to assist teachers in making decisions on their instructional planning and delivery by expanding and refining their repertoire of ways and means of making accommodations for students with learning disabilities and visual, hearing, and physical impairments. Part 1 presents ways of providing accommodations without specialized materials and devices for students with different types of disabilities. These include facilitating lip reading, providing lecture notes, providing tactile materials, and teaching in an accessible classroom. Testing accommodations for students with disabilities are also addressed. Certain ways are used exclusively with certain types of disabilities; however, other types of accommodations can be used across the categories of disabilities. Part 2 lists some of the important materials and devices that are not readily available to teachers for their classes but have high impact on accommodation, such as amplification systems, screen enlargers, Braille word processing, and computer voice input utilities. Short descriptions of these materials and devices are presented. Personal computer access problems and modifications to make the computer accessible to students with disabilities are also discussed.
Descriptors: *Access to Education; *Assistive Devices (for Disabled); *Classroom Techniques; Communication Aids (for Disabled); *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; Hearing Impairments; Learning Disabilities; Media Adaptation; Physical Disabilities; Visual Impairments Identifiers: *Academic Accommmodations (Disabilities); Testing Accommodations (Disabilities)

ED410714 EC305768
Assistive Technology Training through Multimedia. Resource Guide.
Dunn, Winnie; Deterding, Cheryl; Dustman, Stephanie A.
Kansas Univ., Kansas City. Medical Center. 1996; 225p.; Accompanying software not available from ERIC.
Sponsoring Agency: Department of Education, Washington, DC.
Contract No: H029K20160
EDRS Price - MF01/PC09 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; Kansas
Target Audience: Practitioners
A four-year federally funded project created this resource guide and interactive multimedia computer software program that are designed to increase knowledge and skills about assistive technology for people with disabilities. Project ASTECH targets special educators, related service personnel, and others who need to learn about assistive technology. The specific areas of assistive technology included in the software are computer access, augmentative communication, and environmental control. Individuals can learn about these areas within three main modules. The first module, Exploring the Possibilities, gives an overview of these three areas by discussing the characteristics and categories of devices, by showing representative devices, and by illustrating examples of students using the devices. The second module, Assessment and Application, takes the learner through the assessment process by first giving general information about assessment. Then the module provides specific information about the aspects of motor, sensory, and cognitive performance that may affect technology support decisions. Through guided applications and student applications, learners can apply information they have learned about assessment with specific case studies. The final module, Installation, Programming, and Troubleshooting, gives general information and then applies it to representative devices. The printed 3-ring binder resource guide supplements information presented in the software program.
Descriptors: *Accessibility (for Disabled); *Assistive Devices (for Disabled); *Augmentative and Alternative Communication; Computer Software; *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; *Personal Autonomy; *Student Evaluation

ED449592 EC308196
Proceedings of the RESNA 2000 Annual Conference: Technology for the New Millennium (Orlando, Florida, June 28-July 2, 2000). Volume 20,
Winters, Jack, Ed.
2000, 616p.
Availble from: Association for the Advancement of Rehabilitation Technology (RESNA), 1700 North Moore St., Suite 1540, Arlington, VA 22201-1903; Tel: 703-524-6686 (Voice); Fax: 703-524-6630.
EDRS Price MF03/PC25 Plus Postage
Document Type: Books (010); Conference Proceedings (021)
This text contains papers presented at the annual conference of the Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA) held on June 28-July 2, 2000, in Orlando, Florida. Papers are divided into the following sections: (1) technology for special populations, which includes papers that discuss using therapist-friendly tools in cognitive assistive technology and tele-rehabilitation, access to wireless telecommunications for people who use text telephones, and technology for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing; (2) augmentative and alternative communication, which includes papers on the development of augmentative portable communication devices, techniques for automatically updating scanning delays and a voice activated phone; (3) computer use and access; (4) functional control and assistance; (5) service delivery and public policy, which includes papers that address accessing assistive technology, universal design, and assistive technology education; (6) quantifying function and outcomes; and (7) seating and mobility. The next two sections present papers from the Student Scientific Paper Competition and the Paralyzed Veterans of America Student Design Competition. The last section contains papers from the 6th RESNA annual research symposium. These papers address ergonomics and highlight emerging technology that increases participation in education, employment, and independent living. (Papers include references.) (CR)
Descriptors:  Accessibility (for Disabled); Adults; Assistive Devices (for Disabled); Augmentative and Alternative Communication; Children; Computers; Delivery Systems; Disabilities; Distance Education; Educational Environment; Federal Legislation; Mobility Aids; Special Education; Transportation; Wheelchairs; Work Environment

EJ527714 EC614390
A History of Legislative Support for Assistive Technology.
Fein, Judith
Journal of Special Education Technology, v13 n1 p1-3 Spr 1996
ISSN: 0162-6434
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); POSITION PAPER (120)
This review of the history of federal support for assistive technology summarizes technology-related statutes administered by the federal Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) and addresses the strategic agenda and commitments for the future that guide OSEP's Technology, Media, and Materials Program.
Descriptors: *Assistive Devices (for Disabled); *Disabilities; Federal Aid; *Federal Legislation; *Federal Programs; Futures (of Society); History; *Public Policy; Technological Advancement Identifiers: *Office of Special Education Programs

EJ637192 EC307924
Tech Tools for Students with Learning Disabilities: Infusion into Inclusive Classrooms.
Quenneville, Jane
Preventing School Failure; v45 n4 p167-70 Sum 2001
Discussion of assistive technology for students with learning disabilities in general education classrooms first reviews computer supports for writing including talking word processors, word prediction software, portable note-taking devices, prewriting organizers, multimedia prewriting prompts, and editing/publishing software. It then considers the role of technology in inclusive classrooms and key factors in technology implementation, especially collaboration. br> Descriptors: Assistive Devices (for Disabled); Computer Software; Computer Uses in Education; Elementary Secondary Education; Inclusive Schools; Learning Disabilities; Teacher Collaboration; Word Processing; Writing Instruction

ED410740 EC305801
Technology in Education: A Case for Change.
Johanson, Joyce
1997; 13p.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
This paper discusses advances in technology and how teachers can use technology for teaching students with disabilities. The work of the Macomb Projects, a group of federally funded, early childhood special education projects at Western Illinois University that has been exploring the use of computer and adaptive technologies in the education of young children with disabilities, is described. Highlighted are: the benefits of assistive technology to children with physical disabilities (encourages autonomous behavior and the increases the probability of interaction with the environment); verbal and nonverbal children (computers encourage communication); and children with autism (computers encourage socialization) are highlighted. Components of implementing technology are also discussed, including the need for administrative support and staff development, technology integration, and software evaluation. Characteristics of good software for young children with special needs are identified, including materials that: (1) encourage exploration, use of imagination, and problem solving; (2) contain sound, music, and voice; and (3) are open ended, animated, and interactive. Other good software characteristics are: the menu and interface facilitate independent use; children can determine the order in which the activities are to be played; several levels of difficulty can be selected; novelty is built-in; the program is highly responsive; and animated routines and verbal instructions are interruptible.
Descriptors: *Assistive Devices (for Disabled); *Computer Assisted Instruction; Computer Software; Computer Software Evaluation; *Computer Software Selection; *Computer Uses in Education; *Disabilities; Early Childhood Education; Preschool Education; Program Effectiveness; Special Education; Teacher Attitudes Identifiers: Western Illinois University

ED412703 EC305920
Exemplary Practices To Develop the Communicative Competence of Students Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication. Final Grant Report.
Light, Janice C.
Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. 1996
283p.; Sponsoring Agency: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (ED), Washington, DC.
Contract No: HO23N20010
EDRS Price - MF01/PC12 Plus Postage.
Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Pennsylvania
This report discusses the objectives and outcomes of a project that investigated the use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems by students with severe communication disabilities. The first objective of the project was to conduct five investigations to identify skills that contribute to the communicative competence of students who use AAC systems. The following skills were identified: use of an introduction strategy, use of partner-focused questions, use of nonobligatory turns by AAC users with efficient rates of communication, and use of grammatically complete messages by AAC users with efficient rates of communication. The project's second objective was to conduct three investigations to evaluate the efficacy of instructional techniques to promote the acquisition, generalization, and long term maintenance of these skills. The instructional techniques resulted in the successful acquisition of target behavior, generalization of its use to practices and new situations in the natural environment, and maintenance of the target skill at least two months post-instruction. The third objective was the successful development and evaluation of three instructional modules for use by speech language pathologists, teachers, and other professionals that documented the instructional goals and techniques. The instructional modules are included in the appendices.
Descriptors: Assistive Devices (for Disabled); *Augmentative and Alternative Communication; *Communication Aids (for Disabled); *Communication Disorders; Elementary Secondary Education; Instructional Materials; *Learning Modules; *Severe Disabilities; *Skill Development; Teaching Methods

EJ604956 EC624595
Planning and Organizing: Assistive Technology Resources in Your School.
Webb, Barbara J.
TEACHING Exceptional Children; v32 n4 p50-55 Mar-Apr 2000
Document Type: Non-Classroom Use (055); Journal Articles (080); Project Descriptions (141)
This article describes how to organize site-based assistive technology packages, determine students' assistive technology needs, and obtain and use the appropriate technology. An assistive technology package worksheet sample and a student worksheet sample are included, along with a list of assistive technology resources on the Web.
Descriptors: Assistive Devices (for Disabled); Computer Assisted Instruction; Computer Uses in Education; Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; Internet; Needs Assessment; Student Evaluation; World Wide Web

EJ523238 IR532860
One-Handed Touch Typing on a QWERTY Keyboard.
Matias, Edgar; And Others
Human-Computer Interaction, v11 n1 p1-27 1996
ISSN: 0737-0024
"Half-QWERTY" (first upper six keys on a keyboard) is a typing technique designed to transfer touch-typing skills to the one-handed condition by using a software- modified keyboard. Tested subjects achieved one-handed speeds of 60 words per minute, 83% of their two-handed rate. Results are important for disabled user access and for compact computer design.
Descriptors: *Assistive Devices (for Disabled); Computer Peripherals; *Computer Software Development; Disabilities; Methods; *Typewriting Identifiers: *Computer Users; Typing Speed

EJ541465 IR534662
Adaptive Technology—Unleashing the Power of Technology for All Students.
Messerer, Jeff
Learning and Leading with Technology, v24 n5 p50-53 Feb 1997
ISSN: 1082-5754
Outlines the types of technology available to students with special needs (speech synthesizers, text enlargers, switches, pointing devices, and alternative keyboards), and provides a list of companies and nonprofit organizations that can assist coordinators, teachers, and families in learning about assistive technologies. Discusses visual impairments, physical impairments, and improving communication.
Descriptors: *Assistive Devices (for Disabled); Communication (Thought Transfer); *Disabilities; Organizations (Groups); *Special Education; Student Needs; Vendors

EJ530741 EC614557
Helping Persons with Disabilities to Become Literate Using Assistive Technology: Practice and Policy Suggestions.
Pierce, Patsy L.; Porter, Patricia B.
Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, v11 n3 p142-46,162 Fall 1996
This article explores the use of assistive technology to teach basic literacy skills to individuals with disabilities. Literacy assessment and intervention techniques, policy issues related to literacy and assistive technology, and future directions are discussed. The importance of developing policy to ensure the delivery of literacy instruction using assistive technology supports is emphasized.
Descriptors: *Assistive Devices (for Disabled); *Disabilities; *Educational Policy; Elementary Secondary Education; *Literacy Education; Reading Skills; Writing Skills

ED411659 EC305852
Technology for Students with Disabilities: A Decision Maker's Resource Guide.
National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. 1997; 115p.
Sponsoring Agency: Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC.
ISBN: 0-88364-207-7
EDRS Price - MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; Virginia
Government: Federal
Target Audience: Practitioners
This guide presents strategies for applying technology to help students who have cognitive and physical disabilities, and shows how technology is useful not only in presenting curriculum and assessing students, but also in the administration and organization of special education programs. Case studies and descriptions of state- of-the-art applications illustrate how technology can help students with disabilities master complex materials and basic skills and how technology can support educators in assessing and evaluating students' progress. Chapter 1 describes the most common challenges associated with educating children with disabilities and discusses research-validated approaches in assistive instruction and assessment technologies. Chapter 2 demystifies the process of determining what technology will best meet student needs and discusses the cost effective acquisition of those technologies. Chapter 3 delineates strategies necessary to ensure that technology investments produce continuous learning improvements, including the establishment of a technology team and devising a long-range technology plan. Chapter 4 provides assistance in finding the help needed to make technology "pay off." It includes an extensive resource list that provides contact information and describes national, state, and local organizations, information centers, clearinghouses, and research group that provide services, information, and demonstrations of technology. An appendix includes relevant federal documents on assistive technology.
Descriptors: Access to Education; *Appropriate Technology; *Assistive Devices (for Disabled); Case Studies; Cost Effectiveness; Decision Making; *Disabilities; Educational Technology; Elementary Secondary Education; Evaluation Methods; *Financial Support; *Inclusive Schools; Information Sources; Mainstreaming; Organizations (Groups); Program Implementation; Student Evaluation; Technological Advancement

ED451649 EC308332
You Don't Know What You've Been Missing! Alerting and Signaling Devices.
Davis, Cheryl D.
2000; 13 p.
Northwest Outreach Center, Regional Resource Center on Deafness, Western Oregon University, Monmouth, OR 97361. Tel: 503-838-8642 (Voice/TTY); Fax: 503-838-8228; e-mail: nwoc@wou.edu; Web site: http://www.wou.edu/nwoc. Document Type: Directories (132)
EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
This publication describes assistive devices to help convert auditory signals to signals that are accessible to persons who are hard of hearing, deaf, or deaf-blind. Introductory material describes the four regional centers making up the Postsecondary Education Programs Network. Each descriptive page includes photographs and prices as well as examples of uses of particular devices. Descriptions cover telephones, door announcers, timers, alarm clocks, remote devices, hearing dogs, and automobiles. Some of the specific items described are flashing lights (for ringing telephones), telephone jacksplits, the doorbell, timers, alarm clocks, smoke alarms, crib monitors, door announcers, audio alarms, motion sensors, personal receivers, Web sites for information on hearing dogs, automobile emergency vehicle alert, turn signals, mirrors, and mobility reimbursement programs. Other information includes guidelines for evaluating one's needs, alternative sources, and relevant statutes. Further information including detailed contact information for the Northwest Outreach Center completes the publication.
Descriptors: Accessibility (for Disabled); Assistive Devices (for Disabled); Communication Aids (for Disabled); Deaf Blind; Deafness; Equipment; Hearing Impairments; Safety; Telephone Communications Systems

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