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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Prenatal Substance Exposure (updated April 2003)

Where would I find some information about teaching strategies for children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or children with problems due to prenatal substance exposure?

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is an organic brain disorder caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. The affected person may have:

  • height, weight, and growth deficiencies.
  • a specific pattern of facial features.
  • central nervous system damage i.e., a unique cluster of behavioral symptoms.

One of the most debilitating characteristics of FAS and FAE is the poor ability to adapt to demands of surroundings. Educational experiences should make students as independent as possible, both now and in the future, with the outcome being adults functioning as fully as they are able. For some children, "functional" may mean following traditional academic curricula. Many students are fairly accomplished in academic subjects. To be independent, they also may need to learn to ride buses, prepare meals, use money appropriately, and not only perform a job, but use the social skills necessary to keep it. Educational goals and objectives should go beyond classroom boundaries and target skills to be used not only at school, but in homes and communities as successful, productive citizens.

Equally important is instruction of communication skills. Programs must depart from traditional models of "speech therapy" or "language instruction" and view communication as all the verbal, written, gestural, and behavioral skills that allow an individual to participate in a social environment. Students with FAS/FAE must be taught appropriate ways to relate needs to others, whether verbally or through other communication systems. Communication skills should be developed in the context of social skills instruction. Because the two are inseparable and essential sets of skills to live and work in the community, they should be major components of the educational process from preschool through to high school. Small children can learn to communicate their needs, interact with peers, and respond to others appropriately. By high school, students should be teaming more complex communication and social skills, such as how to interact with employers and coworkers, make and maintain friendships, and behave with friends of the opposite sex.

Following are links to related Internet resources and Internet discussion groups, as well as selected citations from the ERIC database and the search terms we used to find the citations.


You can search the ERIC database yourself on the Internet through either of the following web sites:

NOTE: The primary focus of the ERIC system is education. While the ERIC database contains information on some medical disorders, you may want to search a medical database such as MEDLINE/MEDLARS at the National Library of Medicine, http://www.nlm.nih.gov, or PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed/ or MedWeb at Emory University, http://WWW.MedWeb.Emory.Edu/MedWeb/.

ERIC Citations

The full text of citations beginning with an ED number (for example, EDxxxxxx) is available:

  • In microfiche collections worldwide; to find your nearest ERIC Resource Collection, point your web browser to: http://ericae.net/derc.htm.
  • For a fee through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS): http://edrs.com, service@edrs.com, or 1.800.443.ERIC. (no longer available)

The full text of citations beginning with an EJ number (for example, EJxxxxxx) is available for a fee from:

ERIC Search Terms Used

fetal drug exposure OR prenatal drug exposure

ED426560 EC306998
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Implications for Educators.
Ackerman, Margaret E.
1998
21p.
EDRS Price: MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: GUIDES (055); INFORMATION ANALYSES (070)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Virginia
Journal Announcement: RIEJUN1999
This paper provides a discussion of definitions, historical precursors, and prevalence figures for children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and highlights relevant medical and behavioral characteristics. It also addresses the educational implications of working with children with FAS in terms of instruction and curriculum. Educators are urged to: (1) provide an appropriate program designed to meet the needs of these unique individuals; (2) provide early interventions for children with FAS and fetal alcohol effects (FAE); (3) teach students the skills that will help them survive and function in the real world, including daily living skills and vocational training; (4) teach communication skills to enable students with FAS or FAE to experience success with peer relations and job skills; (5) teach social skills to children with FAS or FAE; (6) manage inappropriate behavior by considering the classroom environment, conducting a functional behavioral assessment, determining what response the student is receiving from his or her behavior, and teaching the child self-management skills; and (7) collaborate with parents to more effectively provide the support that children with FAS or FAE need.
Descriptors: Behavior Modification; *Behavior Problems; *Curriculum Design; Curriculum Development; Daily Living Skills; Disability Identification; Early Intervention; Elementary Secondary Education; *Etiology; *Fetal Alcohol Syndrome; Incidence; *Interpersonal Competence; Parent Teacher Cooperation; Self Management; *Student Characteristics

ED422700 EC306672
Effective Teaching for FAS & FAE Children.
Root, Pam
1997
9; 1p.
EDRS Price: MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: GUIDES (055); REPORTS (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Washington
This paper discusses the importance of teaching social skills to children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) or Fetal Alcohol Effect (FAE) and the interrelationship between social skills and academic improvement. Goals and techniques for teaching social skills are identified, including: (1) improving the skill of compliance by setting reasonable expectations, establishing clear expectations using visual and other cues in addition to oral instruction, expressing expectations in positive terms, using role play and other techniques to let affected children foresee possible future situations and practice how to handle such events, rehearsing and announcing transitions, seating the affected child with role models, reducing opportunities for impulsive behavior, reducing competition, preparing alternative tasks for students, limiting the number of choices, allowing talking time at regular intervals each day, changing rewards frequently, and using "Serenity Lane"; (2) improving the skill of emotional/impulse control by teaching relaxation techniques, teaching anger management, using restitution as a classroom management strategy, teaching and rehearsing negotiation strategies, intervening before things get out of hand, and anticipating problems; and (3) improving self-esteem and raising status among peers. Goals and techniques to use to improve academic progress are also listed.
Descriptors: Academic Achievement; *Behavior Modification; *Classroom Techniques; *Compliance (Psychology); Coping; Educational Objectives; Educational Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; Emotional Problems; *Fetal Alcohol Syndrome; *Interpersonal Competence; Peer Relationship; *Self Esteem; Stress Management; Teacher Student Relationship
Identifiers: *Social Skills Training

ED414717 EC306089
Recognizing and Managing Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects: A Guidebook.
McCreight, Brenda
1997
153p.
ISBN: ISBN-0-87868-607-X
Available from: Child Welfare League of America, Inc., 440 First Street, N.W., Third Floor, Washington, DC 20001-2085
Language: English
Document Type: BOOKS (010); GUIDES (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
A family counselor and mother of adopted children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Effects (FAS/E) offers practical advice and information on dealing with FAS/E's lifelong effects on behavior and learning. The book begins by discussing the historical, medical, and social aspects of FAS/E, and details common behavioral characteristics associated with the condition. Characteristics described include: academic problems, attention deficit disorders, speech/language disorders, information processing deficits, patterning problems, poor impulse controls, inability to relate behavior to consequences, poor short-term memory, inconsistent knowledge base, poor personal boundaries, confusion under pressure, difficulty grasping abstract concepts, inability to manage anger, and poor judgment. The guide is then divided by the developmental stages of life: infancy and toddlerhood, early childhood, middle childhood, late childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence. The different challenges and obstacles presented by the symptoms of FAS/E in each life stage are described, followed by suggestions to overcome them and to help the family, the teacher, and the child create effective changes in the child's behavior. Case studies are used to clarify psychological concepts and to personalize FAS/E for the novice. Contains a list of resource organizations, books, and relevant Internet sites
Descriptors: Adolescents; *Behavior Problems; Case Studies; Developmental Stages; *Educational Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; Family Life; *Fetal Alcohol Syndrome; Infants; *Student Characteristics; Student Needs; Symptoms (Individual Disorders); Infants; Toddlers

EJ615363 PS530857
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects— for Teachers and Families.
Duckworth, Susanna V.; Norton, Terry L.
2000
Dimensions of Early Childhood; v28 n3 p19-23 Sum 2000
ISSN: ISSN-1068-6177
Language: English
Document Type: GUIDES (055); JOURNAL ARTICLES (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJAPR2001
Reviews genesis of fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects in children. Identifies physical characteristics and behavioral indicators found and provides three checklists of observable signs for both disorders. Recommends seven steps for educators to follow in seeking assistance with these conditions.
Descriptors: Alcohol Abuse; Behavior Patterns; *Behavior Problems; *Fetal Alcohol Syndrome; Parents; *Physical Characteristics; Pregnancy; *Prenatal Drug Exposure; Prenatal Influences; Teachers; Young Children

EJ630914 EC627975
Parallels between Learning Disabilities and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Effect: No Need To Reinvent the Wheel.
Johnson, Carol L.; Lapadat, Judith C.
Exceptionality Education Canada; v10 n3 p65-81 2000
ISSN: ISSN-1183-322X
Language: English
Document Type: IFORMATION ANALYSES (070); JOURNAL ARTICLES (080); REPORTS (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJFEB2002
A survey of the research and practice literatures on learning disabilities and on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Effect revealed parallels in learning characteristics, as well as in the recommended interventions. Based on these parallels, an adolescent with Fetal Alcohol received intervention. Teaching strategies for students with learning disabilities were moderately effective.
Descriptors: Adolescents; Educational Strategies; *Fetal Alcohol Syndrome; Learning Disabilities; Secondary Education; *Student Characteristics; Student Needs; *Symptoms (Individual Disorders); *Teaching Methods

ED414710 EC306082
Teaching Students with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Effects: A Resource Guide for Teachers.
Conry, Julie
1996
87; 1p.
Available from: Coordinator, Special Education, Special Programs Branch, Ministry of Education, Skills and Training, PO Box 9165 STN Prov Govt, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 9H4, Canada; fax: 604-356-7631.
EDRS Price: MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: GUIDES (055)
Geographic Source: Canada; British Columbia
This teacher's resource guide from British Columbia provides an overview of the needs of students with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). It begins by discussing the definition of FAS and fetal alcohol effects (FAE), characteristics of students with FAS/E, and steps for preparing to teach students with FAS/E (collecting information, making and carrying out a plan, evaluating the plan, and making a referral). The next section of the guide explains the different needs of students with FAS/E. Various problems of children with FAS/E are reviewed, including attention difficulties, cause and effect thinking, social skills, personal skills, memory skills, language development, reading and writing, motor skills, mathematics skills, science skills, and fine arts. The last section of the guide uses case studies to illustrate how to develop an Individual Education Plan (IEP) for children with FAS/E and provides sample IEPs. Appendices include sample questions to discuss during a meeting with parents or guardians, a form for notes from meetings with parents or guardians, a list of common misinterpretations of normal responses in students with FAS/E, checklists for developing various skills, and a list of resource organizations and relevant books and articles.
Descriptors; Case Studies; Elementary Secondary Education; *Fetal Alcohol Syndrome; Foreign Countries; Individualized Education Programs; Skill Development; *Student Characteristics; *Student Needs; *Symptoms (Individual Disorders); Teaching Methods
Identifiers: British Columbia

ED414689 EC306035
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Guide for Families and Communities.
Streissguth, Ann
1997
306p.
ISBN: ISBN-1-55766-283-5
Available from: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.; PO Box 10624, Baltimore, MD 21285-0624.
EDRS Price: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: BOOKS (010); GUIDES (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Maryland
The 14 chapters of this book review the research and offer guidelines for intervention with infants and children having fetal alcohol syndrome or fetal alcohol effects (FAS/FAE). Chapters are grouped into five sections on the diseases of fetal alcohol, the science of FAS, a life-span approach to FAS, preparing people with FAS for life in the community, and prevention of fetal alcohol damage. Individual chapters address the following topics: (1) an overview of FAS; (2) diagnosis of FAS; (3) the path from awareness to public policy; (4) alcohol as a teratogen; (5) alcohol's impact on children; (6) primary and secondary disabilities associated with FAS/FAE; (7) living with FAS/FAE; (8) the advocacy model; (9) families of children with FAS/FAE; (10) preparing children with FAS/FAE for adulthood; (11) guidelines for schools; (12) guidelines for human services; (13) education, training, and public policy; and (14) effective prevention programs for high-risk mothers. An appendix lists resources including videos, organizations, and parent support groups.
Descriptors: *Alcohol Abuse; Child Advocacy; *Early Intervention; Elementary Secondary Education; *Fetal Alcohol Syndrome; Human Services; Infants; Neonates; Neurological Impairments; *Prenatal Influences; Prevention; Public Policy; School Role; *Special Health Problems; *Theory Practice Relationship

EJ618037 EC626343
Developmental Outcomes in Two Groups of Infants and Toddlers: Prenatally Cocaine Exposed and Noncocaine Exposed.
Part 1.
Chapman, J. Keith
Infant-Toddler Intervention: The Transdisciplinary Journal; v10 n1 p19-36 Mar 2000
ISSN: ISSN-1053-5586
Language: English
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLES (080); REPORTS (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUN2001
A study examined cognitive and motor development in 56 toddlers prenatally exposed to cocaine (ages 12-27 months) and 56 typical toddlers. Infants prenatally exposed to cocaine experienced developmental problems in expressive and receptive language areas. In addition, there was a possible relationship between cocaine exposure and subsequent behavior development.
Descriptors: Behavior Problems; Child Development; *Cocaine; *Cognitive Development; *Expressive Language; *Motor Development; Prenatal Drug Exposure; Prenatal Influences; *Receptive Language; Young Children

EJ621358 EC626606
Expressive Language Development of Children Exposed to Cocaine Prenatally: Literature Review and Report of a Prospective Cohort Study.
Delaney-Black, Virginia; And Others
Journal of Communication Disorders; v33 n6 p463-81 Nov-Dec 2000
ISSN: ISSN-0021-9924
Language: English
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLES (080); REPORTS (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJAUG2001
Journal of Communication Disorders; v33 n6 p463-81 Nov-Dec 2000
A study of 458 6-year olds (204 prenatally exposed to cocaine), found low language children (n=57) were more likely to be cocaine exposed (63.1 percent), with cocaine-exposed children 2.4 times more likely to be in the low language groups compared with control children after adjustment for covariates.
Descriptors; *Cocaine; Data Analysis; Drug Abuse; Expressive Language; Illegal Drug Use; *Language Acquisition; Language Impairments; Language Skills; *Predictor Variables; Prenatal Drug Exposure; Prenatal Influences; Young Children

ED380718 CG026096
A Sourcebook of Successful School-based Strategies for Fetal Alcohol and Drug- Affected Students.
Osborne, Jan, Comp.
Western Regional Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities, Portland, OR. Oct 1994; 60p. Sponsoring Agency: Department of Education, Washington, DC. Contract No: S188A00001
EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Oregon
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG95
This publication's instructional strategies were collected over a three-year period from participants in a series of workshops which dealt with fetal alcohol and other drug-affected children in the educational setting. These strategies are not intended to be all inclusive; rather, they are intended to celebrate the "wisdom of practice." The approaches listed here have not been evaluated as to their effectiveness, but are based on sound guidelines for working with children who may have been prenatally exposed to alcohol or others drugs. The strategies should provide the educator with a springboard for his or her own creativity and expertise. Each strategy is organized into sections by grade level: Preschool; Kindergarten through 6th Grade; Junior High/Middle School; and High School. Each grade level is then divided into three sections, with each section featuring sub-categories: (1) Room Environment (Quiet Zones, Classroom Seating, Limit Distractions, Organized Materials, Clear Rules for Classroom and Learning Centers); (2) Active Learning (Use Multiple Modalities, Multi-sensory, Manipulatives; Keep Steps Simple; Provide Opportunities for Decision Making and Problem Solving; Model and Demonstrate Behaviors; Provide Structure); and (3) Routine (Daily Schedule, Consistent Schedule, Plan for Change, Build in Transitions, Use Visual, Auditory, and Sensory Cues).
Descriptors: Adolescents; Children; Classroom Techniques; Early Childhood Education; *Educational Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; *Fetal Alcohol Syndrome; Instructional Design; Learning Strategies; Special Health Problems; *Special Needs Students; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Fetal Drug Exposure

EJ487908 EA529667
"Don't Give Up on Me— Can Learn."
Meyer, Janet; Morris, John
Principal, v74 n1 p36-38 Sep 1994
ISSN: 0271-6062
Language: English
Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC94
Given our schools' mission to teach all children in regular classrooms, working with children damaged by prenatal substance exposure is tremendously challenging. Even the best-taught lesson may be forgotten within a day or an hour. Teachers should reduce the excitability factor, keep a uniform pattern of change, give advance warning, follow through, and establish bonding.
Descriptors: Behavior Problems; *Classroom Environment; *Classroom Techniques; Elementary Education; *Learning Problems; *Special Needs Students; *Teacher Responsibility; Teacher Student Relationship Identifiers: *Crack Babies; *Fetal Drug Exposure

EJ485372 PS522014
Psychosocial, Behavioral, and Developmental Characteristics of Toddlers Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine.
Yolton, Kimberly A.; And Others
Child Study Journal, v24 n1 p49-68 1994
ISSN: 0009-4005
Language: English
Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT94
Toddlers in foster care, exposed prenatally to cocaine, were assessed for development, temperament, play behaviors, and adaptive and maladaptive behaviors. Compared to nonexposed toddlers, these toddlers possessed more risk factors at birth and experienced more illnesses after birth; scored lower on conceptual development and higher on expression of feelings and peer interaction; and displayed more physically violent behavior patterns.
Descriptors: *Adjustment (to Environment); Affective Behavior; Behavior Development; *Child Behavior; Cocaine; Cognitive Development; Comparative Analysis; Foster Children; Peer Relationship; Personality; Prenatal Influences; *Toddlers; Violence
Identifiers: *Fetal Drug Exposure

ED380718 CG026096
A Sourcebook of Successful School-based Strategies for Fetal Alcohol and Drug- Affected Students.
Osborne, Jan, Comp.
Western Regional Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities, Portland, OR. Oct 1994; 60p. Sponsoring Agency: Department of Education, Washington, DC. Contract No: S188A00001
EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Oregon
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG95
This publication's instructional strategies were collected over a three-year period from participants in a series of workshops which dealt with fetal alcohol and other drug-affected children in the educational setting. These strategies are not intended to be all inclusive; rather, they are intended to celebrate the "wisdom of practice." The approaches listed here have not been evaluated as to their effectiveness, but are based on sound guidelines for working with children who may have been prenatally exposed to alcohol or others drugs. The strategies should provide the educator with a springboard for his or her own creativity and expertise. Each strategy is organized into sections by grade level: Preschool; Kindergarten through 6th Grade; Junior High/Middle School; and High School. Each grade level is then divided into three sections, with each section featuring sub-categories: (1) Room Environment (Quiet Zones, Classroom Seating, Limit Distractions, Organized Materials, Clear Rules for Classroom and Learning Centers); (2) Active Learning (Use Multiple Modalities, Multi-sensory, Manipulatives; Keep Steps Simple; Provide Opportunities for Decision Making and Problem Solving; Model and Demonstrate Behaviors; Provide Structure); and (3) Routine (Daily Schedule, Consistent Schedule, Plan for Change, Build in Transitions, Use Visual, Auditory, and Sensory Cues).
Descriptors: Adolescents; Children; Classroom Techniques; Early Childhood Education; *Educational Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; *Fetal Alcohol Syndrome; Instructional Design; Learning Strategies; Special Health Problems; *Special Needs Students; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Fetal Drug Exposure
 

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