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GT-Minority Identification (December 2003)
What are some methods we can use to identify giftedness in children from minority cultures?
For many years, educational professionals have been concerned about the disproportionate underrepresentation of children from some cultural, linguistic, and low income backgrounds in traditional gifted
programs. These children, many of whom show potential for superior performance in areas that
are not easily assessed by traditional ability measures, have not been provided with opportunities
that elicit their gifts and talents and encourage them to maximize that potential.
The National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) of 1988 looked at 8th graders throughout
the nation and found that 65 percent of the public schools (serving 75 percent of all public school
8th graders), had some kind of opportunity for gifted and talented students. The NELS study
found that about 8.8 percent of all 8th-grade public school students participated in gifted and
talented programs, and that some minority groups were more likely to be served than others.
Economically disadvantaged students were significantly underserved, according to NELS
In January 2003, the National Academy of Sciences (http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10128.html)
released a report on the seeming overrepresentation of minorities in special education and underrepresentation of those students in gifted education. The NRC reported that, nationwide, 7.47 percent of all white students and 9.9 percent of Asian students are placed in gifted programs. Meanwhile, 3.04 percent of African-American students, 3.57 percent of Hispanic students, and 4.86 percent of American Indian students are classified as gifted..
The number of students served in gifted and talented programs has grown substantially
in the past decades, in part due to a focused effort by the states and funding by the Jacob
K. Javits Gifted and Talented Students Education Program
(http://www.ed.gov/prog_info/Javits/index.html). However, it is also clear that students from
economically disadvantaged families and students with unorthodox talents are not being
identified in equitable proportions.
Following are links to related ERIC Digests, Internet resources, and Internet discussion groups, as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the citations.
You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:
The full text of citations beginning with an ED number (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:
The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:
- The originating journal
- Through interlibrary loan services at your local college or public library
- From article reproduction services such as
ERIC Search Terms Used
minority OR cultural diversity OR blacks OR minority groups OR ethnic groups OR
economically disadvantaged OR Minority Group Children
Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education.
Donovan, M. Suzanne, Ed.; Cross, Christopher T., Ed.
Publication Date: 2002
Publication Type: Books (010); Information Analysis (070); Evaluative Report (142)
Availability: National Academies Press, 2101 Constitution Ave., NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055 ($49.95). Tel: 800-624-6242 (Toll Free); Fax: 202-334-2793; Web site: http://www.nap.edu.
EDRS Price MF02 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Institution Name: FGK56081 _ National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.
Sponsoring Agency: EDD00001 _ Department of Education, Washington, DC.
Contract No: H324A980001
Audience: Policymakers; Practitioners
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Note: Produced by the Committee on Minority Representation in Special Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.
ERIC Issue: RIEJUN2003
This book discusses findings and recommendations of the Committee on Minority
Representation in Special Education of the National Research Council. In chapter
1, the current study of the disproportion of minorities in special and gifted
education is put into historical context. In chapter 2, an analysis of federal
data on the representation of minority students in special and gifted programs
during the past 3 decades is provided. Chapter 3 focuses on factors that contribute
to variation in cognitive and behavioral function as they differ by race or
ethnicity, and chapter 4 discusses early intervention programs to improve
cognitive and behavioral outcomes of children at risk. Chapter 5 looks at
general education and its role in the disproportionate placement of minority
students in special and gifted education. Referral is examined in chapter
6, and the assessment process for disabilities and for gifted and talented
programs is addressed in chapter 7. Chapter 8 examines major challenges to
the existing system and offers recommendations for substantial reform. It
concludes that more effective student referral and placement require more
closely integrated assessment, intervention, and monitoring in general education.
The last two chapters review literature on what works for special education
and gifted students and summarizes recommendations.
Major Descriptors: Disabilities; Disproportionate Representation; Gifted; Minority Group Children; Student Evaluation; Student Placement
Minor Descriptors: Child Behavior; Cognitive Development; Cultural Influences; Early Intervention; Educational Assessment; Educational Change; Educational Discrimination; Elementary Secondary Education; Preschool Education; Racial Differences; Referral; Special Education
DISCOVER in High School: Identifying Gifted Hispanic and Native American Students.
Sarouphim, Ketty M.
Journal of Secondary Gifted Education; v14 n1 p30-38 Fall 2002
Publication Type: Journal articles (080); Research/Technical Report (143)
ERIC Issue: CIJMAR2003
A study of 303 predominately Hispanic and Native American ninth graders investigated
the validity of the DISCOVER assessment. Results provided evidence for an
alignment of the assessment with the theory of multiple intelligences. No
overall gender or ethnic differences were found in the numbers of students
identified as gifted.
Major Descriptors: Ability Identification; Gifted; Minority Group Children; Multiple Intelligences; Performance Based Assessment; Test Validity
Minor Descriptors: American Indians; Evaluation Methods; Grade 9; High Schools; Hispanic Americans; Secondary Education; Student Evaluation
Identifiers: *DISCOVER Assessment Process
EJ645159 : EC629984
Using Performance Tasks in the Identification of Economically Disadvantaged and Minority Gifted Learners: Findings from Project STAR.
VanTassel-Baska, Joyce; Johnson, Dana; Avery, Linda D.
Publication Date: 2002
Gifted Child Quarterly; v46 n2 p110-23 Spr 2002
Publication Type: Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141); Evaluative Report(142)
ERIC Issue: CIJSEP2002
This article discusses the use of performance task assessments by Project
STAR for identifying students for academically gifted programs in grades 3-6.
A field test of the performance assessment tasks resulted in finding an additional
group of students who were 12 percent African American and 14 percent low-income
Major Descriptors: Ability Identification; Academically Gifted; Blacks; Economically Disadvantaged; Educational Testing; Performance Based Assessment
Minor Descriptors: Elementary Education; Evaluation Methods; Field Tests; Minority Group Children; Student Evaluation
Identifiers: *African Americans
Culturally Diverse Students Who Are Gifted.
Baldwin, Alexinia Y.
Exceptionality; v10 n2 p139-47 2002
Publication Type: Non-Classroom Use (055); Information Analysis (070); Journal articles (080);
NOTE: Special Issue: Gifted and Talented Behavior and Education.
ERIC Issue: CIJOCT2002
This article explores the identification of culturally diverse gifted students
and provides the following suggestions: train teachers to look for gifted
behaviors in different areas, use portfolios in assessments, change perceptions
of innate abilities of students, recognize potential that can be developed,
and recognize giftedness other than "school house giftedness".
Major Descriptors: Ability Identification; Cultural Awareness; Cultural Differences; Gifted; Minority Group Children; Student Evaluation
Minor Descriptors: Diversity (Student); Elementary Secondary Education; Evaluation Methods; Portfolio Assessment; Teacher Expectations of Students
An Alternative Approach to the Identification of Gifted Culturally and
Linguistically Diverse Learners: The Contribution of Dynamic Assessment.
Lidz, Carol S.; Macrine, Sheila L.
Source: School Psychology International, v22 n1 p74-96 Feb 2001
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJJAN2002
Explores the utility of an alternative approach to identification of gifted
culturally and linguistically diverse learners in first to fifth grade in a school
with a majority of culturally diverse students. From a population of 473 students,
25 qualified for inclusion in the academically gifted program. Study demonstrates
the contribution of dynamic assessment in the identification of gifted minority
Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Cultural Differences; *Diversity (Student);
Elementary School Students; *Gifted; *Identification; Individual Differences;
Use of the DISCOVER Assessment for Identification Purposes: Concurrent
Validity and Gender Issues.
Sarouphim, Ketty M.
Publication Date: April 2000
Notes: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research
Association (New Orleans, LA, April 24-28, 2000).
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Document Type: Reports--Evaluative (142); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: Lebanon
Journal Announcement: RIENOV2000
This study examined the DISCOVER (Discovering Intellectual Strengths and Capabilities
through Observation while allowing for Varied Ethnic Responses) assessment
(C. Maker, A. Nielson, and J. Rogers, 1994) as a concurrent measure of the
Raven Progressive Matrices (J. Raven, J. Court, and J. Raven, 1977). It also
investigated gender differences in DISCOVER results. A secondary purpose was
to determine the effectiveness of the DISCOVER assessment in reducing the
problem of the underrepresentation of minority students in programs for the
gifted. The sample consisted of 257 kindergarten, second, fourth, and fifth
grade students, predominantly Navajo Indians and Mexican Americans. The results
provide some evidence for concurrent validity and show that through use of
the DISCOVER assessment 22.9%, of minority students were identified as gifted.
A MANOVA, multivariate analysis of variance (gender by grade level), yielded
no significant differences in the performance of males and females in all
activities across grade levels. Chi- square tests revealed no overall significant
gender differences between identification. The findings support the use of
the DISCOVER assessment for identification purposes.
Descriptors: American Indians; *Concurrent Validity; Elementary Education;
*Elementary School Students; *Gifted; Hispanic American Students; *Identification;
Mexican Americans; *Minority Groups; Multivariate Analysis; *Sex Differences
Identifiers: *DISCOVER System; Raven Progressive Matrices
Rural Hispanic Children and Giftedness: Why the Difficulty in Identification?
Publication Date: March 1999
Notes: In: Rural Special Education for the New Millennium. Conference Proceedings
of the American Council on Rural Special Education (ACRES) (19th, Albuquerque, New
Mexico, March 25-27, 1999); see RC 021 888.
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Document Type: Information Analysis (070); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Oklahoma
Journal Announcement: RIESEP1999
This paper discusses problems related to identification of gifted Hispanic children
in rural areas. While the federal definition of giftedness is subscribed to by most
states, local districts tend to seek and find White, middle-class academic achievers.
One problem associated with identification of gifted minorities is that the research
and literature on minorities has focused more on deficits than on strengths.
Obstacles to identification include language differences, inappropriate use of I.Q.
information, differences in home and cultural backgrounds, effects of poverty,
limited out-of-school educational experiences, and racial or ethnic bias. In
assessing student abilities, it is essential to understand that each instrument or
procedure measures only one of many facets. Measures that go beyond academic
achievement must be used to find students whose abilities are not indicated by tests
and school performance. Three major types of educational adaptations for the gifted
Hispanic student are suggested: counseling to help students caught between
conflicting cultures, the building of self-knowledge, and the development of
meaningful curriculum adaptations. Six suggestions are listed to help parents,
counselors, and teachers work successfully with culturally diverse gifted learners.
Contains 26 references.
Descriptors: Cultural Differences; Elementary Secondary Education; Ethnic Bias;
*Gifted; Gifted Disadvantaged; *Hispanic Americans; *Identification; Intelligence
Quotient; *Rural Education; Rural Schools; Special Education; *Test Bias
National Excellence: A Case For Developing America's Talent.
Ross, Pat O'Connell; And Others
Oct 1993. Office Of Educational Research And Improvement (Ed), Washington, DC. Programs For The Improvement Of Practice. 42p.; Foreword by Richard W. Riley, Secretary of Education.
Report No: PIP-93-1201
Available From: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop:
SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Document Type: Position Paper (120); Evaluative Report (142)
Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC93
This report on the educational needs of American gifted and talented students identifies
indicators of an educational crisis, describes the current status of education for these students,
and presents recommendations to meet the educational needs of these students. Indicators
demonstrating the need for change include the relatively poor performance by American students
on international tests and the small number of students performing at the highest levels on
National Assessment of Educational Progress tests. Recent studies have shown that gifted and
talented elementary school students have mastered 35-40% of the curriculum in five basic
subjects before they begin the school year; most regular classroom teachers make few, if any,
provisions for talented students; highest achieving students study less than an hour a day; and
only 2 cents out of every $100 spent on K-12 education supports special opportunities for
talented students. A review describes how gifted and talented students are currently identified,
the number of students served, the kind of support available, the kind of education most gifted
and talented students receive, and characteristics of effective programs for these students. Seven
recommendations are offered: (1) set challenging curricular standards; (2) establish high-level
learning opportunities; (3) ensure access to early childhood education; (4) increase learning
opportunities for disadvantaged and minority children with outstanding talents; (5) broaden the
definition of gifted (a broadened definition based on the federal Javits Gifted and Talented
Education Act is offered); (6) encourage appropriate teacher training and technical assistance;
and (7) match world performance.
Descriptors: Ability Identification; Comparative
Education; *Definitions; Early Childhood Education; Educational Assessment; *Educational
Needs; *Educational Objectives; Educational Quality; Elementary Secondary Education;
*Excellence in Education; Expenditure per Student; Futures (of Society); *Gifted; Gifted
Disadvantaged; Special Education; *Talent; Talent Identification
Identifiers: Javits Gifted
and Talented Students Act
Challenging Expectations: Case Studies of High-Potential, Culturally Diverse Young Children.
Tomlinson, Carol Ann; And Others
Gifted Child Quarterly, v41 n2 p5-17 Spr 1997
Document Type: Journal Article (080); Research Report (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC97
Reports findings from case studies of eight gifted minority children in second and third grade
who participated in a Project START (Support To Affirm Rising Talent). Discusses factors that
promoted and discouraged success in the regular classroom and in transition to special services
for gifted learners.
Descriptors: Case Studies; *Cultural Differences; Diversity (Student);
*Educational Strategies; Ethnic Groups; *Gifted; *Minority Group Children; *Performance
Factors; Primary Education; Program Effectiveness; Special Programs
Early Identification of Gifted Minority Kindergarten Students in Newark, NJ.
Candice; Louis, Barbara; Ukeje, Ikechukwu; Lewis, Michael; Leong, Philip
Quarterly; v41 n3 p76-82 Sum 1997
Document Type: Journal-Articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)
Document Type: Journal Article (080); Project Description (141)
A screening and assessment procedure has been developed in Newark, New Jersey, to identify
gifted inner city minority kindergarten students. The procedure uses the Brigance K & 1 Screen,
a new Gifted Screening intelligence measure, and the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities.
The procedure has increased identification of gifted students among entering first graders from .2
percent to 2 percent.
Descriptors: *Gifted ; *Early Identification; *Screening Tests;
Minority Groups; Primary Education; Kindergarten Children; *Ability Identification; Inner City;
Urban Education; Disadvantaged Youth; Minority Groups
Identifiers: *New Jersey,
Newark; Brigance K and 1 Screen; McCarthy Scales of Childrens Abilities
Strategies for Identifying the Talents of Diverse Students. ERIC/CUE Digest, Number 122.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, New York, NY. May 1997
Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Contract
No: RR93002016. Report No: EDO-UD-97-3
Available From: ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, Institute for Urban and Minority
Education, Box 40, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (free).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Document Type: ERIC Product (071); ERIC Digests (Selected) (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.;
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC97
To reduce the possibility that children who do not fit stereotypical profiles of gifted children will
be passed over, identifying students from diverse backgrounds for talent should be a
multipronged effort. Outreach is especially important in areas when parents may be absorbed in
meeting their family's immediate needs. To facilitate identification at school, teacher training
programs now provide education about cultural and talent diversity among gifted students and
about the ways learning style differences can mask evidence of special talents. The children
themselves, and the adults in their lives, may not even be aware of their talents, but schools can
use the following methods of identifying giftedness to make sure that students receive fair
consideration: (1) standardized tests; (2) observation; (3) self-identification through biographical
inventories; and (4) portfolios. Identifying the special talents of students from diverse
backgrounds is just the first step toward helping them achieve their full potential.
Descriptors: Ability Identification; Cognitive Style; Cultural Awareness; *Cultural Differences;
*Diversity (Student); *Early Identification; Elementary Education; *Evaluation Methods;
*Gifted; Minority Groups; Outreach Programs; School Role; Talent; *Talent Identification;
Teacher Role; Urban Youth
Identifiers: ERIC Digests
Identifying and Assessing Gifted and Talented Bilingual Hispanic Students. ERIC Digest.
Castellano, Jaime A.
Publication_Type: 071; 073
Page: 4; 1
Availability: ERIC/CRESS, P.O. Box 1348, Charleston, WV 25325-1348 (free).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Contract No: RR93002012
Geographic_Source: U.S.; West Virginia
This Digest discusses the ongoing effort to develop new methods for identifying
talent and giftedness among bilingual and limited-English-proficient Hispanic
students. To provide better profiles for the identification of all gifted
children, research suggests use of both qualitative and quantitative instruments.
Several instruments are recommended for assessing disadvantaged children,
including culturally and linguistically diverse students, and for use with
Spanish-speaking students. Most school districts serving gifted and talented
bilingual Hispanic students use multiple criteria in the screening and identification
process. Multiple criteria may include ethnographic or dynamic assessment,
portfolios, test scores, teacher observation, behavioral checklists, writing
samples, and input from parents and community members. Certain student traits
may alert teachers to consider further assessment. Although Hispanic females
have shown a consistent trend of doing better academically than males, they
remain seriously underrepresented in higher education. To increase participation
of Hispanic female students in programs for the gifted and talented, both
parents and educators must be advocates. As more culturally and linguistically
diverse students enter the nation's schools, local programs must be in place
to identify and educate the gifted and talented among them and must allow
their participation while they are learning English.
Major_Descriptors: Females; Gifted; Hispanic Americans; Limited English Speaking; Talent Identification
Minor Descriptors: Access to Education; Bilingual Students; Elementary Secondary
Education; Evaluation Criteria; Evaluation Methods; Screening Tests; Spanish
Identifiers: ERIC Digests
Identifying Academic Potential in Students from Under-Represented Populations: Is Using the
Ravens Progressive Matrices a Good Idea?
Mills, Carol J.; Tissot, Sherri L.
Child Quarterly, v39 n4 p209-17 Fall 1995
Document Type: Journal Article (080); Research Report (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAY96
Target Audience: Researchers
The Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) and the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices
(APM) were evaluated as possible instruments for identifying academically talented students in
minority populations. A significantly higher proportion of minority children scored well on the
RPM than on a traditional measure. Issues and concerns about using the APM as the sole
identification measure are raised.
Descriptors: *Ability Identification; *Academically
Gifted; *Culture Fair Tests; Elementary Secondary Education; Eligibility; Measures
(Individuals); *Minority Groups; *Nonverbal Tests; Performance Tests; Screening Tests;
Identifiers: *Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices; *Raven Progressive Matrices
Towards a New Paradigm for Identifying Talent Potential. Research Monograph 94112.
Frasier, Mary M.; Passow, A. Harry
National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, Storrs, CT. Dec 1994 97p.; Executive
Summary on p.vii-xix also published separately. Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational
Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Contract No: R206R00001
From: NRC/GT, University of Connecticut, 362 Fairfield Road, U-7, Storrs, CT
EDRS Price - MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.
Document Type: Position Paper (120)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Connecticut
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR96
This monograph presents a paradigm for identifying giftedness among all groups of young
people. Section 1 presents a review and critique of traditional identification approaches and
highlights the limitations that tests may have for identifying talent potential among groups
currently underrepresented in gifted programs. Section 2 examines the values and
environmental influences of several cultures, to identify the additional challenges faced by high
achieving, ethnically diverse students. Within-group cultural differences are also considered.
The third section reports the results of an exploratory study which examined the characteristics
of economically disadvantaged and limited English proficient gifted students. Section 4 looks at
behaviors that characterize gifted performance, noting research results which suggest that there
may be well-known "absolute" behaviors which characterize high performance cross-culturally,
as well as specific behaviors which manifest themselves in particular cultural contexts.
Emerging insights from the Javits Gifted and Talented Students' Education Act are addressed in
the fifth section. The final section provides a synthesis of the previously presented ideas and
proposes a five-element paradigm of giftedness, including: (1) new constructs of giftedness; (2)
absolute and specific behaviors; (3) cultural and contextual variables; (4) authentic assessment;
and (5) identification through learning opportunities. Executive Summary is also published
Descriptors: *Ability Identification; Behavior Patterns; *Cultural Differences; Cultural
Influences; Economically Disadvantaged; Educational Legislation; Elementary Secondary
Education; Ethnic Groups; Federal Legislation; *Gifted; Limited English Speaking; Minority
Groups; Models; *Student Characteristics; Student Evaluation; *Talent; Talent Identification
Identifiers: *Jacob K Javits Gifted Talented Stdnt Educ Act 1988
Updated Report on State Policies Related to the Identification of Gifted Students.
Coleman, Mary Ruth; And Others
North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill. Gifted Education Policy Studies Program. Apr 1994
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Contract No: R206A00596
EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
Document Type: Research Report (143)
Geographic Source: U.S.; North Carolina
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC94
Target Audience: Policymakers
An analysis was conducted of state policies concerning the identification of gifted students,
especially those traditionally underserved (the culturally diverse, economically disadvantaged,
and students with disabilities). Content analysis of each state's documents focused on six major
areas: (1) legislation, (2) definitions of "gifted," (3) standard identification practices, (4)
nonstandard identification practices, (5) due process and grievance procedures, and (6) specific
references to gifted students from special populations. The analysis revealed that a range of
attention is being given to these special populations and that state policies tend to be permissive
and inclusive regarding identification and services. Some states have developed
communication, recruitment, and child-find strategies to increase public awareness. Forty-three
states have screening policies to locate gifted students. Formal identification strategies often rely
on the use of multiple criteria. In their identification processes, 46 states incorporate outside-of-
school activities; 43 include measures of creativity; and many states permit input from teachers,
parents, students, and others. Forty states specifically mention culturally diverse gifted students,
and 40 mention economically disadvantaged children. Students with learning disabilities are
addressed by 40 states, and students with sensory and physical disabilities are mentioned by 36
states. Appended are the content analysis matrix and guidelines.
Identification; Content Analysis; Cultural Differences; Definitions; Due Process; Economically
Disadvantaged; *Educational Policy; Elementary Secondary Education; Eligibility; *Gifted;
Gifted Disabled; Gifted Disadvantaged; Minority Groups; State Legislation; *State
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