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MonTAGe: IQ Testing: What are we measuring?

reprinted from MonTAGe, Volume 1, Number 5, May 20, 1996
editor Valorie J. King

click here for...

  1. From The Editor's Desk
  2. Research In Review: IQ Testing (Roeper Review, Vol. 8 No. 3)
  3. A Wider View Of Testing and Assessment
  4. Screening Instruments and Tests
  5. IQ Tests: What Are They Measuring?
  6. Pathfinders In The IQ Wilderness
  7. Problem Solving 101: Find It Yourself
  8. Problem Solving 102: Searching ERIC
  9. Problem Solving 103: Online Library Catalogs & Databases

From The Editor's Desk
by Valorie King (vjking@erols.com)

This week's issue of MonTAGe is devoted to the subject of testing, evaluation, and assessments of children -- specifically, school-age intellectually-gifted children. The focus is upon helping parents to understand the evaluation process and to identify resources which parents may consult when they have questions about specific types of testing or the tests themselves.

Many thoughts come to mind when I consider "what do parents need to know about IQ testing." There is so much to tell you. Finding a starting point is difficult. How do you drink an ocean? (Answer: one sip at a time.) Well, if you don't have a teacup and can't find the cupboard -- you're stuck using your hands, relying upon your own limited resources. At TAGFAM we try very hard to help parents find the answers to their questions. This issue of MonTAGe places "FIND" in capital letters. The focus is on helping YOU to FIND the information that answers your questions about your intellectually gifted child's needs.

Hand a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and you feed him for life.

-- Valorie --

Research In Review: IQ Testing Pro's and Con's
by Valorie J. King (vjking@erols.com)

The February 1986 issue of the Roeper Review (vol. 8, no. 3) is an excellent review of both the research literature and the prevailing professional opinions with regards to the use of IQ tests in the identification of intellectually gifted children. Although ten years have passed, the information is still current and useful for parents and educators alike. The issues in gifted education that were addressed in 1986 are as important today as they were then.

Linda Silverman, Ph.D., a licensed psychologist and well known in the fields of research and advocacy for intellectually gifted children, edited this issue of the Roeper Review. Her editorial in this issue should be required reading for the parents of every intellectually gifted child; the major issues are covered quickly and succinctly. She addresses both the unitary theory of intelligence and the multiple intelligences theories in her explanations and then presents her own synthesis:

"The relation between specific talents and general abilities is still in question. Intelligence tests measure general or global abilities . . . it would appear that intelligence is composed of both general and specific factors and that the relationship between the two depends on the age of the individual tested. The younger the child, the more valid is a global assessment; the older the child, the more differentiated are his or her abilities into specific aptitudes." (Silverman, Roeper Review vol 8 no 3 pp 139)

Other articles of interest in this issue are:

Giftedness, Intelligence and the New Stanford-Binet: An Interview with Elizabeth Hagen. Linda Silverman.

An interview with one of the authors of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Revision IV. Prof. Hagen is co-author with Robert Thorndike of the Cognitive Abilities Test.

MUST reading if you want a better understanding of how IQ tests are constructed and why IQ tests do not necessarily provide an accurate measure of intelligence for highly gifted individuals.

Identifying and Dealing with Exceptionally Gifted Children: The Half-Blind Leading the Sighted. Richard M. Felder.

If you don't believe that testing and early identification benefit gifted children -- read this article. If you do, read the article anyway. It will help the next time someone implies that your gifted child isn't THAT different from his or her age-mates. Good parenting tips too.

Guidelines For Acceleration of Gifted Students. Feldhusen, Proctor, and Black.

An explanation of the guidelines for when and how to use acceleration, grade skipping, and early school entry. From the article:

"The most appropriate educational provision for gifted and talented youth is a system of specifically designed classes which provide learning activities at an appropriate pace and level and which emphasize the process skills of critical and creative thinking and research. Unfortunately, this type of educational provision is not yet available to most gifted and talented youth. However, one of the more readily available educational alternatives for the intellectually gifted student is grade advancement."

The Roeper Review is available in the collections of many public library systems as well as through university libraries. [Editor's note: Roeper Review is available online at Highbeam.com for low monthly subscription price.]  Back issues are usually bound into Folios (oversized). You may have to visit the library itself in order to photocopy the articles of interest to you since many institutions do not allow professional journals to circulate. The Roeper Review is published quarterly by the Roeper City and Country School, P.O. Box 329, Bloomfield Hills, MI USA 48303.

A Wider View Of Testing & Assessment
by Valorie King (vjking@erols.com)

Just when I think I've heard them all, someone comes up with "yet another test" that they need information about. Sometimes, I'll wait a day or two in the hopes that some other parent will be able to answer the request for information. If not, well, it's off to the university library for my favorite book, "Assessment Of Young Children" by Libby G. Cohen and Loraine J. Spenciner. Most of the more "popular" tests are reviewed in this book. The authors also explain the why's and when's of each test -- why it's used and with which age groups. The reviews have sections on reliability and validity which are interesting reading if you're familiar with statistical tests of reliability.

Authors Cohen and Spenciner have given me a wider view of testing and assessment in schools. Did you know that there are at least three federal laws which require schools and other community agencies, receiving federal funds, to seek out, test, evaluate, and provide appropriate educational programming for children with disabilities? I'm sure our legislators had the best interests of our children in mind when these laws were passed. But, the resulting mindset can be a little frightening. The intent of the law could be interpreted as "treat every child as potentially having a disability until proven otherwise." In other words, when a child appears to differ substantially from his/her age-mates in physical development, adaptation to school, academic achievement, or social and emotional development, the school's response may be to look for disabling conditions or developmental problems using procedures (i.e. testing and assessment) defined by federal law. Not every school or school district takes this aggressive an approach to identification. But, many appear to do so, especially at kindergarten entry and in the early elementary grades.

Identification of disabling conditions usually starts with a screening process. Some schools use the screening process to do academic placement as well as look for learning disabilities or developmental delays. During screenings, all children in a given grade or at a given age are given a group test or are individually evaluated using a screening instrument, e.g. a checklist of behaviors or skills. The evaluation process is quick, can usually be performed by anyone, e.g. teacher, parent volunteer, or aide, and produces many false-positives. The mindset here is that it is better to misidentify a child as potentially needing help than to miss a child who might need help.

What happens next depends upon the school's resources -- how much money is available for testing and how many trained test administrators and special education teachers they have available to perform individual tests and assessments. In academic screenings, the children may be grouped according to apparent achievement levels. More frequently, the results are placed in the child's files and referred to if future problems develop. Schools do a fairly good job at identifying children who have obvious developmental delays, vision or hearing problems, and other disabling conditions which require adaptations and modifications in the educational process and environment. But, there are some areas, notably academic potential and social/emotional development, which are difficult to assess in a screening environment. Many are the parents of intellectually gifted children who find themselves confronted with screening results which do not match their own assessments of their children. Misinterpretations abound. "Giftedness" can look very similar to "disability" when your focus is on looking for problems rather than unusual abilities.

So, what do you do? First, if you know that your child has unusual abilities and talents -- make the school aware of these before the screening process starts. Second, find an independent testing agency that is familiar with testing intellectually gifted children. Ask around. TAG parenting groups usually know who the good test givers are. Reading clinics and child guidance clinics (child psychologists & social workers) are usually set up to give either the WISC-III or the Stanford-Binet, revision IV. Numerous TAGFAM parents have said that it was well worth their time and effort to find a test administrator who likes gifted children, frequently tests them, has a good reputation for testing gifted children, and will administer the Stanford-Binet Form LM. The school's screenings may have indicated a need for more than an IQ test -- perhaps academic achievement testing or further testing for learning disabilities. In most cases, it is worth the time and effort to have a full assessment done; then you'll have the test results to use when refuting school assessments (i.e. claims of problems when there are none or claims that your child's needs will be met in the regular classroom with age-mates).

After you have the independent testing results, the hard part starts. In order to plan an appropriate education for your child you need to understand the test instrument used, know what the scores mean, and be able to put together the "big picture" from the individual sub scale results. It's a tall order for most parents but not out of the question. Ask for a meeting to discuss the written report of your child's test results with the test administrator. Ask for a description of each sub scale and the meaning of the results for that sub scale. Ask if there were any problems noted during the testing or if any unusual answers were scored "wrong" according to the test key yet could have been correct under other circumstances (e.g. "windows" go with computers rather than with houses).

It is important that parents understand that screening instruments and tests do not provide definitive answers and directive statements as to what to do next. IQ tests, in particular, are predictive. They "predict" a child's potential for academic achievement. Environment, good or bad, can have a far more powerful effect upon a child's educational outcome than IQ has. A smart child, placed in a poor, understimulating environment is not going to achieve the same level of academic competence and skill as a similarly abled child in an environment which is stimulating and provides opportunities to learn at an accelerated pace. A smart child placed in an environment where he/she has no intellectual peers is not going to develop the social adaptation skills and emotional maturity that are necessary for success in life.

Schools, with their legally mandated focus to find "problems" in the child's development, frequently fail to identify the true source of problems for many gifted children -- poor environmental fit (e.g. wrong grade level or inappropriate teaching methods & curriculum). Failure to place intellectually gifted children with their true peers causes the very problems that are used as "evidence" that the child must be held back. Parents should actively resist a school's misinterpretation and misuse of test results and staff assessments. Otherwise, the intellectually gifted child may be forced to remain in an inappropriate environment which creates problems such as academic underachievement and social/emotional maladjustment.

Screening Instruments and Tests
by Valorie King (vjking@erols.com)

Screening instruments are tests or checklists which are used to quickly scan a group of children for indicators of vision or hearing problems and developmental delays. They may be administered either to groups or individuals and usually take between 15 and 30 minutes. Checklists such as the Denver Developmental Chart can be completed during the course of a "well-baby" checkup -- five or ten minutes total in the doctor's office.

It is the rare school district or state that does not regularly screen preschool and school age children -- federal law mandates the early identification of children who may be "at risk" for school failure due to disability or environmental factors. During the preschool years, screening assessments become more involved and expand to include both expressive (spoken) and receptive language, as well as gross and fine motor development. Since mandatory school attendance does not begin until kindergarten or first grade it is not uncommon to have schools conducting major screenings of all students at that point. Screenings at this point may be used to delay school entry for children showing evidence of developmental delays.

Some common developmental screening instruments are:

AGS Early Screening Profiles -- ages 2 yrs to 6 yrs, 11 mos.
Used to identify children who have disabilities or other problems affecting development.
DIAL-R -- ages 2 yrs to 5 yrs, 11 mos. Used to identify children
requiring curriculum changes or further diagnostic evaluation in three areas: motor skills, conceptual abilities, language.
Early Screening Inventory -- ages 4 yrs to 6 yrs.
Used to identify children "at risk" and needing further evaluation. Three areas: visual-motor-adaptive, language & cognition, gross-motor/body awareness.

Screening tests are designed to have few false-negatives. This is in contrast to IQ tests which are designed to err on the side of a false- negative. Problems in the screening process or use of a test instrument which is not sensitive enough to detect a slight disability or developmental problem can, however, cause false negatives.

Common problems in the screening process are:
bulletCareless or hasty administration of the tests.
bulletUsing test instruments which are not sensitive enough.
bulletUsing tests incorrectly -- screenings are snapshots and do not necessarily reflect a comprehensive assessment of the child.
bulletTesting under adverse conditions including illness, highly distracting surroundings, hunger or fatigue.

Resources:

Assessment In Young Children. Libby G. Cohen and Loraine J. Spenciner. (c) 1994. Longman Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8013-0965-4

IQ Tests: What Are They Measuring?
by Valorie King (vjking@erols.com)

The WISC-III and Stanford-Binet, revision IV, are two widely used tests of intellectual ability that are very similar in what they test and the types of items used to test each factor. The following thumb nail sketch is intended to help parents understand the types of questions or activities which are part of the tests.

IQ tests usually depend upon the child's abilities to understand oral language and to respond orally to questions. For young children or those whose language abilities may be impaired, special IQ tests have been developed for which "pointing" to a picture is a sufficient response to each item. Problems arise when the pictures are not clear or if the child has undetected vision problems.

IQ tests also contain test items which may be culturally dependent. Thus, children who have not been sufficiently exposed to the culture upon which the test is based will score lower on the test. For example, my daughter had not be exposed to the history of World War II and did not know who Anne Frank was. Yet, the IQ test included "who was Anne Frank."

Most IQ tests are divided into verbal and spatial (also called non-verbal) tasks. These two major divisions are then separated into subscales which measure a specific ability or intelligence factor. The IQ score is arrived at by scoring each subscale and then combining the scores according to a formula given in the publisher's manual for the test. If the child hits the ceiling (top score) on one or more subscales then the results are inaccurate. All you know is that the child's abilities were higher than the test could measure. The IQ score has been "clipped" at an artificially low score.

It is also important to note that most subscales are testing for more than one factor at a time. And, it is very difficult to actually verify that a specific test item actually tests the factors the test designer intended to be testing and only those factors. Most of the reviews I've read on IQ tests question the validity of the test items in one way or another. The biggest question is: does this test response really mean what the test's designer says it means.

Stanford-Binet, Rev IV, Subscales

Verbal Reasoning
Vocabulary -- recall of expressive word knowledge & verbal comprehension
Comprehension -- verbal comprehension, vocabulary development, ability to express self verbally, social knowledge (cultural), factual knowledge (cultural)
Absurdities -- visual perception, factual knowledge (cultural), discrimination between items, verbal expression, attention, social knowledge
Verbal Relations -- vocabulary development, concept formation, inductive reasoning, discrimination of essential details, verbal expression
Quantitative Reasoning
Quantitative -- number facts, computation skills, math concepts, problem solving procedures
Number Series -- logical reasoning, concentration, inductive reasoning, math concepts and computation
Equation Building -- logic, flexibility, trial & error, math concepts and procedures, inductive reasoning
Abstract- Visual Reasoning
Pattern Analysis -- visual-motor ability, spatial visualization, pattern analysis, visual-motor coordination
Copying -- visual imagery, visual perception, visual-motor ability, hand-eye coordination
Matrices -- attention, concentration, visual perception, visual analysis, inductive reasoning
Paper Folding & Cutting -- spatial ability, visual perception, visual analysis, inductive reasoning
Short-term Memory
Bead Memory -- short-term memory of visual stimuli, form perception, visual imagery, visual memory, discrimination, alertness to detail
Sentences -- short-term auditory memory, memory, verbal comprehension, concentration, attention
Digits -- short-term auditory memory and attention
Objects -- visual comprehension, attention, concentration, visual memory

WISC-III Subscales

Verbal Subscale
Information -- questions testing "common" knowledge about people, places, things, and events. Oral question/response
Similarities -- What's the same between these two things? Oral/Oral
Arithmetic -- mental math computations, oral response
Vocabulary -- child gives oral definition to word presented orally
Comprehension -- social concepts and understanding of "familiar" problems. Oral/Oral
Digit Span -- Child repeats back a string of digits either forwards or reversing the order
Performance Subscale
Picture Completion -- child identifies the missing piece
Picture Arrangement -- child must put pieces in correct sequence
Block Design -- child arranges blocks to match pattern
Object Assembly -- five jigsaw puzzles
Coding -- table of geometric symbols each paired with a digit 0-9. Child must copy geometric symbols into proper positions under strings of digits
Mazes -- child draws solutions using pencil
Symbol Search -- child searches two groups of paired shapes to find the target shape.

WISC-III Factor Indexes
No.Factor NameSubtests Used In Determining Factor Index
I.Verbal ComprehensionInformation, Similarities, Vocabulary, and Comprehension
II.Perceptual Organization Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, Block Design, and Object Assembly.
III.Freedom From DistractibilityArithmetic, Digit Span
 Note: Factor III's ability to measure "freedom from distractibility" is not generally accepted and has been questioned by various researchers. This factor is NOT GENERALLY ACCEPTED as a measure of attention deficit due to lack of proof that these subtests actually measure the appropriate variables (i.e. attention).
IV.Processing SpeedCoding, Symbol Search
 Note: These subtests are heavily dependent upon vision. Low scores on these subtests could be indicative of visual disturbances or vision problems which require more than a power correction, e.g. focusing problems, astigmatism, perceptual, and/or motor-control difficulties.

Sources:

Assessment of Young Children. Libby G. Cohen & Loraine J. Spenciner. (c) 1994 Longman Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8013-0965-4

Buros Mental Measurements Yearbook

Tests In Print

TAGFAM Archives

Pathfinders In The IQ Wilderness
by Valorie King (vjking@erols.com)

Are you lost in the IQ wilderness? Do you find yourself wondering where to start looking for information? Or, are you perhaps angry and upset that your child's school doesn't seem to have a clue as to what your intellectually gifted child needs? Why don't the education professionals do a better job at meeting the needs of their intellectually gifted charges? It's should be simple, right? Give the child an IQ test, get the number, then you know how smart the child is and how much work he or she can handle. Why isn't it that simple? Could it be that others are lost in the IQ wilderness too?

In the early parts of this century, Terman and Hollingworth, began their own explorations of the IQ wilderness using compasses (IQ Tests) developed by such notables as Alfred Binet. The Stanford-Binet and the Weschler Scales are the two most commonly used IQ tests in our culture. Yet, even with these, intellectual giftedness remains a largely unexplored wilderness. We can now find our way in but, what do we do once we get there? We still lack a map, a plan, a proven path to take through the wilderness.

The money, the need, the social and political WILL to confirm the paths through the wilderness are not present in society at large. As one astute parent put it, "we have no 'gifted' poster children." Intellectually gifted children rarely look like they NEED help. When they do, the help is often focused upon the presenting problem, e.g. failure to pay attention in class, behavior problems, failure to socialize with age-mates, etc. rather than the underlying causes e.g. boredom, lack of challenge and stimulation, and the relative disparity between the child's social, emotional, physical, and intellectual developmental patterns.

Parents of intellectually gifted children are often dissuaded from seeking appropriate paths through the wilderness. Well meaning individuals warn of "lions, and tigers, and bears -- oh my!" There are other motivations which are less well intentioned. Scare tactics abound. And, the trouble is, there's just enough truth in what's being said to give every concerned and loving parent pause . . . to reflect. "Turn back!"

Which path will you take through the wilderness? Will you close your eyes and pretend the forest does not exist? Will you run headlong into the deepest parts relying upon your own innate skills to get you through? Will you be a pathfinder for others? Will you blindly follow the guides provided, free of charge, by your local school board? Will you seek those who are blazing trails and join their efforts? Or, does your child need to be taken by the hand and gently guided along the existing paths, following others' footsteps?

There are researchers laboring in this wilderness. Two of the original researchers in the field of intellectual giftedness are Hollingworth and Terman. In the measurement field we have Alfred Binet. In your initial search for background information you may wish to look for works which cite the following individuals:
Leta HollingworthL. M. Terman 
Howard M. GardnerJ. F. FeldhusenCamilla Benbow

The following individuals are currently active in the field of gifted child education and the social and emotional needs of gifted children. If you begin with their writings and attend conferences where they are featured speakers you will find leads to other sources of information.
Linda SilvermanJoyce Van Tassel-BaskaCarolyn Callahan
Jim DelisleJames WebbSylvia Rimm
Joanne Rand WhitmoreMiraca GrossGary Davis
Jill BurrusDonna Ford-HarrisJay McIntire
Ellen Menaker TomchinGeorge Betts 

In searching bookstore shelves and listening to other parents I've found some fairly decent maps -- books detailing how to approach the educational needs of intellectually gifted children. In addition to the individuals listed above, look for the following authors, publications, and publishers:
Judy GailbraithJoan SmutneyStanley Turecki
Susan WeinbrennerConnie SchmitzGifted Child Quarterly
The Roeper ReviewImagine -- CTYFree Spirit Press

Some TAGFAM members are trail blazers. They willingly provide copies of their maps and descriptions of their explorations for others to read and use. The list archives are a good place to start looking for their "trip reports." Other TAGFAM'ers have shared their tales of "lost in the wilderness" -- those make good reading too. Not everyone is suited to the task of trail blazing. Some of us have our hands full just trying to keep ourselves and our children from wandering around in circles. If you've made it this far, i.e. onto TAGFAM or onto the Internet, then chances are pretty good that you know you've been past that "tree" before. Stop, take some time to get your bearings, and then venture back to the path.

There are guides who can help you find your way. You may find that you need a professional guide, a child psychologist or clinical social-worker, who can provide testing, counseling, and advocacy. Or, you may find that volunteers, other parents from local TAG groups or an online community such as TAGFAM, are adequate guides for your situation. A guide can only show you the path -- you have to walk it. If there really are lions and tigers and bears then you have to be willing to deal with them. Maybe that means stepping out of the line of fire. Maybe it means turning onto a new path. Maybe it means picking up the elephant gun and holding your ground. Maybe it means running as fast as you can down the path and into the sunlight.

Problem Solving 101: Find It Yourself
by Valorie J. King

If you're serious about getting solid information about gifted children -- skip the books written for parents -- go to the professional literature. You'll probably find yourself camping out in a university library for a few days when you start hunting for information.

From home, start with ERIC. It's free. It's available via the Internet. You'll find a lot of useful information in the abstracts and digests which are available online. Research reviews, journal articles, and ERIC documents are almost always more current and up-to-date than textbooks.

The following resources will lead you to technical reviews and information regarding specific IQ tests:

The Buros Mental Measurements Yearbook and its companion resource, Tests In Print, are usually available in university or college libraries. Your school district's professional library may also have current copies of these resources on their reference shelves.

Reviews and journal articles covering current research in the fields of education, child development and child psychology are also available via university libraries and in some larger public library system.

Textbooks on educational research methods, tests and measurement, or assessment of children, may be available via the public library or via inter-library loan. These books usually include information about IQ testing at the level of detail necessary to understand and interpret the scores.

Problem Solving 102: Searching ERIC Digests, CIE, & RJE
by Valorie J. King

ERIC -- Educational Resources Information Center. Accessible via Internet. There are links to ERIC from the TAGFAM homepage. Use ERIC to find citations to journal articles and documents stored in the ERIC microfiche database. ERIC documents may be ordered from ERIC or may be accessible at a nearby university library. ERIC also has DIGESTS which you can read online or have delivered to you via e-mail.

        Access to ERIC:
        
        gopher://gopher.ed.gov
        
        
        Access to ERIC DIGESTS and other information by Clearinghouse:
        
        gopher://ericir.syr.edu/11/Clearinghouses/16houses


        Path to ERIC DIGESTS related to gifted children:
        
        gopher://ericir.syr.edu/11/Clearinghouses/16houses/ERIC_EC/
        
        choose "Disabilities and Gifted Education" then "Gifted"

To search the Current Indexes in Education and Recent Journals in Education Databases:

         Telnet SKLIB.USASK.CA
         login as ERIC
         type HELP for commands

Figuring out which keywords to use in an ERIC search can be an exercise in creativity. Try using some of the names from the "Pathfinders" article elsewhere in this issue of MonTAGe. Look at the index words which appear at the end of the abstract for each database hit. These will give you additional ideas for searches. The HELP screen will tell you how to compose Boolean searches. Try the following:

 
          f ability grouping
          f intelligence assessment
          f Binet
          f WISC
          f academic achievement

Problem Solving 103: Online Library Catalogs & Databases
by Valorie J. King

There are many databases and libraries catalogs available online via telnet, gopher, and webpages. Some include only their own collections. Others include access to a wide variety of resources including some which require that you have a library patron's ID number or barcode in order to use them.

Most online library catalogs use the CARL software. Once you've learned to compose a search in CARL you can quickly search for the books and textbooks you want to request via Inter-Library-Loan. It takes me about ten minutes to find a book using CARL whereas it takes up to an hour to get the librarian at the public library to understand what I'm looking for and then compose and submit the search request for me. Start with libraries that are close to home and branch out from there.

CARL uses a menu system to walk you through the search process. There are also short-cuts which start with // followed by a letter.

       //w      means word search ... usually in the book's description
       //t      means title search ... words in the book's title

From the CARL main screen or the search screen you can access their help files. Be sure to read the instructions on the first screen you see after connecting to CARL.

Some university libraries offer access to FirstSearch and Medline to their borrowers. These two resources are worth the time it takes to learn to use them if you have detailed questions about gifted children. FirstSearch will search current journals and papers in many different fields including the social sciences and medicine. Medline indexes the body of medical research literature and journals. There are some fascinating studies and papers about intelligence and gifted children being written by child psychiatrists. Guess where they're published -- not in the NEA's journals. Use Medline to find them.

Dialog and other similar search engines are expensive. If you've got free access to them, then it may be worth your time to learn how to compose Dialog search queries. Usually a training course is required or you must submit your search request to a librarian who then enters it into the system. Dialog is extremely powerful but ... that means the costs for making mistakes are also higher.

Uncover is a periodicals database which is available via many university gophers. If you cannot locate the journal article via a local library you can set up an account with Uncover and they will either Fax the article to you or mail it via USPS for a reproduction fee + copyright fee.

Finding university libraries online isn't that hard. Select GOPHER then move down through the gopher menu system until you reach your state's listing. Next select a local university and look for their library's menu item. If you can't find one -- try this telnet address:

 
         Telnet victor.umd.edu
         
         login as PAC and select your terminal type. 
         VT100 works for most.

From the University of Maryland you can access Uncover as well as the University of Maryland System Library Catalogs.

MonTAGe: The TAGFAM E-Journal 1996 Valorie J. King


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