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Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD)
(updated April 2000)

What can you tell me about Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD)?

Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) is a category designated by the American Psychiatric Association to indicate children with delay or deviance in their social/language/motor and/or cognitive development. A child may have delays in social development and delays in one or more of the other categories. The profiles of children with a PDD can vary tremendously. PDD is not one disorder but a category that encompasses a wide range of delays of different magnitude in different domains. Autism is the most severe of the pervasive developmental disorders. Autism indicates a primary disturbance in the individual's ability to relate to others. Language delay and cognitive delays are also common.

PDD-NOS represents Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified. This is a diagnosis given to a child who exhibits impairment in the development of reciprocal social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication, or when stereotyped behavior or activities are present. However, the child does not meet the criteria for any specific pervasive developmental disorder.

There is no cure for autism at present. there are many kinds of intervention suggested by people and professionals with different degrees of experience with autistic people. Be wary of any intervention that promises a cure or that suggests that the particular method advocated is the only effective approach. There are data to indicate that the best intervention for autism/PDD is early intensive intervention that utilizes behavioral methods and speech and language therapy to remediate specific deficits. (From http://infomed.edu/chldstdy/autism/page1.1.html)

Following are links to related ERIC Digests, minibibliographies, frequently asked questions (FAQs), Internet resources, and Internet discussion groups, as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the citations.


You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:

ERIC Citations

The full text of citations beginning with an ED number (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:

  • In microfiche collections worldwide; to find your nearest ERIC Resource Collection, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm.
  • For a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com, service@edrs.com, or 1.800.443.ERIC. (no longer available)

The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:

ERIC Search Terms Used

pervasive developmental disorders

ED400654 EC305138
Increasing Social Interactions of Preschoolers with Autism through Relationships with Typically Developing Peers.
Ball, James
1996
52p.; Ed.D. Practicum Report, Nova Southeastern University.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: PRACTICUM PAPER (043)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Florida
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR97
This report describes a practicum that was designed to improve the social skills of eight preschool children with autism or Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), through interactions with their typically developing peers. The children were taught in a classroom with eight typically developing children using a regular education curriculum, with modifications to address specific individualized education program goals and objectives. Learning centers were used to teach the academic skills; group time was used to teach beginning concepts; play time was used to teach social skills; and small group time was used to promote interactions between typically developing children and the children with autism. Skill streaming, pivotal response training, and a group contingency were utilized in these settings. Seven of the children with autism improved in each of the four social areas that were studied: (1) eye contact; (2) parallel and symbolic play skills; (3) turn taking; and (4) verbal and nonverbal responses. The use of peer modeling was found to be highly successful in maintaining integration of the children in the class. The typically developing children made gains in academic skills, expressive language, and self-esteem.
Descriptors: *Autism; Expressive Language; Eye Contact; Inclusive Schools; Instructional Effectiveness; Interaction; *Interpersonal Competence; Modeling (Psychology); *Peer Influence; *Peer Relationship; Peer Teaching; Play; Preschool Education; Self Esteem; *Skill Development; Social Integration; Verbal Communication
Identifiers: *Pervasive Developmental Disorders

ED352748 EC301678
A New Way with Autistic and Other Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.
Miller, Arnold; Eller-Miller, Eileen
Language and Cognitive Development Center, Inc., Boston, MA. 1992
33p.
Sponsoring Agency: American Legion Child Welfare Foundation, Inc., Indianapolis, Ind.
Available From: Language and Cognitive Development Center, Inc., P.O. Box 270, 11 Wyman St., Boston (JP), MA 02130 ($3).
EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Massachusetts
Journal Announcement: RIEMAY93
This monograph describes the program of the Language and Cognitive Development Center (Massachusetts), which serves toddlers and school-aged children with autism or other pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). An introduction presents incidence figures, the program's philosophy, the program's approach to assessment, intervention with children having limited reality systems, approaches to generalization of training, dealing with behavior problems, and the program's unique approach to teaching language. Next, a discussion of cognitive-developmental systems theory examines child development in terms of the sign stage of development (0-18 months), formation and dynamics of reality systems during the sign stage, and the development of intention during the sign stage. Intervention is then considered, including the program's "Umwelt" approach to the evaluation of reality systems, correcting developmental dysfunctions, developing body schema, coping with surroundings, developing social contact, and developing communication and representation skills. The integration of skills learned in the Center into the home environment is then explained. A final discussion answers questions concerning the curriculum for school- age nonverbal or limited verbal PDD children, examines determinants of child success, and offers evidence of the program's success (48 percent of Center children have returned to the public school mainstream for all or part of their classes).
Descriptors: *Autism; Behavior Problems; Child Development; *Cognitive Development; Cognitive Restructuring; *Communication (Thought Transfer); *Early Intervention; Educational Philosophy; Elementary Education; Evaluation Methods; Generalization; *Language Acquisition; Preschool Education; Special Schools; Student Evaluation; *Theories; Transfer of Training
Identifiers: *Language and Cognitive Development Center MA

ED342156 EC300915
"Crack Kids" in School: What To Do, How To Do It. Pervasively Developmentally Delayed (PDD).
Odom-Winn, Danni; Dunagan, Dianne E.
1991; 120p.
ISBN: 0-7925-1867-5
Available From: Educational Activities, Inc., 1937 Grand Ave., Baldwin, NY 11510 ($14.95 plus $2.00 shipping and handling).
Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: BOOK (010); TEACHING GUIDE (052)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Florida
Journal Announcement: RIEJUL92
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
This book addresses the educational needs of children who are pervasively developmentally delayed (PDD), especially those exposed to drugs prenatally and those with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, autism, hyperactivity, Asperger's Syndrome, other health impairments, attention deficit disorder, and childhood aphasia. The first chapter recommends the use of the PDD Characteristics Checklist, the Communication/Behavior Prompts Form, and the Developmental Ages Checklist to identify specific target skills and behaviors. The second chapter offers guidance on organizing the classroom including the "quiet chair;" classroom arrangement; instructional materials; use of learning centers; and suggested books, screening instruments, and augmentative communication systems. Classroom management techniques are discussed in the third chapter and include getting control; getting the child to sit down, stay down, and develop on-task behavior; remediating visual/tactile and auditory ultrasensitivity; dealing with aggression; intervening with self-stimulating behaviors; and managing inappropriate behaviors. The fourth chapter considers basics of language acquisition, alternative forms of communication, and the importance of communication skills to socialization. Some useful examples of sign language are illustrated. Sensory development activities are suggested in the fifth chapter. Chapter 6 offers suggestions for working with parents and chapter 7 offers some specific successful techniques in changing behaviors. Sample forms are attached.
Descriptors: Aggression; Aphasia; Autism; *Behavior Change; *Behavior Disorders; Behavior Modification; Classroom Design; *Classroom Techniques; Communication Skills; *Developmental Disabilities; Discipline; *Drug Abuse; Elementary Education; Hyperactivity; Instructional Materials; Interpersonal Competence; Intervention; Language Acquisition; Learning Centers (Classroom); Parent Teacher Cooperation; *Prenatal Influences; Remedial Instruction; Sign Language; Special Health Problems; Teaching Methods; Time on Task; Timeout
Identifiers: Aspergers Syndrome; *Developmental Delays; Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

EJ511756 EC612219
Visually Cued Instruction for Children with Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders.
Quill, Kathleen Ann
Focus on Autistic Behavior, v10 n3 p10-20 Aug 1995
ISSN: 0887-1566
Language: English
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141)
Journal Announcement: CIJFEB96
This article discusses the theoretical rationale for visually cued instruction and provides examples of pictographic and written language cues used to enhance the organizational skills, general skill development, academic learning, communication, socialization, and self-control of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorders.
Descriptors: *Autism; *Cues; Interpersonal Communication; Interpersonal Competence; *Language Acquisition; Self Control; Skill Development; *Teaching Methods; Theories; *Visual Stimuli
Identifiers: *Pervasive Developmental Disorders

ED406114 RC021015
A Local School Model for Teaching Students with PDD and Autism.
Renew, Frank C., Jr.
Mar 1997
6p.; In: Promoting Progress in Times of Change: Rural Communities Leading the Way; see RC 020 986.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141); CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Massachusetts
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG97
This paper describes a proposed model for providing educational services to students with autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). The model was developed by special education administrators in response to significant increases in the number of students diagnosed with PDD. Services that are necessary to support a classroom for students with autism and PDD include early diagnosis and intervention, discrete-trial teaching techniques, sensory integration activities, parent involvement and support, inclusive opportunities with peers, intensive language and socialization training, and training in generalization skills. The proposed model would include weekly staff training sessions, which would also incorporate student progress reviews and three prescheduled individualized educational plan meetings for each student during the school year. A home-based support component would include an "after school" or community-based recreation program to enable students to practice social and language skills; monthly family support groups to encourage parents to address emotional issues regarding autism; weekly training sessions for family members on teaching, parenting, and behavior management techniques; 2 hours of daily home-based tutoring; coordination between home and school in order to encourage communication between parents and school staff and monitor student progress; assistance to family members and school staff on locating information and resources on autism; and extended school year or summer programs to provide additional learning and social opportunities for autistic children.
Descriptors: *After School Programs; *Autism; Educational Needs; Elementary Secondary Education; Family Involvement; Family Programs; *Family School Relationship; Home Programs; Models; Parent Education; *Program Design; Social Support Groups; *Special Education; *Staff Development; Training
Identifiers: *Pervasive Developmental Disorders

EJ459469 EC605124
Classification of Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Some Concepts and Practical Considerations.
Rutter, Michael; Schopler, Eric
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, v2

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