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Apraxia-FAQ (updated April 2000)

What can you tell me about apraxia?

Apraxia of speech is felt to be a neurogenic (neurologically based) speech motor disorder. Many (or perhaps most) children with apraxia of speech have no abnormalities as detected by MRI scans. Others may have specific damage to a part of the brain that can account for the problem. In the latter case, some children are born with such damage and other children acquire damage to the brain by accident or illness.

Children with apraxia of speech reportedly do not do progress well in their actual speech production with therapy tailored for other articulation problems or with language stimulation approaches. Additionally, in young children the motor/sensory techniques, oral-motor exercises, drills, etc. should be woven into play activities that are highly motivational to them. What experienced therapists and families report is that children with apraxia need frequent one-on-one therapy and lots of repetition of sounds, sound sequences, and movement patterns in order to incorporate them and make them automatic.

Also, many therapists recommend the use of sign language, picture books, and other means to augment speech in the child who is not clearly understood. This approach may be called "total communication." Many children with apraxia of speech, even at young ages, have some awareness of their difficulty. Providing successful communication experiences only encourages the child. Also, for children with apraxia of speech, signs can become important visual cues to help them know how to place their mouths, etc. in order to produce the desired word. With appropriate therapy and a lot of follow-through by parents and others, many children with apraxia of speech can become effective verbal communicators. (From Apraxia-Kids Homepage, www.apraxia-kids.org)

Following are links to related Internet resources, and Internet discussion groups, as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the citations.

You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:

ERIC Citations

The full text of ERIC documents (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:

  • In microfiche collections worldwide; to find your nearest ERIC Resource Collection, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm.
  • For a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com, service@edrs.com, or 1.800.443.ERIC. (no longer available)

The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:

ERIC Search Terms Used


EJ390586 EC212736
Developmental Apraxia and Augmentative or Alternative Communication--A Case Example.
Culp, Delva M.
Augmentative and Alternative Communication, v5 n1 p27-34 Mar 1989
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT89
The case study involves a developmentally apraxic eight-year-old girl using a multimodal communication system. The Partners in Augmentative Communication Training program was implemented. Results after two months suggested some improvement in communication interaction skills. Issues regarding developmental apraxia and the use of augmentative and alternative communication are addressed.
Descriptors: Case Studies; Children; *Communication Disorders; *Communication Skills; *Interaction; *Language Acquisition; *Language Handicaps; *Teaching Methods; Total Communication
Identifiers: *Apraxia (Speech)

EJ289816 EC160501
Syntactic Findings in Developmental Verbal Apraxia.
Ekelman, Barbara L.; Aram, Dorothy M
Journal of Communication Disorders, v16 n4 p237-50 Jul 1983
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJMAR84
Analysis of spontaneous language samples of eight children (4-11 years old) diagnosed with developmental verbal apraxia (motor speech disorder) revealed that at least some of the errors could not be attributed to motor speech and/or phonologic limitations but rather indicated concomitant syntactic disorders.
Descriptors: Elementary Education; Language Acquisition; *Language Handicaps; *Speech Handicaps; *Syntax
Identifiers: *Verbal Apraxia

EJ526055 EC613882
The Specific Relation between Perception and Production Errors for Place of Articulation in Developmental Apraxia of Speech.
Groenen, Paul; And Others
Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, v39 n3 p468-82 Jun 1996 ISSN: 0022-4685
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJNOV96
Target Audience: Researchers
Seventeen children (ages 6-11) with developmental apraxia of speech were administered tests of identification and discrimination of resynthesized and synthesized monosyllabic words differing in place of articulation of the initial voiced stop consonants and intensity of the third formant. Results indicated no phonetic processing deficit in developmental apraxia of speech, though subjects demonstrated poorer discrimination, which suggests affected auditory processing.
Descriptors: Articulation (Speech); *Articulation Impairments; Auditory Discrimination; *Auditory Perception; Children; Perceptual Impairments; Phonology; Speech Acts; *Speech Impairments; *Speech Skills
Identifiers: *Apraxia (Speech)

EJ362401 EC201108
An Approach to the Treatment of Mild to Moderately Severe Apraxia.
Hagen, Chris
Topics in Language Disorders, v8 n1 p34-50 Dec 1987
For related articles, see EC 201 105-111.
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJMAR88
An approach to treating mild to moderately severe cases of the speech disturbance, apraxia, focuses on helping the patient establish a conscious knowledge of how an accurate response is produced through a five-phase training program.
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes; Expressive Language; *Language Handicaps; *Speech Handicaps; *Speech Therapy; *Training Methods
Identifiers: *Apraxia

EJ399104 EC221196
The Occurrence of Developmental Apraxia of Speech in a Mild Articulation Disorder: A Case Study.
Hall, Penelope K.
Journal of Communication Disorders, v22 n4 p265-76 Aug 1989
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJAPR90
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
A case study is presented of a fourth-grade girl with a seemingly mild "r" articulation problem. During remediation, it was determined that the girl also presented characteristics consistent with developmental apraxia of speech. A motor- programming remedial model was initiated; following five semesters of remediation, acceptable performance levels were attained. Descriptors: *Articulation Impairments; Case Studies; Educational Diagnosis; *Handicap Identification; Intermediate Grades; *Speech Handicaps; Speech Improvement; *Speech Therapy
Identifiers: *Apraxia (Speech)

ED288283 EC200753
The Presence of Word-Retrieval Deficits in Developmental Verbal Apraxia.
Hall, Penelope K.; And Others
Nov 1986
22p.; Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Speech-Language- Hearing Association (Detroit, MI, November 21-24, 1986).
EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Geographic Source: U.S.; Iowa
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR88
Five children, aged 7-10 years, exhibiting Developmental Verbal Apraxia (DVA) were evaluated to determine the presence of word-retrieval problems. DVA is a symptom cluster including at least some of 21 potential symptoms, such as delayed speech development and severe articulation disorder. The Boston Naming Test (a picture confrontation naming task) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised, Form L, were administered to all subjects. Evidence of word-finding problems was based on the number of correct responses, the speed with which responses were given, and other word-finding behaviors. Results indicated that the DVA children had more restricted receptive vocabularies, expressively identified fewer pictures correctly upon confrontation, identified the pictures more slowly than did normal children of the same age, and exhibited more behaviors often associated with word-finding problems (such as fidgeting and hitting their heads). A year later, two of the DVA children were administered the new German's Test of Word Finding, which confirmed the continuing presence of word-finding problems. It was concluded that children exhibiting DVA are thus at high risk to exhibit significant word-retrieval problems, and remedial objectives addressing these problems should be included in treatment programs of DVA clients so identified. Appended are tables detailing the research results.
Descriptors: Articulation Impairments; Communication Skills; Elementary Education; *Expressive Language; *Language Handicaps; *Receptive Language; *Speech Handicaps; Speech Skills; *Verbal Ability; Verbal Tests
Identifiers: *Apraxia (Speech); *Word Retrieval

EJ470753 EC606997
The Perception and Production of Rhyme in Normal and Developmentally Apraxic Children.
Marion, Michelle J.; And Others
Journal of Communication Disorders, v26 n3 p129-60 Sep 1993
ISSN: 0021-9924
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJFEB94
Target Audience: Researchers
The phonological competence of 4 children, ages 5-7 years old, with a diagnosis of developmental apraxia of speech (DAS), was contrasted to that of 4 normal children. The DAS children revealed a severe deficit in rhyming ability. Results suggest that DAS is a fundamental disorder of the segmental phonological level of language.
Descriptors: *Developmental Disabilities; *Language Acquisition; *Language Handicaps; *Phonology; Speech Skills; Young Children
Identifiers: *Apraxia (Speech); *Rhyme

EJ390584 EC212734
Augmentative and Alternative Communication Applications for Persons with Severe Congenital Communication Disorders: An Introduction.
Mirenda, Pat; Mathy-Laikko, Pamela
Augmentative and Alternative Communication, v5 n1 p3-13 Mar 1989
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT89
The paper presents an overview of issues in augmentative and alternative communication as well as basic information on etiology, prevalence, and associated communication characteristics for the following conditions: cerebral palsy, mental retardation, autism, developmental verbal apraxia, and specific language disorders.
Descriptors: Autism; Cerebral Palsy; *Communication Disorders; Communication Skills; *Disabilities; Incidence; Language Handicaps; Mental Retardation; Therapy
Identifiers: *Augmentative Communication Systems

EJ380092 EC211142
Management Strategies for Developmental Apraxia of Speech: A Review of Literature.
Pannbacker, Mary
Journal of Communication Disorders, v21 n5 p363-71 Sep 1988
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJAPR89
The paper describes a series of management strategies for developmental apraxia of speech. Numerous unanswered questions about the effects of therapy are posed and pertinent research issues are identified.
Descriptors: *Developmental Disabilities; *Outcomes of Treatment; Research Needs; *Speech Handicaps; *Speech Therapy
Identifiers: *Apraxia (Speech)

EJ544449 EC616524
Developmental Apraxia of Speech: I. Descriptive and Theoretical Perspectives.
Shriberg, Lawrence D.; And Others
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, v40 n2 p273-85 Apr 1997
ISSN: 1092-4388
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT97
Discusses developmental apraxia of speech (DAS), a putative diagnostic category for children whose speech errors differ from errors of children with developmental speech delay and resemble errors of adults with acquired apraxia of speech. A study of 148 children with language impairments investigated the diagnosis of DAS.
Descriptors: Children; *Clinical Diagnosis; *Developmental Delays; *Disability Identification; *Etiology; Speech Evaluation; *Speech Impairments; Student Characteristics
Identifiers: *Apraxia (Speech)

EJ318000 CG528360
The Effects of Method and Comprehensiveness of Training on the Reliability and Validity of Ratings of Counselor Empathy.
Wilson, F. Robert; Griswold, Mary Lynn
Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, v18 n1 p3-11 Apr 1985
Language: English
Journal Announcement: CIJSEP85
Type and comprehensiveness of training were experimentally manipulated (N=128) to study their effects on the reliability and validity of rated counselor empathy. Implications for observer training are discussed.
Descriptors: College Students; *Counselor Characteristics; *Empathy; *Interrater Reliability; Observation; *Outcomes of Education; *Training Methods; Validity

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