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Adapted Physical Education-FAQ
(updated April 2000)

How can regular physical education activities be adapted to include students with disabilities?

Adapted physical education is an individualized program of developmental activities, exercises, games, rhythms, and sport designed to meet the unique physical education needs of individuals with disabilities.

Adapted physical education may take place in classes that range from those in regular physical education (i.e., students who are main streamed) to those in self contained classrooms. Although an adapted physical education program is individualized, it can be implemented in a group setting. It should be geared to each student's needs, limitations, and abilities. Whenever appropriate, students receiving an adapted physical education program should be included in regular physical education settings.

Adapted physical education is an active program of physical activity rather than a sedentary alternative program. It supports the attainment of the benefits of physical activity by meeting the needs of students who might otherwise be relegated to passive experiences associated with physical education. In establishing adapted physical education programs, educators work with parents, students, teachers, administrators, and professionals in various disciplines. Adapted physical education may employ developmental, community-based, or other orientations and may use a variety of teaching styles. It takes place in schools and other agencies responsible for educating individuals. (From Adapted Physical Education and Sport, Joseph P. Winnick, ed., Human Kinetics Publisher.)

Following are links to related Internet resources and Internet discussion groups, as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the citations.


You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:

ERIC Citations

The full text of citations beginning with an ED number (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:

  • In microfiche collections worldwide; to find your nearest ERIC Resource Collection, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm.
  • For a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com, service@edrs.com, or 1.800.443.ERIC. (no longer available)

The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:

ERIC Search Terms Used

adapted physical education

EJ461240 EC605471
The Effects of Regular Exercise Programs for Visually Impaired and Sighted Schoolchildren.
Blessing, D. L.; And Others
Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, v87 n2 p50-52 Feb 1993
ISSN: 0145-482X
Language: English
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); RESEARCH REPORT (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJAUG93
Target Audience: Researchers
This study examined effects of a 16-week aerobic exercise training program on the cardiovascular fitness and body composition of 30 students with visual impairments. In comparison with traditional physical education provided to sighted students, the exercise training program resulted in a significant increase in cardiovascular fitness and a significant improvement in body composition measures.
Descriptors: *Adapted Physical Education; Aerobics; Body Composition; *Exercise; *Physical Fitness; Program Effectiveness; *Visual Impairments

EJ509239 SP524366
Using Classwide Peer Tutoring to Facilitate Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Regular Physical Education.
Block, Martin E.; And Others
Physical Educator, v52 n1 p47-56 Win 1995
ISSN: 0031-8981
Language: English
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC95
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
Classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) is a form of peer-mediated instruction that can help provide quality instruction to students with disabilities in regular physical education classes. The article describes CWPT, then discusses its general procedures and student training. Examples of CWPT in a second grade jump-rope unit are included.
Descriptors: Adapted Physical Education; *Class Activities; *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Peer Teaching; *Physical Education; Regular and Special Education Relationship; Special Education; *Teaching Methods; Tutoring

ED373479 EC303247
A Teacher's Guide to Including Students with Disabilities in Regular Physical Education.
Block, Martin E.
1994
276p.
ISBN: 1-55766-156-1
Available From: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., PO Box 10624, Baltimore, MD 21285-0624 ($37).
Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: BOOK (010); NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Maryland
Journal Announcement: RIEJAN95
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
This guide provides guidance on the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular physical education classes. Section 1 comprises three chapters which focus on philosophy, beliefs, and attitudes in relation to physical education, inclusion, and team assessment and programming. The development of a collaborative Physical Education Inclusion Team is recommended. Section 2 describes program planning, assessment, and general and specific instructional and curricular strategies. An ecological approach is suggested for both program planning and functional assessment of students. Informal checklists specifically designed to facilitate inclusion are included. Also addressed in this section are strategies for accommodating students with disabilities, including instructional and curricular modifications. Section 3 presents detailed case studies of implementation with three different age groups: (1) preschool, (2) elementary school, and (3) middle and high school. Each chapter begins with an anecdotal account of a real child with disabilities and also includes numerous illustrations and tables to enhance, supplement, and synthesize major ideas. Also provided in tabular form are many task analyses and illustrative sections of individualized education programs.
Descriptors: Adapted Physical Education; Age Differences; Check Lists; Classroom Techniques; Curriculum Development; *Disabilities; Educational Philosophy; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; Individualized Education Programs; Instructional Development; *Mainstreaming; *Physical Education; Preschool Education; Program Development; Social Integration; Student Evaluation; Task Analysis; *Teaching Methods; Teamwork
Identifiers: Ecological Assessment

EJ443761 SP521137
Identifying Least Restrictive Environment Options in Physical Education.
Decker, James T.; Jansma, Paul
Physical Educator, v48 n4 p192-200 Win 1992
ISSN: 0031-8981
Language: English
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
Journal Announcement: CIJAUG92
Examines the need for least restrictive environment (LRE) options in physical education (PE) for students with disabilities who traditionally receive regular, adapted, or no PE. The paper proposes an alternative approach to identifying LRE options based on the outcome of a three-year Department of Education Special Projects grant.
Descriptors: *Adapted Physical Education; *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; *Equal Education; *Mainstreaming; *Physical Education; Regular and Special Education Relationship

EJ515468 SP524679
Teaching Net Games to Low-Skilled Students: A Teaching for Understanding Approach.
Doolittle, Sarah
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, v66 n7 p18-23 Sep 1995
ISSN: 0730-3084
Language: English
Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJAPR96
With the teaching for understanding approach, physical education teachers can modify standard game skills to help low-skilled secondary school students focus on the important concepts and strategies shared by all net games. The paper explains how to use the teaching for understanding approach in physical education.
Descriptors: Adapted Physical Education; *Curriculum Development; Elementary School Students; Elementary Secondary Education; *Physical Education; *Racquet Sports; Secondary School Students; *Skill Development; Teaching Methods

EJ445839 EC603168
Developmental Aquatics: Assessment and Instructional Programming.
Doremus, Wendy A.
Teaching Exceptional Children, v24 n4 p6-10 Sum 1992
ISSN: 0040-0599
Language: English
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); TEACHING GUIDE (052)
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT92
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
This article provides an assessment tool and guidelines for creating instructional programing in aquatic skills development for children with disabilities functioning below levels required for most adapted beginning aquatics programs. It covers individualized goals and objectives, adjustment to the water, and specific aquatic skills.
Descriptors: *Adapted Physical Education; *Aquatic Sports; *Developmental Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; Evaluation Methods; Individualized Programs; Instructional Design; Measures (Individuals); Recreational Activities; Student Educational Objectives; *Student Evaluation; *Swimming

EJ513576 EC612824
Janet's Picks: Physical Education and Recreation for All
Drill, Janet
TEACHING Exceptional Children, v28 n2 p74-76 Win 1996
ISSN: 0040-0599
Language: English
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); BIBLIOGRAPHY (131)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAR96
This article identifies and briefly describes 18 recent publications on adapted and inclusive physical education and recreation programs. Citations, accompanied by abstracts, are grouped into publications about philosophy, trends, and preparation and publications about practices in schools and communities.
Descriptors: *Adapted Physical Education; *Disabilities; Educational Philosophy; Educational Practices; Educational Trends; Elementary Secondary Education; *Inclusive Schools; Physical Education; Recreational Activities; *Recreational Programs; Social Integration

EJ497668 EC610606
A Physical Education Curriculum for All Preschool Students.
Dummer, Gail M.; And Others
TEACHING Exceptional Children, v27 n3 p28-34 Spr 1995
ISSN: 0040-0599
Language: English
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUN95
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
An integrated preschool physical education curriculum to serve children with and without disabilities is detailed, including the five-step curriculum development process, the developmental and functional characteristics of the curriculum, and facilitation of social integration. A table lists the curriculum's goals and objectives.
Descriptors: Adapted Physical Education; *Curriculum Development; *Disabilities; *Mainstreaming; *Physical Education; *Preschool Education; Social Integration; Student Educational Objectives

ED397600 EC304930
Special Physical Education: Adapted, Individualized, Developmental. Seventh Edition.
Dunn, John M.
1997
634p.
ISBN: 0-697-12623-4
Available From: Brown and Benchmark Publishers, 25 Kessel Court, Madison, WI 53791- 9030.
Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: BOOK (010); TEACHING GUIDE (052)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Wisconsin
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC96
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
This text on physical education for children and adolescents with disabilities attempts to bring together current research findings and best educational practices from the fields of adapted physical education, special education, psychology, medicine, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and therapeutic recreation. The book is organized into four major sections. Section 1 includes chapters on historical background, developmental patterns, motor learning and perception, and understanding individuals with disabilities. Section 2 is on managing the learning environment, with chapters on: organization and administration of special physical education, teaching special physical education, evaluation, and assistive devices. Section 3 presents 12 chapters on the following conditions that result in enervated or impaired movement: (1) orthopedic disabilities, (2) cerebral palsy, (3) muscular weakness and other movement disorders, (4) sensory impairments, (5) cardiopathic conditions, (6) respiratory disorders, (7) nutritional disturbances, (8) other conditions requiring special considerations in physical education, (9) mental retardation, (10) learning disabilities, (11) behavioral disorders, and (12) severe disabilities. Section 4 has chapters on the following specific activities and programs: activities and games for young children, rhythms and dance, individual lifetime activities, dual sports, team games, swimming, physical fitness, posture and body awareness, relaxation, and competitive sport for athletes with disabilities.
Descriptors: *Adapted Physical Education; Assistive Devices (for Disabled); Athletics; *Disabilities; Early Childhood Education; Elementary Secondary Education; *Motor Development; *Physical Disabilities; Physical Fitness; Physical Recreation Programs; Program Development; Psychomotor Skills; *Recreational Activities; Special Education; Student Evaluation; *Teaching Methods; Therapeutic Recreation

ED400655 EC305139
Developing and Implementing a Physical Education Program That Improves the Physical Education Service to Students with Disabilities at an Elementary School through Inclusion.
Hammond, Joy
1996
61p.; Ed.D. Practicum Report, Nova Southeastern University. EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: PRACTICUM PAPER (043)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Florida
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR97
This report describes a practicum designed to improve physical education services for six elementary students (ages 5-9) with disabilities. The project used several strategies to improve physical education services, including: (1) inclusion of the children with disabilities in regular physical education classes; (2) inservice training for the physical education staff in adaptive physical education and inclusion techniques; (3) prior assessment of students with disabilities to give the staff guidance in designing appropriate physical education for them; and (4) an appropriate physical education curriculum that allowed for modifications and adaptations. Results of the project indicate the students with disabilities were able to achieve 14 of 18 physical education goals. There also proved to be other benefits for the students. Inclusion offered the students with disabilities an opportunity to interact socially with students without disabilities and provided a stimulating atmosphere in which to develop their physical skill levels. The students without disabilities gained a better understanding of their peers with disabilities and learned to appreciate individual differences. Appendices contain survey forms and a motor skills test.
Descriptors: *Adapted Physical Education; Consciousness Raising; Curriculum Development; *Disabilities; Elementary Education; *Inclusive Schools; *Inservice Teacher Education; Mainstreaming; Peer Relationship; *Physical Education; Program Development; Program Implementation; Social Integration; Student Evaluation Identifiers: Academic Accommodations (Disabilities)

ED383151 EC303975
Adapted Physical Education National Standards.
Kelly, Luke E.
National Consortium for Physical Education and Recreation for Individuals with Disabilities. 1995
227p.
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (ED), Washington, DC. Div. of Personnel Preparation.
Contract No: H029K20092
ISBN: 0-87322-962-2
Available From: Human Kinetics, PO Box 5076, Champaign, IL 61825-5076 ($25). EDRS Price - MF01/PC10 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEOCT95
These national standards document basic competencies required for individuals providing adapted physical education services. They define qualifications for professionals in this field and the knowledge and skills needed by individuals preparing for the certification examination. An introduction describes the development of the standards, including findings from a survey of the current roles, responsibilities, and perceived needs of practicing adapted physical educators. Fifteen standards are then presented, delineating content that should be known by all physical educators and additional content that should be learned by adapted physical educators. In addition, examples of applications that adapted physical educators would be expected to demonstrate are provided. The 15 standards cover the following areas: human development, motor behavior, exercise science, measurement and evaluation, history and philosophy, unique attributes of learners and considerations for professional practice, curriculum theory and development, assessment, instructional design and planning, teaching, consultation and staff development, program evaluation, continuing education, ethics, and communication. Appendices include information about the National Consortium for Physical Education and Recreation for Individuals with Disabilities and a glossary.
Descriptors: *Academic Standards; *Adapted Physical Education; *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; Exercise Physiology; Knowledge Level; Motor Development; *Physical Education Teachers; Student Evaluation; Teacher Certification; *Teacher Competencies; Teacher Qualifications; Teacher Role

EJ488791 SP523427
Physical Education and Students with HIV/AIDS.
Olenik, Lisa; Sherrill, Claudine
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, v65 n5 p49-52 May-Jun 1994 ISSN: 0730-3084
Language: English
Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055); GENERAL REPORT (140); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC94
Target Audience: Practitioners
The article discusses mainstreaming of students with HIV/AIDS into physical education classes, describing HIV/AIDS conditions and presenting facts about prevalence, concerns related to the preschool and school-aged population, risks associated with the gym, safety precautions, and issues of confidentiality.
Descriptors: *Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; *Adapted Physical Education; Child Health; Confidentiality; Elementary Secondary Education; Mainstreaming; *Physical Education; Preschool Education; Safety; *Special Needs Students; Student Needs

EJ505064 EC611249
AccesSports: A Model for Adapting Mainstream Sports Activities for Individuals with Visual Impairments.
Ponchilla, Paul E.
RE:view, v27 n1 p5-14 Spr 1995
ISSN: 0899-1510
Language: English
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141); NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT95
The AccesSports Model allows professionals with basic knowledge of visual impairments and mainstream sports to analyze any sports activity and design adaptations needed for targets or goals, boundaries, and rules to enable individuals with visual impairments to participate. Suggestions for modifying baseball, table tennis, swim racing, wrestling, track, and others are provided.
Descriptors: *Adapted Physical Education; Adjustment (to Environment); *Assistive Devices (for Disabled); *Athletics; Elementary Secondary Education; Models; Task Analysis; *Visual Impairments
Identifiers: *AccesSports Model

ED407794 EC305553
Achieving a Balance: Proceedings of the National Conference on Adapted Physical Activity (5th, Macomb, Illinois, April 3-5, 1997).
Western Illinois Univ., Macomb. Coll. of Education and Human Services. Apr 1997 98p.; Printed on colored paper.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS (021)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEOCT97
This proceedings include the following papers: "Developing a District Building Based Team" (Kathy Heller and Michelle Till); "Wheelchair Rhythmic Sportive Gymnastics" (Gertrude Krombholz and Atja Gotzova-Kumpf); "Team Building in Inclusion Settings" (Robert Weber); "Inclusion: Identifying Student Needs" (Jeff Runge); "Overview of the Role of Aquatics for Persons with Different Abilities" (Lorraine Bloomquist); "Wheelchair Dance" (Gertrude Krombholz); "Achieving the "Ultra-Stretch"-- A Method for Increasing Flexibility and Fitness for Everyone" (Christine Stopka); "Traditional Korean Play: Jegi-Chagi for Students with Physical Disabilities" (Yong- Ae Whang); "Why Choose Horseback Riding?" (Natalie Bieber); "Three Decades of Adapting Activities to Maximize Student Skill Development" (James Cowart); "Go for the Gold: Common Sense Strategies for Working with ADHD Children" (Michael Davey); "Let's Work Together: Team Building Pool Games" (Phillip Conatser); "The Fitness Clinic for Physically Disabled at San Diego State University: A Model for the Future" (Peter Aufsesser); "Competitive Wheelchair Athletics" (Stefanie Opsal and Amy Crowley); "Appropriate Inclusion in Physical Education: From Perceptions to Practical Pointers" (Nathan Murata and Samuel Hodges); "Adapted Physical Education- Accommodation or Innovation?" (Laura Hunter); "A Practical Application of Aquatics for Persons with Disabilities" (Lorraine E. Bloomquist); "AAALF and the Alliance: Partners in Fitness Education" (Janet A. Seaman); "Raising a Child with Disabilities in the Family" (Catherine Crain and others); "Preparing Students with Disabilities for Spring Break '97" (Jayne Swercinski and Lisa Burres); "The Paralympic Movement: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow" (Robert D. Steadward); "Olympic Access: Design for Athletes, Spectators, and Employees" (Kim Beasley); "Resistive Exercise for Older Adults and Cardiac Patients: Practical Considerations" (Loran D. Erdmann); "Basic Skills and Inclusion of Various Ability Levels" (Robert Weber and Others); "Using Summer Camps to Provide a Developmental Sequence for Physical Activity" (Stefanie Opsal and Amy Crowley); "Moving to a Theme" (Carol A. Ryan); "Inclusion: Modifying Games and Sports Activities for Individuals with Disabilities" (Fred Schack); "Try- Umph-Promoting Sport, Fitness, and Recreation for Youth with Physical Disabilities" (Barbara Anthony); "Trouble or Triumph: Novel Falls Prevention Strategies for Older Adults with Disability" (Mark Alexander Hirsch); "Liability Concerns for Working with Individuals with Disabilities" (Peter Aufsesser); "Pain Free Exercise Training for People with Peripheral Vascular Disease?" (Christine Stopka and others); "Integration in Wheelchair Athletics at University of Wisconsin-Whitewater" (Stefanie Opsal and others); "A Systematic Application of Activity-Based Intervention in Physical Education Programming for Preschoolers with Disabilities" (Ronald Ricardo Smith); and "Introducing Kids to Sports" (Paddy Rossbach).
Descriptors: *Adapted Physical Education; Adults; *Aquatic Sports; Athletics; Dance; Elementary Secondary Education; Exercise; Gymnastics; Health Activities; Horseback Riding; *Inclusive Schools; Mainstreaming; *Physical Activities; *Physical Disabilities; Physical Fitness; Preschool Education; Recreational Activities; Regular and Special Education Relationship; Teamwork; *Wheelchairs
 

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