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Readings on the Use of Technology for Individuals With Disabilities

This document has been retired from the active collection
of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education.
It contains references or resources that may no longer be valid or up to date.

The ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education (ERIC EC)
E-mail: webmaster@hoagiesgifted.org
Internet: http://eric.hoagiesgifted.org
ERIC EC Minibib EB16
July 1996
Compiled by Janet Drill and Barbara Sorenson
Citations with an ED (ERIC Document; for example, ED123456) number are available in microfiche collections at more than 1,000 locations worldwide; to find the ERIC Resource Collection nearest you, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm. Documents can also be ordered for a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com/, service@edrs.com, or 1-800-443-ERIC.

Journal articles (for example, EJ999999) are available for a fee from the originating journal (check your local college or public library), through interlibrary loan services, or from article reproduction services: Carl Uncover, now at Ingenta: http://www.ingenta.com/, uncover@carl.org, 1-800-787-7979; or ISI: tga@isinet.com, 1-800-523-1850.


Aedo, I. (1994). A teaching methodology for the hearing impaired using hypermedia and computer animation. Journal of Computing in Childhood Education, 5(3/4), 353-69.
This article examines the possibilities and advantages of computers in teaching hearing-impaired children. A method of using computers to improve the spoken and written communication skills of the hearing impaired is presented which suggests that hypertext and multimedia technologies can be successfully applied to speech therapy teaching, lip-reading teaching, hearing training development, vocabulary teaching, morphosyntactic-structure teaching, and reading instruction.

Anderson, M. A. (1991). Technology integration for mainstreamed students. Computing Teacher, 18(4), 6-8.
A discussion of the successful integration of technology to assist students with mild disabilities in mainstreamed classrooms highlights the role of the teacher. Three research studies are described: one with elementary schools, one with middle schools, and one with high schools. Curriculum objectives, student needs, group learning, and teacher training are also discussed.

The Arc. (1994). How to evaluate and select assistive technology. 4p. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED376664.
This digest discusses assistive technology for children and adults with mental retardation and other disabilities. Assistive technology is used to compensate for functional limitations and to enhance and increase learning, independence, mobility, communication, environmental control, and choice. A checklist is provided that covers user questions, vendor questions, device performance, convenience, reliability, safety, and practicality.

Brett, A. (1995). Technology in inclusive early childhood settings. Day Care & Early Education, 22(3), 8-11.
This article examines whether to make computers a part of the early childhood curriculum. It discusses the contribution of computers to children's development, focusing on the role of computers and related technology in benefiting children with disabilities, facilitating inclusion, and ways of adapting technology.

Brett, A., & Provenzo, E.F., Jr. (1995). Adaptive technology for special human needs. SUNY series, Computers in education. State University of NY Press, State University Plaza, Albany, NY 12246. 164pp.
This publication describes the use of computers to augment the schooling and daily functions of individuals with disabilities, and details currently available hardware and software systems in four areas of disability: visual impairment, hearing and speech impairment, physical impairment, and cognitive impairment (learning disabilities and mental retardation). Four uses of adaptive technology are identified that apply to all ages: spoken and written communication; cognitive stimulation and development; recreation, leisure, and play; and environmental control. Adaptive technology applications in education are described.

Button, C., & Wobschall, R. (1994). The Americans with Disabilities Act and assistive technology. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 4(3), 196-201.
This paper provides a synopsis of each section of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the relationship of assistive technology to the needs and mandate of the section. Numerous suggestions are included for assistive technology devices that may be effective resources for ADA compliance.

Ellsworth, N.J. (1994). Applications of technology for students with learning disabilities: A survey of New York City schools. LD Forum, 20(1), 21-24pp. Council for Learning Disabilities, PO Box 40303, Overland Park, KS 66204.
Results are presented of a study on applications of technology employed in New York City schools with students with learning disabilities (LD). The study explored the availability and frequency of use of 14 types of technology, as well as 68 teachers' views on what kinds of technology would be most helpful. Information was obtained on: innovative uses of technology, the quality of software available, accessibility of computers, equipment needs for special education, and assistance needed by teachers. Over two-thirds of teachers reported that they and their students typically had access only to video recording and playback equipment and older personal computers with limited software.

ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education. (1995). Instructional design of computer-assisted instruction for use with students who have mild disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 27(3), 77-79.
This review of the literature on computer-assisted instruction for students with mild disabilities identifies features of effective software, offers examples of software features that support particular instructional strategies, and outlines findings on specific instructional principles as applied to computer-assisted instructional software.

Fitzgerald, G.E. (1994). Using the computer with students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Technology & Disability, 3(2), 87-99. (Theme issue: Special education).
This article describes promising practices for integrating the computer into therapeutic instruction for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. For students with behavior problems, the computer can serve as an effective motivator, provide opportunities for cooperative learning, offer social and leisure time pursuits, and provide students the tools to engage in self-monitoring activities. For students with emotional problems, the computer can facilitate self-expression, assist in determining effective learning strategies, and build self-esteem.

Flippo, K.F. (Ed) et al. (1995). Assistive technology: A resource for school, work, and community. Brookes Publishing Co., Box 10624, Baltimore, MD 21285-0624. 301pp.
This book explores the applications of assistive technology for individuals with disabilities in school, work, and community settings, stressing the need to keep the user of such technology as the focus of all design, training, and implementation processes. Issues addressed include: policy foundations, training, staff development, creative financing, community services, and the users' perspective of assistive technology.

Ford, M.J. et al. (1993). Attending behaviors of ADHD children in math and reading using various types of software. Journal of Computing in Childhood Education, 4(2), 183-96.
This article compared the effects of using various computer software programs on the attending behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). It found that the attention of ADHD children increased while they used software with a game format when animation was not excessive. Other factors affecting nonattending behaviors included the software's difficulty, format, and content.

Green, D.W. (1995). The benefits of multimedia computer software for students with disabilities. 21pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED382172.
This paper assesses the current state of research and informed opinion on the benefits of multimedia computer software for students with disabilities. Topics include: a definition of multimedia; advantages of multimedia; Multiple Intelligence Theory, which states intellectual abilities consist of seven components; motivation and behavior modification; hyperactive children; attention grabbing and distraction; technology and metacognition; the value of interactivity, immediate feedback, and hypermedia; assessment-selecting software; students as producers; teacher skills, training, and support; and technology trends. A set of interview questions for practitioners is included and the interview sample and results are discussed.

Hanley, T.V. (1995). The need for technological advances in assessment related to national educational reform. Exceptional Children, 61(3), 222-229.
This article explores the relation between the inclusion movement and the development of national standards for "all students," and outlines their implications for technology-assisted improvements in assessment of students with disabilities. Testing accommodations, such as input/output adaptations, can be facilitated with technology, and new tools for measuring guiding student progress are being explored.

Higgins, K., & Boone, R. (1993). Technology as a tutor, tool, and agent for reading. Journal of Special Education Technology, 12(1) 28-37.
This article reviews the use of computer-based technology in teaching reading to students with disabilities. Research from the last 10 years is examined using the metaphors of Tutor, Tool, and Agent as categories of instructional purpose. Most of the substantive data supporting computer use concerns drill and practice and tutorial assisted instructional programs.

Holzberg, C.S. (1994). Technology in special education. Technology and Learning, 14(7), 18-21.
This article presents examples of the use of technology to motivate, teach, and empower children with physical and cognitive disabilities. Specific applications include the use of computers for antivictimization training, writing, self-expression, and improving communication skills. The work of the Center for Literacy and Disability Studies (North Carolina) is described.

Kurlychek, K. (1994). Software to go: A catalog of software available for loan. 223pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED378719.
This catalog lists the holdings of the Software to Go software lending library and clearinghouse for programs and agencies serving students who are deaf or hard of hearing. An introduction describes the clearinghouse and its collection of software, much of it commercial and copyrighted material, for Apple, Macintosh, and IBM (MS-DOS) computers and explains how to join the service and use the lending procedure.

Lindsey, J.D. (Ed). (1993). Computers for exceptional individuals. Second edition. PRO-ED, 8700 Shoal Creek Blvd., Austin, TX 78758-6897. 416pp.
This second edition provides an updated practical discussion of current computer technology for use with individuals with disabilities and/or gifted and talented individuals. Chapters include information on: general and specific computer concepts related to exceptional individuals; applications for computers with individuals with mild disabilities, speech and language disorders, severe and physical disabilities, sensory impairments, and gifted and talented individuals; and administrative and instructional applications. Appendices cover computer terms, theories, principles, languages; teacher competencies; specific software packages; and courseware evaluation procedures.

Ludy, R., & Blunt, M. (1995). Assistive technology resources: Building bridges for institutions for higher education. 17pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED380016.
This paper describes the increased enrollment of individuals with disabilities in institutions of higher education and the special role of assistive technology resources making that possible. The paper describes the Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1988, which made discretionary funds available to all states to facilitate their development of consumer-responsive, statewide technology-related projects. A list of 53 state assistive technology projects is included.

Male, M. (1994). Technology for inclusion: Meeting the special needs of all students. Second edition. Allyn & Bacon, 160 Gould St., Needham Heights, MA 02194. 201pp.
This guide examines the implications of computer technology on the education of students with disabilities, focusing on the use of computers in inclusive classrooms. Chapters include information on: student access to technology; roles of teachers, parents, and administrators; quality-of-life issues; suggestions for selecting and integrating computer hardware; using computers to develop students' social skills; word processing and desktop publishing; applications such as database management, spreadsheets, telecommunications, and multimedia; integrating computer technology into individualized educational plans; and future trends in technology.

Meyers, L.F. (1994). Access and meaning: The keys to effective computer use by children with language disabilities. Journal of Special Education Technology, 12(3), 257-75.
This study of 18 school-age children with Down Syndrome supports the contention that combining technological access to speech and text with teaching methods providing the language structure to link speech output and text with personal meaning results in significantly improved language skills compared with use of computers without speech output or use of pencil and paper.

Miller, E.C. (1993). Special experiences for exceptional students: Integrating virtual reality into special education classroom. 10pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED363321.
This paper discusses potential benefits and hazards that virtual reality holds for exceptional children in the special education system. Topics include: applications of virtual reality; developing academic skills via cyberspace; vocational training; and social learning in cyberspace; telepresence and distance education; the role of teacher in cyberspace; changing teacher-training programs; the corollary curricular change; and the risks of using virtual reality in special education.

Moore, P.R. (1994). An analysis of the impact of computer placement and training on special education teachers' attitudes and perceptions of the role of computers in instruction. Teacher Education and Special Education, 17(4), 236-48.
Results of placing a computer in eight special education classrooms and providing the teachers with a 4-month practicum of integrating the computer into instructional programs indicated that teachers viewed the computer as not only a powerful motivating and reinforcing tool but also as a generally useful tool for themselves and their students.

Ordover, E. (1994). Assistive technology for students with disabilities: Rights under federal law. 8pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED377624.
This paper defines "assistive technology device" and "assistive technology service," outlines responsibilities of states receiving IDEA funds to provide such devices and services, notes eligibility requirements, examines requirements for vocational education programs, considers the use of assistive technology devices and services to enable placement in regular education settings, and discusses the provision of auxiliary aids to students in postsecondary education programs. References to the United States Code, the Code of Federal Regulations, and court cases are provided to support the paper's views.

Payne, M.D., & Sachs, R. (1994). Educational software and adaptive technology for students with learning disabilities. 5p. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED381920.
Technological solutions are described that have enabled postsecondary students with learning disabilities to compete equally with nondisabled peers in the educational environment. Such solutions have included a variety of educational software, word processing applications, and adaptive technology. Selected examples are given of how campuses are providing computer access, which is mandated by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.

Pesta, J. (1994). Assistive, adaptive, amazing technologies. TECHNOS, 3(2), 10-12. Agency for Instructional Technology (AIT), Box A, Bloomington, IN 47402-0120.
This article discusses assistive or adaptive technology and highlights major technologies that help physically impaired individuals at home, work, and school. Technologies include voice recognition, microswitches, communication boards, headsticks and mouthsticks, vision control, adaptive keyboards, word prediction software, electronic readers, speech synthesizers, Braille adapters, oversized displays, closed-captioning, and adapted computers.

Pisarchick, S.E. (1992). Technology. Project prepare: Competency-based personnel preparation in early childhood education modules. 743pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED353754.
One of nine competency-based training modules for personnel preparation in early childhood special education, this guide focuses on assistive technology and technological interventions in preschool programs. The module is adaptable for use with a general audience, direct service personnel, or administrators. This module focuses on six goals: gaining an overview of assistive technology and its curricular role; familiarity with switch applications to increase the independent control and participation of young children; understanding the basic use of computers and peripherals; understanding of how computers and peripherals can be integrated into the curriculum; gaining an overview of augmentative and alternative communication systems, and obtaining practical information regarding funding for assistive technology devices and services.

Staples, A. et al. (1993). Uses of technology and educational media in literacy instruction for children with developmental disabilities. 6pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED364845.
A 3-year research project, employing qualitative inquiry in a pair of preschool and primary grade classrooms (one self-contained and one integrated at each level), was undertaken to examine the literacy learning difficulties of school-aged children with developmental disabilities. The multi-site case studies of the first phase of the project used the constant comparative method of data collection and analysis. Analysis of the first year of the project reveals two primary themes: technology and inclusion. Technology facilitated literacy learning opportunities when: it was available; teachers were competent users and programmers of the devices; and teachers had ample time to adapt materials. Inclusion facilitated learning when: peers had a clear understanding of and experiences with their roles; and the individual needs of all students were considered.

Storeygard, J. (1993). Making computers work for students with special needs. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 26(1), 22-24.
A course on computers and writing for special education middle school students who are reluctant writers is described. The background of the course, the role of the computer, student attitudes, outcomes, and success factors are discussed. An added advantage was the improved communication between regular and special educators.

Wolfenden, D.P. (1995). Educators' commonly asked questions about assistive technology devices and services. 33pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED393240.
This monograph for Maine educators presents basic information on assistive technology devices and services and the role of assistive technology in delivering appropriate education to children with disabilities in the least restrictive environment. Questions address definitions; relevant provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA); funding sources; alternatives to purchasing assistive technology devices; responsibilities of schools regarding device maintenance, repair, and replacement; relationship of devices to medical needs; evaluation of devices or services; and training in use of such devices.

Zabala, J. (1995). The SETT framework: Critical areas to consider when making informed assistive technology decisions. 4pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED381962.
This brief paper offers a systematic approach to making decisions regarding the provision of assistive technology devices and services for students with disabilities. Initial questions address which students need assistive technology, what kind of technology is needed, and who is involved in making these decisions. The question about what sort of data should be collected is answered by a proposed model, the SETT framework, which raises a series of 16 questions about the Student, the Environment, the Tasks, and the Tools. A form for collecting SETT information is attached.

MATERIALS FROM FEDERALLY FUNDED RESEARCH PROJECTS:

Activating children through technology. A final report for the project period October 1, 1992-January 31, 1996. 40pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED395411.
The primary purpose of ACTT (Activating Children Through Technology) Outreach, housed in Macomb Projects in the College of Education and Human Services at Western Illinois University, is to integrate assistive technology into early childhood services for children, ages birth to eight, with disabilities.

NCIP profiles, 1-5, 1995 (ED390230); NCIP profiles, 1-5, 1994 (ED390229); Evaluation of the integration of technology for instructing handicapped children (middle school level). Final report of phase I (ED342159); Evaluation of the integration of technology for instructing handicapped children (middle school level). Final report of phase II (ED342160). ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS).
The National Center to Improve Practice (NCIP) is a 5-year project whose overall mission is to promote the effective use of technology, media, and materials to improve educational outcomes for students with disabilities.

Opening the doors: Using technology to improve education for students with disabilities. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED357550.
This federally sponsored project conducted by Macro International, Inc. explored educational practices, originating in diverse communities, in which teachers used educational technology in innovative ways to meet the needs of children with disabilities.

Research synthesis on design of effective media, materials, and technology for deaf and hard-of hearing students. Technical report no. 1 (ED386850); Research synthesis on design of effective media, materials, and technology for deaf and hard-of hearing students. Executive summary. Technical report no. 2 (ED386851); Research synthesis on quality and availability of assistive technology devices. Technical report no. 7. (ED386855); Research synthesis on quality and availability of assistive technology devices. Executive summary. Technical report no. 8 (ED386856); Research Synthesis on Early Intervention Practices. Technical report no. 11 (ED386859); Technology integration into early childhood curricula: where we've been, where we are, where we should go (ED386901). ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS).
The National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators was established to help developers and publishers of technology (software), media (electronic media), and materials (print) meet emerging classroom needs of diverse learners and provide guidelines to enable developers and publishers to produce the most relevant and effective materials possible.

School reform and its implications for technology use in the future. Identifying emerging issues and trends in technology for special education. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED350763.
This 3-year study conducted by COSMOS Corporation strived to identify emerging issues and trends in technology for special education.

Technology in the classroom: Applications and strategies for the education of children with severe disabilities; Communication module; Education module; Listening and hearing (Supplement); Positioning, access, and mobility module. Available from: Fullfillment Operations, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA), 1081 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852, 800-638-8255.
The "Technology in the Classroom" project developed, field tested, and evaluated the effectiveness of self-instructional materials that would improve the technology skills and knowledge of families and regular/special education professionals, in order to integrate assistive technologies into the educational programs of children (ages 2 to 7) with severe disabilities.

Technology inservice project (Project TIP). Final report. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED385991.
Technology Inservice Project (Project TIP) was designed to provide technology training and information to meet the staff development needs of early childhood administrators, teachers, and support personnel and early intervention team members, including families and regular educators.

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