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GT-Value FAQ (updated August 1998)

Help! I need research to support the value of appropriate programs for gifted and talented students. There is opposition to the idea and we are conducting a campaign to show support for the program.

The first step in planning responsible advocacy for gifted students is to contact your state Department of Education in your state's capitol and find out if your state has policies, regulations, or guidelines on gifted education. (A list of state offices is available at (www.hoagiesgifted.org/eric/fact/stateres.html) Gifted education is mandated in only about half the states. In some cases, identification is mandated; in others, programming is mandated; in some, both identification and service are mandated. If you are fortunate enough to live in a state where service is mandated, you can communicate with your community's education leaders about the intent or meaning of that mandate when applied to your school district. If a non-mandate state provides only guidelines for identifying gifted students, it is unlikely that school districts have formal identification procedures. However, school districts may provide programming options and services (not formal programs) for students whom the districts deem these services appropriate. Before launching a campaign, it is important to understand the current system in your state or district and use it as part of your strategy.

Responsible advocacy also includes an active lobbying effort for a rigorous regular education curriculum. There are several reasons to do so. First, a gifted education curriculum is based on the regular education curriculum. Second, every child is entitled to an appropriate education, including continuous learning experiences. If the gifted program is perceived as the only "good" education, then all parents are justified in wanting this for their child. When measuring the rigor of the gifted education curriculum, let two questions guide your actions: (1) Can every child do this? (2) Should every child do this? If the answer to either question is "yes," then the curriculum would be difficult to justify as appropriate solely for gifted students.

The following advocacy guidelines are useful to keep in mind when working toward obtaining appropriate services:

  • Find or form a group. Compare experiences with others to get a sense of what is needed. Some states have active statewide advocacy groups that include both educators and parents. Check to see if your state has such a group because success is most likely when many interests are represented. A list is available at www.hoagiesgifted.org/eric/fact/stateres.html

  • Keep in mind that that gifted children are a very heterogeneous group, representing all ethnic and racial groups and income levels. Gifted children come to school with a variety of interests, experiences, and levels of knowledge.

  • Be patient, but be persistent. Good program development takes time, but you want educators to understand that the needs of the children are high priority.

  • Be involved in school committees that benefit everyone. You will meet a lot of nice people, and have opportunities to remind educators that all children, including gifted and talented, need to work at their individual levels of challenge. For example, if educators are talking about a new mathematics curriculum, you might take the opportunity to ask how that curriculum meets the academic needs of children who need extra assistance, and those who come to school with a higher level of mastery than chronological age would indicate.

  • Be a leader. One of the greatest challenges is to help a group of advocates work together collaboratively, cooperatively, and productively.

  • Be informed. Think of yourself as an educator, not an adversary. The enclosed ERIC database search includes (1) information on successful program outcomes, (2) articles that describe the current status of gifted education, (3) articles to be used for advocacy, and (4) documents published by the U.S. Department of Education (USDOE) that describe the national and international status of achievement by U.S. students. The documents and articles can be used in various ways to educate community leaders and make a case for appropriate program options for all children, including those who are gifted. In addition, some particularly useful documents, available in full text on the Internet, include the digests, minibibliographies, and FAQs on this web site (www.hoagiesgifted.org/eric/index.html), and the following documents, listed in the ERIC database search below.


The above document refers to "Pursuing Excellence. A Study of U.S. Twelfth Grade Mathematics and Science Achievement in an International Context," the recently released third portion of the U.S. Department of Education's NCES-TIMSS report. The report discusses the dismal performance of U.S. twelfth grade students compared to their international counterparts. Of 21 countries participating in the study, the United States finished 19th. When the top 15% of all participating nations are compared, the results are even more disappointing, and underscore that our nation's brightest are not globally competitive.

Following are links to related ERIC Digests, Internet resources, and Internet discussion groups, as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the citations.


You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:

ERIC Citations

The full text of citations beginning with an ED number (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:

The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:

ERIC Search Terms Used

This FAQ comprises various concepts that share the term gifted. For more information on any of the concepts (such as educational needs), select one or more of the descriptors at the bottom of the citation and combine it with gifted (gifted AND educational needs).

EJ553869 EA534069
Is Equity Always the Best? Educational Stakeholders Lash Out.
Perry, Eleanor A.
Journal of Educational Administration, v35 n5 p451-65 1997
ISSN: 0957-8234
Language: English
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); RESEARCH REPORT (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJAPR98
Explores macropolitical aspects of state-mandated inclusion and the micropolitical barriers a newly appointed female superintendent faced when promulgating educational equity in a hostile environment. Parents of special-education and gifted children joined forces to campaign against inclusion, questioning schools' effectiveness at providing an intellectually challenging environment for a diverse student population. Recommends strategies for improving educational leadership training to handle similar situations.
Descriptors: Action Research; Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; *Equal Education; *Gifted; Inclusive Schools; *Parent Attitudes; *Politics of Education; Qualitative Research; Rural Schools; *School Effectiveness; *Special Education; Women Administrators
Identifiers: *Oregon

ED414207 SE061227
Mathematics and Science Achievement in the Final Year of Secondary School: IEA's Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS).
Mullis, Ina V. S.; Martin, Michael O.; Beaton, Albert E.; Gonzalez, Eugenio J.; Kelly, Dana L.; Smith, Teresa A.
Boston Coll., Chestnut Hill, MA. Center for the Study of Testing, Evaluation, and Educational Policy.; International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement.
1998; 356p. Sponsoring Agency: National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.; National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA.
ISBN: 1-889938-08-4
Available From: TIMSS International Study Center, Boston College, School of Education, Campion Hall, Chestnut Hill, MA 02167; World Wide Web: http//wwwcsteep.bc.edu/timss
EDRS Price - MF01/PC15 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Massachusetts
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR98
The Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) covered five different grade levels, with more than 40 countries collecting data in more than 30 different languages. More than a million students were tested. The present report contains the TIMSS results for students in the final year of secondary school. Mathematics and science literacy achievement results are reported for 21 countries; advanced mathematics results and physics results, respectively, are reported for 16 countries. These results complete the first round of descriptive reports from the TIMSS study. Together with the results for primary school students (third and fourth grade in most countries) and middle school students (seventh and eighth grades in most countries), the results contained in this report provide valuable information about the relative effectiveness of a country's education system as students progress through school. A ten-page Executive Summary details the extensive conclusions to be drawn from the study. Dozens of tables and figures provide detailed statistics for all participating countries. The Netherlands and Sweden were the top performing countries in mathematics; France was the top performer in advanced mathematics; Norway and Sweden had physics achievement levels significantly higher than other participating countries. The appendixes contain extensive information pertaining to the development of the TIMSS tests, sample sizes and participation rates, compliance with sampling guidelines, and the test-curriculum matching analysis.
Descriptors: Academic Standards; Educational Change; Foreign Countries; Hands on Science; High Schools; *Mathematics Achievement; Mathematics Education; *Numeracy; Problem Solving; Science Education; Science Process Skills; *Scientific Literacy; Sex Differences; *Standardized Tests; *Student Evaluation; Tables (Data) Identifiers: *Science Achievement; *Third International Mathematics and Science Study

EJ552174 EC617399
Title: A Survey of Classroom Practices with Third and Fourth Grade Students in the United States.
Author(s) Westberg, Karen L.; Archambault, Francis X, Jr.; Brown, Scott W.
Source: Gifted Education International, v12 n1 p29-33 1997
Publication Date: 1997
ISSN: 0261-4294
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Evaluative (142)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAR1998
The Classroom Practices Survey, a national survey of nearly 4,000 third- and fourth- grade teachers, found little differentiation in teachers' instructional and curricular practices to meet the needs of gifted students. An individualized approach to staff development and encouragement of reflective teaching practices are urged.
Descriptors: *Educational Practices; Elementary Education; Elementary School Teachers; *Gifted; Grade 3; Grade 4; Inclusive Schools; Individual Differences; *Individualized Instruction; Inservice Teacher Education; National Surveys; Reflective Teaching; *Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Differentiated Curriculum (Gifted)

ED388022 EC304377
Title: The Status of Programs for High Ability Students. Collaborative Research Study 94306.
Author(s) Purcell, Jeanne H.
Author Affiliation: National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, Storrs, CT.(BBB29762)
Pages: 96
Publication Date: September 1994
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. (EDD00036)
Contract No: R206R00001
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.
Availability: NRC/GT, The University of Connecticut, 362 Fairfield Road, U-7, Storrs, CT 06269-2007.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Evaluative (142)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Connecticut
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR1996
The Program Status Research Study examined the status of local programs for students with high abilities and reasons given by key personnel for program status. A mail survey to 2,900 local personnel in 19 states (divided into four groups according to economic health and the existence or non-existence of a state mandate to provide services) yielded a response rate of 54 percent. Analysis indicated that programs in states with mandates and in good economic health are "intact" and "expanded," while programs in all other groups are being "threatened," "reduced," and "eliminated" in high numbers. Respondents attributed intact programs to the existence of a state mandate and advocacy efforts and threatened programs to a decline in state and local funds. Respondents indicated that 75 percent of high ability students in grades 3-8 receive program services, 50 percent in grades 1-2 and 9-12, receive similar services, but program services for students at the Pre-K to K level were almost nonexistent. Interviews with four key personnel from each state confirmed the main reasons given by survey respondents for variations in program status. Six guidelines with accompanying research support are offered, including, among others: (1) maintenance of advocacy efforts in states with good economic health and mandates; (2) increase of advocacy efforts in states with poor economic health and/or where mandates do not exist; and (3) focus of advocacy efforts on policy makers at the state government level. Appendices include the survey and exemplary policy statements of school boards.
Descriptors: *Advocacy; Compliance (Legal); Educational Legislation; *Educational Policy; Elementary Secondary Education; Financial Exigency; *Gifted; National Surveys; Needs Assessment; Program Development; *Program Termination; Retrenchment; *Special Programs; State Legislation

ED377651 EC303579
Title: Why Give "Gifts" to the Gifted? Investing in a National Resource.
Author(s) Schwartz, Lita Linzer
Pages: 162
Publication Date: 1994
ISBN: 0-80-39-6104-9
Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Availability: Corwin Press, Inc., 2455 Teller Rd., Thousand Oaks, CA 91320 (paperback: ISBN-0-8039-6104-9, $18; hardback: ISBN-0-8039-6103-0).
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Information Analysis (070); Opinion papers (120)
Geographic Source: U.S.; California
Journal Announcement: RIEMAY1995
Target Audience: Policymakers
This book looks at gifted and talented students from a "national resource" point of view. The first chapter establishes the basic premise that gifted and talented children represent a significant resource to any nation and that it is profitable to the nation to invest in their development and education. Subsequent chapters describe types of giftedness, characteristics of gifted youth, underidentified gifted populations (and techniques for identifying them), and the role of adults in fostering giftedness and providing needed opportunities. One chapter is devoted to the special case of gifted females. One chapter addresses nine categories of options available for enhancing the educational experiences of gifted students and explains how these options can be modified and combined to meet the needs of a specific school district and its gifted students. A chapter on "follow-up" studies of gifted and talented students suggests certain commonalities in personal qualities among the "successful" gifted and talented as well as the kinds of activities that appear to promote achievement and maintain a positive self-concept.
Descriptors: Ability Identification; Delivery Systems; *Educational Needs; *Educational Policy; Elementary Secondary Education; Females; Followup Studies; *Gifted; Intervention; Outcomes of Education; Program Development; *Special Education; Student Characteristics; *Talent; Talent Identification EJ486446 EC609042
Title: The Top Ten Statements That Should Never again Be Made by Advocates of Gifted Children.
Author(s) Delisle, James
Source: Gifted Child Today Magazine, v17 n2 p34-35,42 Mar-Apr 1994
Publication Date: 1994
ISSN: 0892-9580
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Opinion papers (120)
Journal Announcement: CIJNOV1994
Guidelines for gifted education programs are offered in a discussion of 10 commonly held myths, such as only gifted students can do in-depth, independent projects; 20% of high school dropouts are gifted; gifted students are more prone to depression and suicide; cooperative learning is inappropriate with gifted students; and gifted students are bored in regular classrooms.
Descriptors: Child Advocacy; *Educational Methods; Elementary Secondary Education; *Gifted; *Special Education; *Student Characteristics; *Teacher Attitudes

EJ475965 EC607635
Title: The Effects of the Elimination of Gifted and Talented Programs on Participating Students and Their Parents.
Author(s) Purcell, Jeanne H.
Source: Gifted Child Quarterly, v37 n4 p177-87 Fall 1993
Publication Date: 1993
ISSN: 0016-9862
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAY1994
Interviews were conducted with 19 parents and mail surveys were received from 27 parents of students (grades 3-8) identified and served by a gifted program eliminated in 1990. Parents perceived that their children were experiencing a decline in energy, curiosity, and intrinsic motivation to achieve at high levels and were beginning to disengage from the traditional curriculum.
Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Elementary Secondary Education; *Gifted; Interviews; *Outcomes of Education; *Parent Attitudes; *Program Termination; *Student Attitudes; Student Motivation; Surveys

EJ472634 EC607072
Title: Educational Rights of Gifted Students: Lost in the Legal Shuffle?
Author(s) Russo, Charles J.; And Others
Source: Roeper Review, v16 n1 p67-71 Sep 1993
Publication Date: 1993
ISSN: 0278-3193
Language: English
Document Type: Information Analysis (070); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAR1994
This article examines developments at the federal level that impact upon both the legal and educational rights of gifted students. It also reviews educational data supporting the need to establish special programs and concludes with recommendations for redressing inequities in educational programs for the gifted.
Descriptors: *Child Advocacy; Civil Liberties; Court Litigation; Educational Legislation; *Equal Education; Federal Legislation; *Gifted; Special Education; Student Needs

ED359743 EC302493
Title: National Excellence: A Case for Developing America's Talent.
Author(s) Ross, Pat O'Connell; And Others
Author Affiliation: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Programs for the Improvement of Practice.(EDD00075)
Pages: 42
Publication Date: October 1993
Notes: Foreword by Richard W. Riley, Secretary of Education.
Report No: PIP-93-1201
ISBN: 0-16-042928-5
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Availability: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328.
Language: English
Document Type: Opinion papers (120); Reports--Evaluative (142)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC1993
Government Level: Federal
This report on the educational needs of American gifted and talented students identifies indicators of an educational crisis, describes the current status of education for these students, and presents recommendations to meet the educational needs of these students. Indicators demonstrating the need for change include the relatively poor performance by American students on international tests and the small number of students performing at the highest levels on National Assessment of Educational Progress tests. Recent studies have shown that gifted and talented elementary school students have mastered 35-40% of the curriculum in five basic subjects before they begin the school year; most regular classroom teachers make few, if any, provisions for talented students; highest achieving students study less than an hour a day; and only 2 cents out of every $100 spent on K-12 education supports special opportunities for talented students. A review describes how gifted and talented students are currently identified, the number of students served, the kind of support available, the kind of education most gifted and talented students receive, and characteristics of effective programs for these students. Seven recommendations are offered: (1) set challenging curricular standards; (2) establish high-level learning opportunities; (3) ensure access to early childhood education; (4) increase learning opportunities for disadvantaged and minority children with outstanding talents; (5) broaden the definition of gifted (a broadened definition based on the federal Javits Gifted and Talented Education Act is offered); (6) encourage appropriate teacher training and technical assistance; and (7) match world performance.
Descriptors: Ability Identification; Comparative Education; *Definitions; Early Childhood Education; Educational Assessment; *Educational Needs; *Educational Objectives; Educational Quality; Elementary Secondary Education; *Excellence in Education; Expenditure per Student; Futures (of Society); *Gifted; Gifted Disadvantaged; Special Education; *Talent; Talent Identification Identifiers: Javits Gifted and Talented Students Act

ED353721 EC301752
Title: Taking the Bull by the Horns of a Dilemma.
Author(s) Howley, Craig
Pages: 39
Publication Date: November 14, 1992
Notes: Keynote address presented at the Conference of the Tennessee Association for the Gifted (Nashville, TN, November 14, 1992). For a related paper, see EC 301 751.
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Opinion papers (120); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; West Virginia
Journal Announcement: RIEJUN1993
This speech addresses the educational needs of gifted children in the context of the existing educational system's philosophy and various reform efforts. It first examines the doctrine of progress, suggesting that important educational change is glacial and much of what purports to be educational change is ephemeral. It claims that the present prime directive of our educational system is to socialize job holders. Such reform movements as "authentic assessment" are seen to be more efforts to hold schools accountable to government than true examples of educational change. An alternative view is offered, which states that: (1) progress along the path of improvement is uncertain; (2) schooling tries to make people useful, but ends by dumbing them down; (3) good schooling entails enlightenment; and (4) education is a process of liberation that does not require schooling. It is concluded that teachers of gifted students need to see their prime mission as care of students' intellect, rather than development of their hypothetical usefulness. The existing "one best system" for all students is seen as in decline and suffering from an epidemic of "thoughtlessness" which can only be countered by an emphasis on thoughtfulness in the education of the gifted.
Descriptors: Child Advocacy; Delivery Systems; *Educational Needs; *Educational Philosophy; Educational Principles; *Educational Trends; Elementary Secondary Education; Futures (of Society); *Gifted; School Role; Special Education Teachers; Teacher Role; Trend Analysis

ED353720 EC301751
Title: Keeping Children Gifted: How It Happens and How It Doesn't.
Author(s) Howley, Craig
Pages: 26
Publication Date: November 13, 1992
Notes: Keynote Address presented at the Conference of the Tennessee Association for the Gifted (Nashville, TN, November 13, 1992). For a related paper, see EC 301 752.
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Opinion papers (120); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; West Virginia
Journal Announcement: RIEJUN1993
This speech by an educator and parent of gifted children addresses the problem of appropriate educational services for gifted children, concluding that advocacy for these children entails pushing for acceleration, an often neglected but effective option. The paper begins with anecdotes which illustrate the unmet needs of gifted children and which identify recent trends questioning the economic utility of higher education. The paper suggests that gifted children often learn laziness in school and that the goal for such children should not be "normalization" as it is for exceptional children with handicaps but, rather, maximization of the child's potential. The presentation claims that rapid progress is needed to stimulate gifted children to stay gifted, and therefore acceleration should always be considered when developing Individualized Education Programs for gifted students. A framework for rapid progress is offered, listing service and placement options ranging from regular age-grade placement to an advanced program in a special school.
Descriptors: *Academically Gifted; *Acceleration (Education); *Child Advocacy; *Delivery Systems; *Educational Needs; Educational Philosophy; Elementary Secondary Education; Gifted; Individualized Education Programs; Models; Program Development; Special Education; Student Educational Objectives

EJ462564 EC605891
Title: Parental Advocacy for the Gifted.
Author(s) Vestal, Jennifer C.
Source: Gifted Child Today (GCT), v16 n2 p8-13 Mar-Apr 1993
Publication Date: 1993
ISSN: 0892-9580
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJSEP1993
Target Audience: Parents
This article provides suggestions on becoming an advocate for change in the educational services offered to a gifted child. The article emphasizes the importance of researching the situation before meeting with teachers and administrators, understanding the legal and political issues involved, networking with other parents, and formulating a specific proposal.
Descriptors: *Child Advocacy; Elementary Secondary Education; *Gifted; *Parent Role; *Parent School Relationship; Parent Teacher Cooperation

EJ439635 EC602507
Title: Gifted Education without a State Mandate: The Importance of Vigorous Advocacy.
Author(s) Irvine, David J.
Source: Gifted Child Quarterly, v35 n4 p196-99 Fall 1991
Publication Date: 1991
Notes: Special Issue: Advocacy and Support for Gifted Programs.
ISSN: 0016-9862
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUN1992
Target Audience: Policymakers
New York State does not have a mandate requiring differential instruction for gifted students but has increased services. Factors promoting program development have included financial incentives, mandatory screening, educational reform, and vigorous advocacy. Negative factors associated with lack of a mandate have been inequities in program access, program quality control, and limited teacher preparation programs.
Descriptors: Ability Identification; Access to Education; *Child Advocacy; Delivery Systems; Educational Change; Elementary Secondary Education; *Gifted; Legal Responsibility; Lobbying; Special Education; State Legislation; *State Standards; *Talent
Identifiers: *New York

EJ439631 EC602503
Title: Programs for Gifted Students: Enlightened Self-Interest.
Author(s) Gallagher, James J.
Source: Gifted Child Quarterly, v35 n4 p177-78 Fall 1991
Publication Date: 1991
Notes: Special Issue: Advocacy and Support for Gifted Programs.
ISSN: 0016-9862
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Opinion papers (120)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUN1992
Target Audience: Policymakers
This article argues that providing good gifted and talented education programs is in the nation's economic self-interest and is essential to the United States' future economic competitiveness in the world community.
Descriptors: Child Advocacy; Economic Factors; *Economic Progress; Elementary Secondary Education; *Futures (of Society); *Gifted; Program Development; Public Relations; *Special Education; *Talent

EJ439630 EC602502
Title: Advocacy for Gifted Programs in the New Educational Climate.
Author(s) Ross, Pat O'Connell
Source: Gifted Child Quarterly, v35 n4 p173-76 Fall 1991
Publication Date: 1991 Notes: Special Issue: Advocacy and Support for Gifted Programs.
ISSN: 0016-9862
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Opinion papers (120)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUN1992
Target Audience: Practitioners
This article urges educators of the gifted and talented to become knowledgeable about educational reform efforts at the local, state, and national levels. Specific initiatives pertinent to gifted education include ungraded primary schools; performance-based assessment of student progress; use of student portfolios; and rigorous, revamped curricula.
Descriptors: Curriculum Development; *Educational Change; *Educational Trends; Elementary Secondary Education; *Gifted; Nongraded Instructional Grouping; Student Evaluation; *Talent; Teacher Role
Identifiers: Student Portfolios

EJ435898 EC601784
Title: The Gifted: A Term with Surplus Meaning.
Author(s) Gallagher, James J.
Source: Journal for the Education of the Gifted, v14 n4 p353-65 Win 1991
Publication Date: 1991
ISSN: 0162-3532
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Opinion papers (120)
Journal Announcement: CIJAPR1992
Implications of the term "gifted," including that of unjustified and unearned privilege, are considered in the context of findings on intelligence development, self-efficacy, education, prevalence, and the importance of labels. Five policy options are considered including abandoning the term and using performance rather than aptitude to organize instruction.
Descriptors: Academic Achievement; *Definitions; Educational Philosophy; Eligibility; *Gifted; Incidence; Intelligence; *Labeling (of Persons); Policy Formation; Self Concept; Self Efficacy

EJ415119 FL520441
Title: Short-Cut Estimators of Criterion-Referenced Test Consistency.
Author(s) Brown, James Dean
Source: Language Testing, v7 n1 p77-97 Jun 1990
Publication Date: 1990
ISSN: 0265-5322
Language: English
Document Type: Information Analysis (070); Journal articles (080); Opinion papers (120)
Journal Announcement: CIJFEB1991
Presents simplified methods for deriving estimates of the consistency of criterion- referenced, English-as-a-Second-Language tests, including (1) the threshold loss agreement approach using agreement or kappa coefficients, (2) the squared-error loss agreement approach using the phi(lambda) dependability approach, and (3) the domain score dependability approach using an estimate of the phi coefficient.
Descriptors: Criterion Referenced Tests; *English (Second Language); *Language Tests; Second Language Learning; *Test Reliability; *Testing
Identifiers: Domain Referenced Tests
 

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