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Readings About Secondary Administrators' Role in
Special and Gifted
The ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education (ERIC EC)
ERIC EC Minibib EB19
Compiled by Paula Burdette
Citations with an ED (ERIC Document; for example, ED123456) number are available in
microfiche collections at more than 1,000 locations worldwide; to find the ERIC
Resource Collection nearest you, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm. Documents can also be
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Journal articles (for example, EJ999999) are available for a
fee from the originating journal (check your local college or public library),
through interlibrary loan services, or from article reproduction services such as:
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Billingsley, Bonnie S. & others. (1993). Supporting
beginning teachers of students with disabilities. In: Program
Leadership for Serving
Students with Disabilities. VA Dept. Of Education.
Administrative support is critical to the professional
success and self-esteem of
special education teachers. This chapter provides practical
strategies for administrators
to use to support special education teachers. J.S. House's
framework is used for
considering the different types of administrative support, which
support, appraisal support, instrumental support, and
informational support. Special
support needs of beginning special education teachers are
identified, and strategies for
supporting them are noted.
Black, D.D. & Downs, J.C. (1993). Administrative
discipline handbook for effective school administrators. Sopris
West Patrick Hyde, 1140
Boston Ave., Longmont, CO 80501.
This guide is designed to provide the basis for a
teaching/learning process by which
principals provide students with the social skills necessary to
achieve success in life. It
outlines an administrative intervention program to deal with
discipline problems which
focuses on de-escalating disruptive behavior, obtaining and
control, teaching alternative behaviors, and preparing students
for classroom re-entry.
Burrello, L.C. & others. (1992). The principal as
the special education
instructional leader. CASE Research Committee, Indiana Univ.,
School of Educ., Smith
Research Center-100A, 2805 East 10th St., Bloomington, IN 47405.
This paper focuses on the instructional leadership role behavior
of school principals in
relation to the management of special education programs. A
framework is presented
of the principal's role in 7 broad areas of instructional
management: community, beliefs
and experience, institutional context, principal's routine
behaviors, instructional climate,
instructional organization, and student outcomes. Results of
case studies of 5
principals are examined.
Goor, M.B., Schwenn, J.O., & Boyer, L. (1997).
Preparing principals for
leadership in special education; Intervention in School and
Clinic, 32(3), 133-141.
This article describes a comprehensive training model involving
knowledge, skills, and reflective behavior for school principals
to make them more
effective as leaders of special education programs. Also included
is a format for
principal preparation programs which includes 9 critical
attributes for effective inservice
Littrell, P.C. & others. (1994). The effects of
principal support on special
and general educators' stress, job satisfaction, school
commitment, health, and intent to
stay in teaching. Remedial and Special Education, 15(5), 297-310.
A survey of 385 special and 313 general education teachers found
that groups had
similar perceptions of principal support. Work-related variables
were better predictors of
extent of perceived support than were demographic variables.
Specific types of
support were significant predictors of job satisfaction, school
commitment, and personal
O'Connor, K. (1996). The best leaders. Division on
Quarterly, 41(3), 12-13.
This article profiles the successful characteristics of a
dozen different leaders. It
highlights characteristics of effective leaders such as gaining
kindness, possessing listening abilities, making eye contact,
planning, and having the
ability to take action.
Sires, C. & Tonnsen, S. (1993). Special education:
A challenge for
principals. NASSP Bulletin, 77(550), 8-11.
Special education teachers often feel frustrated because of
unrealistic expectations for pupil progress, perceived lack of
success as teachers,
ongoing contact with difficult students, and isolation from
colleagues. Principals can
help these teachers by streamlining paperwork, placing special
education classes in the
school building, and providing opportunities to mix with regular
and other special
Katsiyannis, A. & others. (1996). Students with
programming and the school principal. NASSP Bulletin, 80(578),
Principals are pivotal in expanding opportunities for more
while ensuring that students with disabilities receive carefully
services. By allocating the necessary resources, providing
scheduling time fro collaborative planning and preparation, and
program evaluation, principals can secure educational and social
benefits for all
Morgan, C.R. & Demchak, M. (1996). Addressing
for successful inclusion of students with disabilities. In:
Rural Goals 2000: Building
Programs that Work.
As inclusion increasingly becomes the accepted model for
meeting the needs of
students with disabilities, administrator involvement becomes
critical because the
attitudes of school personnel and students toward inclusion
frequently mirror those of
the administrator. In rural areas, the building administrator is
often isolated from other
school district administrators and must make decisions based on
This paper provides guidelines to assist in accessing the
information that principals
need to support successful changes toward inclusion.
Liggett, A.M. & others (1996). Rethinking
implementation of the least
restrictive environment policy of the IDEA: Educational leaders
in the forefront. Journal
of Disability Policy Studies, 7(1), 55-75.
This qualitative policy study examined the implementation of
the Least Restrictive
Environment provision of the Individuals with Disabilities
Education Act (IDEA) at the
state and local levels. Interviews were conducted with 16- 24
individuals at each of 12
sites selected for their effectiveness in inclusion. The study
concluded that, where
significant change was occurring, it was primarily educational
who were making it happen.
Sage, D.D. & Burrello, L. C. (1994). Leadership in
An Administrator's Guide to Changes in Special Education. Paul
H. Brookes Publishing
Co., PO Box 10624, Baltimore, MD 21285-0624.
This book is a response to the need to integrate the
restructuring of educational
institutions and the development of a unified educational system
that includes students
with special needs. It begins with a discussion of paradigms for
proceeds to an extended discussion of several issues concerning
the field of special
education, including its scope and its various sources of
organizational and fiscal
support. The proper use of outcome-based education with students
with disabilities is
then examined, followed by discussions of the respective
leadership roles of principals.
Finally, issues of program evaluation are discussed.
O'Neill, J. & others. (1990). Supplement for
Supervisors. A Curricular Approach to Support the Transition to
Adolescents with Visual or Dual Sensory Impairments and Cognitive
of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Washington, DC.
New York State
Education Dept., Albany, Office for the Educ. of Children with
This handbook for administrators is part of a packet intended
to facilitate the
transition from school to adult life in the community for
students with both cognitive
disabilities and visual or dual sensory impairments. Emphasis is
on preparation of
students for adult lifestyles through transition planning and
instruction, including vocational experiences. An introduction
notes the administrator
role in assuming leadership at both the systems level and
Clasen, D.R. (1992). Changing peer stereotypes of
adolescents. NASSP Bulletin, 76(543), 95-102.
This study found that high-achieving African Americans ran
the risk of both physical
and verbal abuse from peers. With help from staff, principals
can remove or weaken
the excellence-alienation link by raising community awareness,
for new knowledge and skills, and offering support and resources
for change. Principals
must also enlist family support to lessen impact of peer
Norton, M.S. & Zeilinger, E.R. (1983). A
principal's handbook of
programs for gifted students. NASSP Bulletin, 67(459),
Principals supporting effective programming for gifted
students should exhibit
competencies listed in this article when exercising planning and
philosophy determining goals and objectives, understanding gifted
characteristics, identifying gifted students, financing and
staffing the program, providing
guidance and counseling, using community resources,
communicating, and evaluating
Wolfe, D.M. & others. (1992). A new vision for
facilitative paradigm for site-based management. STRATE Journal,
This paper examines factors which enhance teacher
empowerment, noting that
site-based management is often discussed concurrently with
successes with teacher empowerment via interdisciplinary teams of
students and faculty
at the Virginia Governor's School for the Gifted.
PRINCIPAL PREPARATION AND IN-SERVICE:
Cardinal, D.N. (1991). How to stay current with
issues. NASSP Bulletin, 75(535), 71-77.
Strategies for mainstreaming students with disabilities
community-based instruction, and vocational transition.
Administrators can keep
current by getting involved with local colleges and universities
with special education
training programs, subscribing to journals, contacting state
special education directors,
forming advisory groups, attending conferences, reading
subject-specific materials, and
using available services.
Monteith, D.S. (1994). Special education training:
A must for today's
school leaders. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the
National Conference of
Professors of Educational Administration (48th, Indian Wells, CA,
August 9-13). ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), ED377549.
Implementing the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) and/or
philosophy creates new needs and places new demands on public
This paper presents a review of research studies that examined
the extent to which
administrators had knowledge of special education and the laws
pertaining to it. A
survey found that administrators lacked knowledge of the law and
that endorsement did
not require a knowledge of special education. The paper presents
a suggested course
of study and special education competencies to bridge the gap
between theory and
Sirotnik, K.A. & Kimball, K. (1994). The unspecial
place of special
education in programs that prepare school administrators.
Journal of School
Leadership, 4(6), 598-630.
A review of the literature, data from a national study
involving faculty in 23
administrator preparation programs and 457 educational
administration students, and
interviews with 6 principals indicate that special education is
treated inadequately if at
all, in programs designed to prepare school administrators.
Katsiyannis, A. (1994). Individuals with
disabilities: The school principal
and section 504, NASSP Bulletin, 78(565), 6-10.
Given principals' responsibility to ensure that all their
students are appropriately
educate, they are obligated to provide adequate leadership for
knowledge base and competence to secure Section 504 compliance
unnecessary penalties. Section 504 applies to all students with
Hyperactivity Disorder who do not qualify under IDEA to receive
McKinney, J.R. (1992). Post-facilities and program
504 and the Americans with Disabilities Act. Educational
Facility Planner, 30(3). 23-26.
Both Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the
Americans with Disabilities
Act (ADA) are intended to promote the removal of the physical
barriers that deny
individuals with disabilities access to educational programs and
activities. This paper
addresses the relationship between the ADA and Section 504 along
responsibilities of educational administrators.
Brownlow, R. (1993). LMSS: Illusion or control?
British Journal of
Special Education, 20(3), 89-90.
Local management of special schools (LMSS) in England is
designed to increase
school autonomy concerning staffing and resource allocation.
However, special schools
are constrained by the National Curriculum requirements,
children's statements of
special educational needs, compliance with governmental models
for staffing levels, and
the high proportion of salary costs in special school budgets.
Burrello, L.C. & others. (1991). Principal's
Training Simulator in Special
Education: Instructor's Packet. CASE Research Committee, Indiana
of Education, Smith Research Center-100A, 2805 E. 10th St.,
This packet on collaborative leadership development in
special education is
designed to provide an orientation to typical situations facing
local school district
administrators, consideration of major issues in programming for
practice in actual problem-solving activities, and a chance for
both instructor and
student to test and analyze the student's decision-making
Scott, L. (1993). Confused and ill equipped?
British Journal of Special
Education, 20(4), 120-122.
A survey of 50 local education authorities in England and
Wales found that support
and training available to governing bodies of mainstream schools
in the area of special
education needs are minimal or nonexistent, that governing bodies
and governors are
confused about their role in this area, and that school policy
making was left to teaching
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