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Selected Resources: Culturally Affirming Services
and Strategies, 1993-1996

This document has been retired from the active collection
of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education.
It contains references or resources that may no longer be valid or up to date.

The ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education (ERIC EC)
E-mail: webmaster@hoagiesgifted.org
Internet: http://www.hoagiesgifted.org/eric
ERIC EC Minibib EB1
August 1997

Citations with an ED (ERIC Document; for example, ED123456) number are available in microfiche collections at more than 1,000 locations worldwide; to find the ERIC Resource Collection nearest you, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm. Documents can also be ordered for a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com/, service@edrs.com, or 1-800-443-ERIC. (no longer available)

Journal articles (for example, EJ999999) are available for a fee from the originating journal (check your local college or public library), through interlibrary loan services, or from article reproduction services: Carl Uncover, now at Ingenta: http://www.ingenta.com/, uncover@carl.org, 1-800-787-7979; or ISI: tga@isinet.com, 1-800-523-1850.


Bountress, N. G. (1993). Cultural-Linguistic Issues: Past, Present, and Future Challenges Facing Teachers. Preventing School Failure, 37(2), 26-30.
This article summarizes cultural linguistic trends of the past decade and projects them into future years. Responses of educators to cultural linguistic diversity are reviewed. Problems posed by this diversity are identified and suggestions are offered for teaching the culturally and linguistically different child.

Christensen, K. M., Ed. & Delgado, G. L., Ed. (1993). Multicultural Issues in Deafness. 190pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED354645.
This book considers, from both educational and cultural perspectives, the needs of children with deafness from African American, American Indian, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Island families. The text calls for a child-centered curriculum based on a fundamental acceptance of differences in communication and interpretation. Section I presents the issues, in three chapters with the following titles and authors: "Deaf Culture and Cultures" (Tom Humphries); "A Multicultural Approach to Education of Children Who Are Deaf" (Kathee M. Christensen); and "A Model Program for Home-School Communication and Staff Development" (Cynthia A. Grace). Section II considers the four target populations of deaf learners, in the following six papers: "Educational Needs of African American and Hispanic Deaf Children and Youth" (Oscar P. Cohen); "Addressing the Needs of Hispanic Deaf Children" (Barbara Gerner de Garcia); "Mexico and the United States: A Cross-Cultural Perspective on the Education of Deaf Children" (Donna Jackson-Maldonado); "Deafness: An Asian/Pacific Island Perspective" (Li-Rong Lilly Cheng); "Teaching Deaf Asian and Pacific Island American Children" (C. Tane Akamatsu); and "American Indian Deaf Children and Youth" (Sue Anne Hammond and Linda Hagar Meiners). The final section offers two chapters that envision the future of education of ethnic and racially diverse deaf populations. It contains "Rethinking the Education of Ethnic/Multicultural Deaf People: Stretching the Boundaries" (Joseph E. Fischgrund and C. Tane Akamatsu) and "Looking Forward to a Multicultural Commitment" (Kathee M. Christensen).

Duran, Elva. (1993). Effective Communication Programming for Language Minority Students with Severe Disabilities. 11pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED359699. In: Kupper, Lisa, Ed. The 2nd National Symposium on Effective Communication for Children and Youth with Severe Disabilities (McLean, Virginia, July 10-12, 1992): Topic Papers, Reader's Guide & Videotape; see EC 302252.
This paper discusses how the classroom participation and communication of language minority students with severe disabilities can be facilitated through the use of many methods based on principles of English as a second language (ESL) instruction. The specific methods described include: (1) total physical response, (2) the natural approach, (3) cooperative learning, (4) preview/review method, (4) and making use of cultural information. Suggestions for applying each of the methods to students with severe disabilities are offered and examples are given.

Echevarria, J. & McDonough, R. (1993). Instructional Conversations in Special Education Settings: Issues and Accommodations. Educational Practice Report 7. 33pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED365136.
Instructional conversations (ICs) represent an alternative approach to the instruction of culturally and linguistically diverse populations. It has instructional intent, but appears to be a spontaneous conversation with natural language interactions. Successful ICs depend on identification of a text-specific theme that is significant and tied to students' experiences. ICs have been defined by 10 elements: instructional elements that include a thematic focus and conversational elements that encourage spontaneous student participation. This study implemented ICs in an elementary special education class where data were collected via naturalistic observation, videotape, teacher self-report, and interviews conducted over a year and a half with a single teacher. Students, who were Hispanic and African-American, ranged in age from 6 to 10 years. Findings show that ICs provide a holistic context for learning, in particular, the use of a theme to guide the discussion about a story lead to a more cohesive focus during the lesson and seem to facilitate attention. ICs promote oral participation and student-to-student interaction. For an IC lesson to be successful, the special education teacher must make adaptations for students with learning disabilities.

Ford, B. A., Ed. (1995). Multiple Voices for Ethnically Diverse Exceptional Learners, 1995. 63pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED391310.
This first serial issue addresses topics and issues impacting educational services for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) learners. The issue contains three research-into-practice articles, an interview section called "In the Oral Tradition," and three teacher-generated articles which delineate learner-enhancing practices for special educators. Articles include: "Learning and Cultural Diversities in General and Special Education Classes: Frameworks for Success" (Deborah L. Voltz); "Issues in the Implementation of Innovative Instructional Strategies" (Robert Rueda and others); "Controllable Factors in Recruitment of Minority and Nonminority Individuals for Doctoral Study in Special Education" (Rosalie S. Boone and Kathy L. Ruhl); "Issues Regarding the Education of African American Exceptional Learners" (Helen Bessant Byrd); "Using Bilingual Literature with Students Who Have Severe Disabilities" (Candace Clark and Katie St. John); "Through Navajo Eyes: Curriculum Guidelines from a Teacher's Perspective" (Lucretia Holiday and others); and "Using Instructional Games for Cultural Exploration: Exploring African Cultures" (Marcella Bell).

Franklin, M. E. (1992). Culturally Sensitive Instructional Practices for African-American Learners with Disabilities. Exceptional Children, 59(2), 115-22.
This paper discusses six theoretical assumptions about effective instructional practices for culturally and linguistically diverse learners; literature on African American cultural practices, interests, and cognitive styles; attitudes, perceptions, and instructional practices of effective teachers of African-American students with disabilities; and patterns of teacher-student and peer group interactions that promote high academic achievement.

Garcia, S. B. & Malkin, D. H. Toward Defining Programs and Services for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners in Special Education. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 26(1), 52-58.
Intended to help special educators with culturally and linguistically diverse learners, this article discusses the importance of addressing students' language characteristics, developing a language use plan, recognizing the important influence of cultural factors on childrearing practices and communication styles, selecting appropriate instructional strategies, creating supporting learning environments, and implementing multicultural special education.

Gersten, R. & Woodward, J. (1994). The Language-Minority Student and Special Education: Issues, Trends, and Paradoxes. Exceptional Children, 60(4), 310-22.
This article discusses issues in referral and special education instruction for students from language-minority groups. It discusses inadequacies in assessment and placement; development of effective and viable instructional strategies through collaboration between bilingual education and special education; and potential solutions involving both academic skills instruction and a natural approach to language instruction.

Harry, Beth et al. (1995). Developing Culturally Inclusive Services for Individuals with Severe Disabilities. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 20(2), 99-109.
This article identifies features of a culturally inclusive approach to assessment, placement, and instruction for students with severe disabilities. Culturally inclusive ways to build relationships with families are suggested, along with a research agenda and multicultural emphasis in personnel preparation programs, with a focus on process rather than cultural content.

Lai, Y. (1994). Dual Challenge in the Classroom: The Case of Chinese Students with Special Needs. B.C. Journal of Special Education, 18(2), 124-31.
This article addresses the educational challenge posed by special needs students who are Chinese, one of the largest ethnic groups in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia (Canada). The issues of self-esteem, assessment and placement, and "double handicap" are discussed. Chinese cultural characteristics are described, and suggestions for teaching are offered.

Lynch, E. W., Ed. & Hanson, M. J., Ed.. (1992). Developing Cross-Cultural Competence: A Guide for Working with Young Children and Their Families. 404pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED346190.
This book attempts to combine a strong conceptual framework with specific information on implementation of early intervention with intercultural sensitivity and awareness. Chapters are based on current literature on best practices in early intervention and intercultural effectiveness, and information and insights from contributing authors who are generally bicultural and often bilingual. The first three introductory chapters include: "Ethnic, Cultural, and Language Diversity in Intervention Settings" (Marci Hanson); "From Culture Shock to Cultural Learning" (Eleanor Lynch); and "Developing Cross-Cultural Competence" (Eleanor Lynch). The second section reviews specific cultural perspectives, in chapters on characteristics of families whose roots are Anglo-European (Marci Hanson), Native American (Jennie Joe and Randi Suzanne Malach), African American (Winnie Willis), Latino (Maria Zuniga), Asian (Sam Chan), Philipino (Sam Chan), Native American/Pacific Island (Noreen Mackau and Pemerika Tauili'ili), and Middle Eastern (Virginia-Shirin Sharifzadeh). Each chapter covers geographic, historic, religious, and linguistic background of the culture, contemporary life, values, beliefs, and recommendations for interventionists. The last section consists of one summary chapter, "Steps in the Right Direction: Implications for Interventionists" (Eleanor Lynch and Marci Hanson). Suggested readings for each of the cultures covered are listed.

Mason, J. L. et al. (1995). An Introduction to Cultural Competence Principles and Elements. An Annotated Bibliography. 84pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED385069.
This annotated bibliography focuses on principles of culturally competent systems of care for children and youth with serious emotional disabilities and their families. A primary concern is the application and comprehension of a cultural competence model developed by the Child and Adolescent Service System Program. The model requires that behavioral and programmatic changes be manifested in professional and agency attitudes, practices, policies, or structures. The bibliography is divided into five sections that correspond to basic principles of the model: self-assessing one's own cultural behavior, understanding the dynamics of difference, valuing diversity, adapting to diversity, and incorporating cultural knowledge. For each journal article, book, or monograph listed, an abstract and bibliographic documentation are provided, along with information on applicable principles of the model, the target population or audience, and applicable disciplines.

McIntyre, T. (1996). Guidelines for Providing Appropriate Services to Culturally Diverse Students with Emotional and/or Behavioral Disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 21(2),137-44.
A task force of the Council for Children with Behavior Disorders identified seven goals for educators and mental health professionals providing services to culturally diverse students. The goals address such topics as: misidentification of culturally based behavior as a behavior disorder, culturally and linguistically competent assessment, recruitment of culturally different professionals, and preservice/inservice training on cultural differences.

Peterson, R. L., Ed. & Ishii-Jordan, S., Ed. (1994). Multicultural Issues in the Education of Students with Behavioral Disorders. 291pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED369195.
This book examines the effect of racial, ethnic, and cultural factors on the process of identifying and serving students with emotional or behavioral disorders. The book acknowledges the importance of diversity among students with behavioral disorders, and the need to consider their diversity in identifying their behaviors and intervening to change them. Chapters include, among others: "Cultural Biases in the Identification of Students with Behavioral Disorders" (Eun-Ja Kim Park and others); "Perspectives on Culture and Aggression: Implications for Educators" (Mary Kay Zabel and Robert H. Zabel); "Childhood Depression: Ethnic and Cultural Issues in Special Education" (Robert S. Rueda and Steven R. Forness); "Juvenile Delinquency in the Context of Culture and Community" (C. Michael Nelson and Cheryll A. Pearson); "Perceptions about Behavioral Disorders in African-American Cultures and Communities" (Mary G. Anderson); "Behavioral Disorders in the Context of Asian Cultures (Sharon Ishii-Jordan and Reece L. Peterson); "Behavioral Disorders in Hispanic-American Cultures" (Placido A. Hoernicke and others); "Native Americans and Behavioral Disorders" (Michael Kallam and others); "Religion and Mental Health" (Frank H. Wood); "Behavioral Disorders and Gender/Sexual Issues (ReNae S. Kehrberg); "Immigration, Refugee and Generational Status as Related to Behavioral Disorders" (Robert D. Morrow); "Teaching Urban Youth with Behavioral Disorders" (Thomas McIntyre); and "Behavioral Disorders and the Culture of Street Gangs" (Donald W. Kodluboy). An appendix outlines assessment practices that accommodate cultural diversity and individual differences.

Plucker, J. A. (1996). Gifted Asian-American Students: Identification, Curricular, and Counseling Concerns. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 19(3), 315-43.
This article reviews the literature on identification, curriculum, and counseling of gifted Asian-American students. It finds that suggestions for teaching and counseling this population are rare, and most literature addresses only identification concerns. The paper also analyzes factors influencing the intellectual, social, and emotional development of gifted Asian Americans and makes suggestions for working with parents.

Project Reaching Out: Technology Training for Minorities with Low Incidence Disabilities. (1993). Part I: African-American Training. 150pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED364003.
The purpose of this curriculum, part of Project Reaching Out, is to provide African-Americans with low incidence disabilities an overview of information on assistive technology in a manner that respects differences in beliefs, interpersonal styles, and behaviors. Low incidence disabilities are defined as deafness, blindness, deaf blindness, neurological impairments, and orthopedic impairments. Part 1 of the curriculum, "Trainer Information," offers statistics on African-Americans with disabilities, cultural considerations, cultural working definitions, and techniques for assessing one's own cultural heritage. Part 2 provides guidelines for using the project's training materials. It covers principles of culturally competent programs, learning methods of adults, and presentation tips. Part 3 contains the curriculum modules themselves, focusing on the benefits and uses of assistive technology, legislation affecting the provision of assistive technology, and funding and advocacy. For training of trainers and service providers, modules on cultural awareness and marketing technology training to African-Americans with disabilities are also provided. Part 4 includes appendixes addressing: accessibility training information and an accessibility checklist; project evaluation forms; a sample participant's manual, containing a directory of several information resources; a list of state protection and advocacy agencies; a list of 31 suggested readings and 4 videos; and information on federal policy concerning assistive technology. Part 5 provides over 40 overheads for use in presenting the curriculum modules.

Putnam, J. W., Ed. (1993). Cooperative Learning and Strategies for Inclusion: Celebrating Diversity in the Classroom. Children, Youth & Change: Sociocultural Perspectives. 180pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED361952.
This book is intended to assist educators in meeting the needs of diverse children with varying cognitive abilities; developmental and learning disabilities; sensory impairments; and different cultural, linguistic, and socioeconomic backgrounds. It is based on the premise that children of differing abilities and backgrounds will benefit both academically and socially from cooperative learning. The eight chapters have the following titles and authors: "The Movement toward Teaching and Learning in Inclusive Classrooms" (JoAnne W. Putnam); "The Process of Cooperative Learning" (JoAnne W. Putnam); "Curricular and Instructional Adaptations for Including Students with Disabilities in Cooperative Groups" (Ann Nevin); "Redefining the Role of the Special Educator and Other Support Personnel" (Richard A. Villa and Jacqueline S. Thousand); "Cooperative Classroom Management: Student Needs and Fairness in the Regular Classroom" (Luanna H. Meyer and Leah A. Henry); "Supporting Young Children's Development through Cooperative Activities" (JoAnne W. Putnam and Loraine J. Spenciner); "Cooperative Learning and Cultural Diversity: Building Caring Communities in the Cooperative Classroom" (Dilafruz R. Williams); and "Innovative Classroom Programs for Full Inclusion" (Jo Jakupcak).

Reganick, K. A. (1994). Educating Students with Special Needs from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds. 16pp. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED392216.
The literature on methods for educating students with special needs, including disabilities, from culturally diverse backgrounds is reviewed. The paper addresses what cultural diversity is, changing demographics in the United States, special education issues, assessment recommendations, parental involvement, and teacher commitment and training. Discussion of teaching methods looks at the relationship of culture to learning, selection of teaching materials, adaptation of teaching materials, integrated curriculum, cooperative learning, active learning, whole language, and behavior management.

Robinson-Zanartu, C. (1996). Serving Native American Children and Families: Considering Cultural Variables. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 27(4), 373-84.
This article examines the different world views and belief systems, acculturation stress, school-home discontinuity, learning styles, communication patterns, and parent participation of Native American students. The assessment and evaluation of Native American students and culturally compatible service delivery models are also discussed.

Scott, P. B. & Raborn, D. T. (1996). Realizing the Gifts of Diversity among Students with Learning Disabilities. LD Forum, 21(2), 10-18.
This article considers mathematics instruction for children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds who have learning disabilities. Linguistic, cultural, and cognitive influences on students' abilities to learn mathematics are discussed. Potential learning problems and ways to address these problems are identified.

Sisk, D. (1993). A Different Approach Pays Off. Gifted Child Today, 16(5), 13-16.
Project Step-Up (Systematic Training of Educational Programs for Underserved Pupils) locates children from minority, economically disadvantaged populations with high potential in Texas, Arkansas, Florida, and Arizona, and then uses a teaching approach that emphasizes critical thinking, vocabulary building, self-esteem strengthening, problem solving, and positive feedback.

Wright, J. V. (1995). Multicultural Issues and Attention Deficit Disorders. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 10(3), 153-59.
Current inadequacies in addressing the instructional needs of multicultural students with attention deficit disorder (ADD) are discussed, along with language and learning style issues. Approaches for instruction and evaluation of students are suggested that take into account diverse learning styles.

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