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Gifted-Longitudinal Studies FAQ (updated March 2003)

Where can I find longitudinal studies on gifted students?

Longitudinal studies represent one of the best ways to determine educational practice because they view children and adults over an extended period of time. Since these studies require prolonged funding and commitment on the part of researchers, very few have been conducted. The best known longitudinal studies were conducted by Louis Terman. In 1921 Terman and his colleagues began a longitudinal study of 1,528 gifted youth with IQs greater than 140 who were approximately 12 years old. Over a period of approximately 40 years, the researchers laid the groundwork for our understanding of giftedness and paved the way for efforts to identify and nurture giftedness in school. Terman died in 1959 but the study will continue until 2020, to encompass the entire lives of his original 1528 gifted youth. Results of the study have been published in several volumes:

Terman, L.M. et al. (1925, 1926, 1930, 1947, 1959). Genetic studies of genius. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Terman, L.M. (1925). Mental and physical traits of a thousand gifted children (I). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Terman, L.M. (1930). The promise of youth, follow-up studies of a thousand gifted children: Genetic studies of genius, III. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Terman, L.M. (1947). The gifted child grows up, twenty-five years follow up of a superior group: Genetic studies of genius, IV. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Terman, L.M., & Oden, M.H. (1959). The gifted group at mid-life, thirty-five years follow-up of the superior child: Genetic studies of genius, V.3. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Additional sources of longitudinal studies:

  • Some longitudinal studies of gifted students use the data collected by the National Education Longitudinal Survey of 1988 (NELS:88), sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) at the US Department of Education. NELS:88 is a nationally representative sample of approximately 25,000 eighth graders who were enrolled in public or private school in 1988. Follow-up studies have been completed every two years. NELS data can be found at the following website (http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/nels88/) and represent a rich source of information for policy makers and education practitioners.
  • The regional talent search programs represent another source of longitudinal data. For example, the Center for Talented Youth at Johns Hopkins University has two ongoing longitudinal studies. Information is available on their website (http://www.jhu.edu/gifted/research/mission.html#longstudies). Talent search programs are listed at the following address:http://www.hoagiesgifted.org/eric/fact/gt-univ.html

Following are links to related Internet resources, as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the citations.

  • Internet Resources (http://www.hoagiesgifted.org/eric/faq/gt-urls.html)

  • Internet You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:

    ERIC Citations

    The full text of citations beginning with an ED number (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:

    The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:

    ERIC Search Terms Used

    gifted

    AND

    longitudinal studies

    EJ635067 EC628683
    An Examination of Terman's Gifted Children from the Theory of Identity.
    Zuo, Li; Cramond, Bonnie
    Gifted Child Quarterly, v45 n4 p251-59 Fall 2001
    ISSN: 0016-9862
    Language: English
    Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
    Journal Announcement: CIJAPR2002
    Employing E. Erikson's identity theory within J. Marcia's operational framework, the association between identity formation and adult achievement was examined in a subset of gifted individuals from Terman's longitudinal study. Significant relationships were found between identity formation and occupational success. Most successful individuals were identity achievers whereas the least successful were more likely identity diffusers.
    Descriptors: *Gifted; High Achievement; Individual Development; *Individual Psychology; Longitudinal Studies; Low Achievement; Personality Theories
    Identifiers: Erikson (Erik); *Identity Formation; Marcia (James E); Terman (Lewis M)

    ED452338 UD034165
    A Longitudinal Study of the Course of Academic Achievement of Urban and Minority Gifted and General Education Students.
    Rose, Elizabeth A.
    Publication Date: 2001
    Document Type: Reports--Research (143); Conference Paper (150)
    Pages: 22
    EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
    Language: English
    Geographic Source:U.S.; Michigan
    Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Seattle, WA, April 10-14, 2001).
    ERIC Issue: RIESEP2001
    This study examined patterns of academic progress and outcomes in different inner city school settings (identified as gifted or geneal education) for African American and White lower, middle, and upper socioeconomic strata students. It followed 287 students' progress from kindergarten through their graduation year, 185 of whom were considered gifted and enrolled in a self-contained gifted program for all subjects in elementary school and core academic subjects in secondary school. Students' grades for math, reading, and science were recorded over time. Overall academic outcomes (grades and standardized test scores) were higher for gifted students enrolled in the program sometime during their school career than for general education students. Graduation rates were higher for gifted students who remained in the gifted program than for gifted students who left for general education or for general education students. Though the gifted program retained more African American than White students, a substantial group of African American students went to the general education program. White students remained in the gifted program at a higher rate than they did in the general education program. Income was a factor in gifted students' graduation outcomes and grades, and standardized test scores varied by grade, program placement, race, and gender.
    Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Academically Gifted; *Black Students; *Graduation; *Urban Schools; Elementary Secondary Education; Grades (Scholastic); Low Income Groups; Scores; Socioeconomic Influences

    ED458764 EC308712
    Gifted Children Grown Up.
    Freeman, Joan
    Pages: 248
    Publication Date: 2001
    Notes: Published by David Fulton Publishers Ltd.
    ISBN: 1-85346-831-2
    Availability: Taylor & Francis, Inc., 800-634-7064 (Toll Free); http://www.taylorandfrancis.com.
    Language: English
    Document Type: Book (010); Guides--Non-classroom (055); Reports--Research (143)
    Geographic Source: United Kingdom; England
    Journal Announcement: RIEAPR2002
    This book describes the outcomes of a longitudinal study of 210 British children that compared the recognized and the unrecognized gifted with their classmates. It describes what has happened to them and their families as they have grown up in very different circumstances, in poverty or wealth, through many types of schooling and life opportunities. The book debunks many myths about the development of the gifted and provides insights into their special situations. Suggestions are made for much needed changes in care and education of the gifted, not only for their own fulfillment and happiness, but also for the future of society.
    Descriptors: *Ability Identification; Child Development; Cognitive Development; *Educational Experience; Educational Philosophy; Educational Practices; Elementary Secondary Education; Foreign Countries; *Gifted; Longitudinal Studies; *Self Concept; *Talent Development
    Identifiers: Great Britain

    EJ651335 SO535032
    The Dynamics of Cognitive and Noncognitive Personality Indicators of Giftedness in Younger Schoolchildren.
    Shcheblanova, E. I.
    Russian Education and Society, v42 n5 p5-27 May 2000
    Notes: Theme issue: Young People with Special Needs.
    ISSN: 1060-9393
    Language: English
    Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
    Journal Announcement: CIJDEC2002
    Presents the experimental findings of one of the directions in the Moscow (Russia) Longitudinal Study of Giftedness of School Children to discern the development characteristics of children's giftedness at the beginning of school. Relates that giftedness can decline, but special programs help to prevent this outcome. Includes references.
    Descriptors: *Child Development; Educational Research; Elementary Education; *Elementary School Students; Foreign Countries; *Gifted; Grade 1; Grade 3; *Longitudinal Studies; Personality; Social Science Research; *Young Children
    Identifiers: Russia (Moscow)

    ED451665 EC308349
    Artistic Talent Development for Urban Youth: The Promise and the Challenge. Research Monograph Series.
    Oreck, Barry; Baum, Susan; McCartney, Heather
    Publication Date: 2000
    Publication Type: Research/Technical (143)
    Pages: 108
    Availability: National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut, 860-486-4676; http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/nrcgt.
    EDRS Price MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.
    Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
    Language: English
    Geographic Source: Connecticut
    Note: Funding provided by the GE Fund's Champions of Change program. Support provided by Stanford University.
    This longitudinal case study investigated issues that influence successful talent development in the arts and examined the effects of long-term artistic involvement on the lives of 23 artistically talented young people (ages 10-26) in New York City, all of whom had participated in a dance or music program in their elementary years. Most students were economically disadvantaged and from minority or culturally different backgrounds. Interviews were conducted with the students, their families, arts instructors, school teachers, and others. Four factors emerged as the primary obstacles to talent development: family circumstances, lack of affordable or appropriate instructional opportunities, peer resentment and social stigma, and the conflict between personal dreams and practical realities. The study also identified four factors key to student success in overcoming these obstacles: family support, instructional opportunities, community and school support, and innate personal qualities and psychological competencies. Evaluation of student accomplishments and observable behaviors concluded that 21 of the 23 students had achieved successful outcomes. Results have implications for development of interventions and programs to help young people with talent and drive but few opportunities.
    Descriptors: *Art Education; *Disadvantaged Youth; *Outcomes of Education; *Talent; *Talent Development; *Urban Education; Case Studies; Compensatory Education; Cultural Differences; Elementary Secondary Education; Enrichment Activities; Followup Studies; High Achievement; Higher Education; Longitudinal Studies; Minority Group Children; Student Motivation
    Identifiers: New York (New York)

    EJ591186 EC622898
    The Lifelong Productivity of the Female Researchers in Terman's Genetic Studies of Genius Longitudinal Study.
    Rogers, Karen B.
    Gifted Child Quarterly, v43 n3 p150-69 Sum 1999
    ISSN: 0016-9862
    Language: English
    Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
    Journal Announcement: CIJMAR2000
    A survey investigated the lifelong productivity of 30 women research associates who worked on a longitudinal study of gifted children. Most of the women appear to have had satisfying personal lives in addition to productive professional careers. Personal responsibilities appear to have affected levels of productivity more than societal expectations.
    Descriptors: Adults; Family Life; *Females; *Gifted; *Individual Characteristics; *Life Events; Longitudinal Studies; *Productivity; Quality of Life; Researchers; *Self Actualization; Sociocultural Patterns; Surveys

    EJ584827 SP527396
    Restructuring Special Programs to Reflect the Distinctions Between Children's and Adult's Experiences with Giftedness.
    Subotnik, Rena F.; Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula
    Peabody Journal of Education; v72 n3&4 p101-16 1997
    Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Journal Article (080)
    ISSN-0161-956X
    Language: English
    ERIC_ISSUE: CIJNOV1999
    Longitudinal, retrospective, and cross-sectional data on the relationship between giftedness in childhood and adulthood indicate that children who became eminent adults did not necessarily fit conceptions of giftedness driving current school programs. The paper presents directions for school gifted programs and perspectives for families that are more consistent with current knowledge about the evolution of high-level talent.
    Descriptors: *Academically Gifted; *Advanced Students; Academic Ability; Adults; Children; Cross Sectional Studies; Educational Quality; Elementary Secondary Education; Excellence in Education; Longitudinal Studies; Parent Role; Parent School Relationship; School Role; Talent;

    EJ506069 CE528054
    Viewing Talent Development Longitudinally: An Aid to Policymaking.
    Subotnik, Rena F.; Arnold, Karen D.
    Educational Forum, v59 n4 p372-80 Sum 1995
    ISSN: 0013-1725
    Language: English
    Document Type: Position Paper (120); Journal Article (080)
    Journal Announcement: CIJNOV95
    Longitudinal studies of gifted and talented individuals can provide a base upon which to determine educational practice. Such studies could reveal whether life-span patterns are unique and how demographic characteristics affect aspirations and achievement.
    Descriptors: Educational Policy; *Gifted; *Longitudinal Studies; Policy Formation; *Research Needs; *Talent

    EJ462534 EC605825
    The Beyonders in a Thirty Year Longitudinal Study of Creative Achievement.
    Torrance, E. Paul
    Roeper Review, v15 n3 p131-35 Feb-Mar 1993
    ISSN: 0278-3193
    Language: English
    Document Type: Journal Article (080); Research Report (143)
    Journal Announcement: CIJSEP93
    Initial findings and case studies of a 30-year follow-up of gifted students and adults suggest that characteristics such as love of one's work, persistence, purpose in life, love of challenge, high energy level, and a sense of mission may be more important in the long run than creative ability, intelligence, and high school achievement.
    Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Career Development; Case Studies; *Creativity; Exceptional Persons; Followup Studies; *Gifted; Graduate Surveys; High Schools; *Individual Development; Intelligence; Longitudinal Studies; *Performance Factors; *Personality Traits; Prediction; *Student Development; Talent

    EJ413295 EC231424
    The Hollingworth Longitudinal Study: Follow-Up, Findings, and Implications.
    Harris, Carole Ruth
    Roeper Review, v12 n3 p216-22 Mar 1990
    Report No: ISSN-0278-3193
    Language: English
    Document Type: Journal Article (080); Research Report (143)
    Journal Announcement: CIJJAN91
    A follow-up study analyzed 64 gifted individuals of 123 children originally identified by educator and psychologist Leta Hollingworth. The data that were gathered and analyzed concern personal/family status, education, vocational- professional status, avocational interests, achievements, and adjustment/fulfillment.
    Descriptors: Academic Achievement; *Academically Gifted; Adults; Exceptional Persons; *Followup Studies; *High Achievement; *Individual Characteristics; Longitudinal Studies
    Identifiers: *Hollingworth (Leta Stetter)
     

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