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Differentiation of Instruction

"1. Gifted learners must be given stimulating educational experiences appropriate to their level of ability if they are to realize their potential. 2. Each person has the right to learn and to be provided challenges for learning at the most appropriate level where growth proceeds most effectively." National Association for Gifted Children, "Why Should Gifted Education Be Supported?" NAGC

Also visit ... Grouping and Middle School and Gifted Children, Materials for Gifted Classrooms and Arguments and Red Herrings: Differentiation, and visit Internet Investigations and (Free) Online High School Courses for free curriculum and courses to supplement your classroom!

Acceleration Recommended a Position Statement of the National Association for Gifted Children
Educational acceleration is one of the cornerstones of exemplary gifted education practices, with more research supporting this intervention than any other in the literature on gifted individuals.  See Academic Acceleration for more...
 
Acceleration for Gifted Learners, K-5 Recommended by Joan Franklin Smutny, Sally Y. Walker, Elizabeth A. Meckstroth 
Practical guide corrects misunderstandings of acceleration and provides the tools necessary to effectively determine the most appropriate learning options for gifted students. Through real-life stories, authors dispel common myths about acceleration and describe what it is, what forms it takes, and what it can do for gifted learners—intellectually, socially, and emotionally.  Includes instructional strategies for implementation in various school settings...

Comprehensive Curriculum For Gifted Learners Recommended by Joyce VanTassel-Baska
Most comprehensive and most practical text on the theory and practical considerations involved in helping gifted students excel...  Also available from Amazon.co.uk and Amazon.ca

Critical Issues and Practices in Gifted Education: What the Research Says Recommended by National Association for Gifted Children, edited by Jonathan A. Plucker & Carolyn M. Callahan (or from Amazon)
The updated edition of the definitive reference book for those searching for a summary and evaluation of the literature on giftedness and gifted education.  Topics include Neural Bases of Giftedness, Early Childhood and Identification, Academic Competitions and Creativity, Writing, Science, Social Studies and Mathematics, and nearly 40 others; each evaluation is written by the leading researchers in the specific field...
 
Differentiation: Asset or Liability for Gifted Education? Recommended by Sandra L. Kaplan, in Gifted Child Today ($)
The proliferation of definitions and practices related to differentiation has resulted in the overpopularization and subsequent diffusion of the term.  The question is whether the idea of differentiation is at the point when it has lost its vitality for gifted students.  But even now, educators of the gifted can use the popularity of the concept of differentiation as an important catalyst to support the education of gifted students as long as they are clear about the intent of differentiation and the elements that must be included in defining the concept in order for it to be an asset to gifted students...
 
Gifted Readers and Reading Instruction Recommended by David Levande
The greater the ability in reading, the greater the need for a special program commensurate with that ability
 
For more reading books, read Some of My Best Friends Are Books: Guiding Gifted Readers Recommended by Judith Wynn Halsted
Roeper Review says "...should be on the shelf of every school library, whether that school offers gifted programming or not."  Also available from Amazon.co.uk and Amazon.ca
 
The Handbook of Secondary Gifted Education Recommended by Felicia A. Dixon and Sidney Moon (or from Amazon
An in-depth, research-based look at ways schools and classrooms can support the development of gifted adolescents.  Each chapter is written by leading scholars and researchers in the field, including Nicholas Colangelo, Susan Assouline, Sally Reis, Donna Ford, Joyce VanTassel-Baska, Carolyn Callahan, more...
 
A Nation Deceived: How Schools Hold Back America’s Brightest Students Recommended The Templeton National Report on Acceleration
Acceleration is a powerful educational ally, but it’s a strategy that requires participation of parents as well as sensitivity to individual needs and circumstances. For that reason, this report is designed not only to persuade readers of the value of acceleration, but also to help schools administer acceleration programs effectively....
Also read the National Association of Gifted Children (NAGC) reply Acceleration in Schools: A Call to Action
 
Programs and Services for Secondary Gifted Students: A Guide to Recommended Practices Recommended by Felicia A. Dixon (or from Amazon)
A reference for service and program options for practitioners, administrators, and coordinators; a companion to the more in-depth The Handbook of Secondary Gifted Education.  Part I: the gifted adolescent's cognitive social and emotional dimensions, including suggestions for academic, personal/social, and career exploration best practices; Part II: programmatic offerings such as AP and IB, distance learning, magnet and other special schools, study abroad, and early entrance to college options; Part III: a view of optimal future directions—taking into account obstacles to change in today’s high schools...
 
Reading Levels of Children's Books: How Can You Tell? Recommended by Carolyn K.
What is the reading level of the books this child is reading? The answers may confuse you...
 
Research Synthesis on Gifted Provisions Recommended by Karen Rogers
Dr. Karen Rogers updates (1999) her earlier synthesis of what the research says about gifted educational provisions.  Essential gifted education provisions are listed, along with their effect on students when comparing to other gifted students...
 
The Role of Advanced Placement in Talent Development Recommended by Joyce VanTassel-Baska
AP course work is exemplary of a tailored curriculum response that recognizes advanced cognitive capacities such as abstract reasoning, higher level thinking, and rapid learning rate in such students and provides a rich and complex set of learning experiences. The program is comprehensive by specific subject area, and although offered only at high school level, has promise for earlier articulation of major skills and processes...
 
Social-Emotional Curriculum With Gifted and Talented Students Recommended by Joyce VanTassel-Baska, Tracy Cross and F. Richard Olenchak
A thorough introduction to methods for developing social-emotional curricula for use with gifted and talented learners in the school setting, including strategies that work for implementing social-emotional needs in the everyday curricula... A handy guide to developing social-emotional curricula for gifted students
 
Strategies for Differentiating Instruction: best practices for the classroom Recommended by Julia L. Roberts & Tracy F. Inman (or from Amazon)
Most comprehensive and most practical text on the theory and practical considerations involved in helping gifted students excel... 

Teaching Gifted Kids in Today's Classroom: Strategies and Techniques Every Teacher Can Use Recommended by Susan Winebrenner Also available from Amazon.co.uk and Amazon.ca
The CD of all the reproducibles from the book is now included in the revised, expanded and updated version.
An excellent guide to modifying curriculum for gifted elementary and middle school students in the regular classroom.
In combination with Teaching Kids With Learning Difficulties in the Regular Classroom: Strategies and Techniques Every Teacher Can Use to Challenge and Motivate Struggling Students  by Susan Winebrenner and Pamela Espeland or Amazon.co.uk this is a teacher's guide to teaching twice exceptional gifted children...
 
Twice Exceptional/Twice Successful: Back to School Strategies that Work Recommended by Linda Collins
Twice-exceptional students also need intentional support that personalizes a strategic educational plan in each class. This is not coincidental, accidental, or unintentional support. The IEP/504 fulfills legal obligations for special education services, but teachers may need a more detailed intentional approach to helping a 2-e student in a particular content area, a more focused, delineated, plan, especially if the student is attempting an Honors or Advanced Placement class...
 
Academic asynchrony by Charlotte A. Akin
This article focuses on asynchrony in terms of academic development seen in elementary, children in third- and fourth-grade self-contained classrooms for the gifted. After a general discussion, particular attention will be given to individual cases of asynchrony within a content area. How do teachers find it? And, once found, how do teachers deal with it?
 
Assessing Instructional and Curricular Strategies by E. Jean Gubbins
Modifying, differentiating, and enriching the curricula are three approaches to curricular strategies. Checklist helps answer the question, To what extent do you practice curriculum modification?
 
The Atterbury Files: an extra curricular inquiry project illustrating local history by Ronald V. Morris, in Gifted Child Today ($)
The students documented the history of this area as an extracurricular project growing from interdisciplinary science and social studies field trips to the area with the purpose of preserving the history of the past. Students conducted research for their book through oral history interviews with members of the local community and by examining local records. They wrote during their free time, in study halls, at lunch, before and after school, and occasionally when they got release time from science or social studies classes...
 
Attention Teachers! Homogeneous is [not always] a bad word! by Janet Chapman
A well-known and utilized concept in education, Vygotsky's "zone of proximal development" (1962, p. 104), epitomizes this idea that students should work with material slightly ahead of their independent level in order to promote development...
 
Basic Educational Options for Gifted Students in Schools by Joyce VanTassel-Baska
Most school mission statements proclaim the intention of educating every child to the level of his or her potential, yet many times those words have no translation value for the gifted as they sit bored in classrooms where their instructional level exceeds by years...  There is a real need to consider nonnegotiable options for this population...
 
Best Evidence Encyclopedia Johns Hopkins University
JHU's Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education.  Full reports on research-based educational reforms that work.  Comprehensive elementary and secondary school reforms, math programs at all levels, reading for English Language Learners (ELL), and more...
 
Biographies and Autobiographies: Life Models in the Classroom  by Bertie Kingore
Biographies and autobiographies frequently serve as role models for gifted students by illustrating how even prominent or successful people experience triumphs, failures, and hardships throughout their lives.  Activities are suggested...
 
Catering for Mathematically Gifted Elementary Students: Learning from Challenging Tasks by  Carmel M. Diezmann, James J. Watters, in Gifted Child Today ($)
All learners require challenging tasks to facilitate learning and develop autonomy. To realize their potential, gifted students should engage in challenging tasks for three reasons: cognition, metacognition, and motivation
 
Challenging Gifted Students in the Regular Classroom (ERIC Digest #513) by Beverly N. Parke
How do teachers develop an instructional plan that will be challenging, enlightening, and intriguing to students of different abilities, and still maintain a sense of community within the classroom?
 
Content Based Curriculum for High Ability Learners by Joyce VanTassel-Baska and Catherine Little
Written by recognized gifted curriculum leader VanTassel-Baska and her associates at the Center for Gifted Education at the College of William and Mary, this award-winning service publication of the National Association for Gifted Children illustrates award-winning curriculum units in language arts, social studies and science...  Also available from Amazon.co.uk and Amazon.ca
 
Cooperative Learning and the Academically Talented Student by Ann Robinson
Weaknesses in the cooperative learning literature, as it relates to academically talented students, are explored.  ...includes five research-based recommendations related to using cooperative learning most effectively with academically talented students:
bulletCooperative learning in the heterogeneous classroom should not be substituted for specialized programs and services for academically talented students.
bulletModels which encourage access to materials beyond grade level are preferable for academically talented students.
bulletModels which permit flexible pacing are preferable for academically talented students.
bulletStudent achievement disparities within the group should not be too severe... (requires Adobe Reader)

Creative Strategies for Teaching Language Arts to Gifted Students (K-8) (ERIC Digest #612) by Joan Franklin Smutny
Teaching strategies that stimulate higher level and imaginative thinking are important curriculum extensions for gifted students who have already mastered much of the written and oral language skills required at their grade level. This digest presents strategies and activities...
 
Curriculum as Profound Engagement with the World by Michael C. Thompson
A Keynote Speech to the National Curriculum Networking Conference
What drives me to write curriculum is the image of a classroom as a kind of helicopter, that lets a kid zoom around and see everything. New things.  What drives me to write curriculum is the image of a child, arriving at a new awareness of the world...
 
Curriculum Compacting on the Metagifted site
What Is It? How Do You Do It? and Does it Work? Curriculum compacting is one way to meet the needs of gifted students in the regular classroom
 
Curriculum Compacting and Achievement Test Scores: What Does the Research Say? by Reis, Westberg. Kulikowich, and Purcell, in Gifted Child Quarterly
Curriculum compacting for students who display content mastery, where 40%-50% of the regular curriculum content is eliminated, can be implemented without fears that normative national test scores will decline (abstract)
 
Curriculum Compacting: A Necessity for Academic Advancement by Del Siegle
The compacting procedure is simple: Determine what the students already know and what they still need to learn, and replace it with more challenging material that they would like to learn
 
Curriculum Compacting: A Research-based Differentiation Strategy for Culturally Diverse Talented Students by Joseph S. Renzulli & Sally M. Reis
Curriculum compacting is one technique for providing equitably for all students. [Compacting] is adaptable to any school organizational plan or curricular framework, and it is flexible enough to be used within the context of rapidly changing approaches to general education. The research described in this chapter and the practical experiences gained through several years of field testing and refining the compacting process, particularly in urban areas and in schools that serve culturally diverse students, have demonstrated that many positive benefits can result from this process for both students and teachers, and particularly, talented students who may be placed at risk for underachieving in school...
 
Curriculum Compacting: A Systematic Procedure for Modifying the Curriculum for Above Average Ability Students by Sally M. Reis and Joseph S. Renzulli
The Good News--Research that offers a practical solution
 
Developing Leadership in Gifted Youth (ERIC Digest #485) by Frances A. Karnes and Suzanne M. Bean
Preparing young people for leadership responsibility begins in the home...  Major emphasis should be placed on leadership development in all academic areas, including the fine and performing arts...
 
Developing leadership skills in young gifted students by Amy Bisland, in Gifted Child Today ($)
As society grows into a more cooperative society, the importance of finding emerging leaders has become crucial. Not only should these potential leaders be identified, but also their talents need the opportunity to develop. As a result, leadership education continues to be a concern in gifted education. However, it remains an abstract concept that is often ignored in school curricula...
 
Developing Mathematical Talent: They Don't Have to Be Bored to Tears by Ann Lupkowski-Shoplik, director of the Carnegie Mellon Institute for Talented Elementary and Secondary Students (C-MITES)
Beginning with the common myths, and moving to identification and programming, Lupkowski-Shoplik offers a comprehensive in-service for teachers of math-gifted students K-12... (requires Adobe Reader) Watch and listen to Dr. Shoplik's entire presentation "live" via Illuminate Live!  Visit PAGE online professional development...
 
Developing Programs for Students of High Ability (ERIC Digest #502) by Sandra L. Berger
An effective program comprises eight major components... Needs assessment, definition of population, identification procedures, program goals, program organization and format, staff selection and training, curriculum development, and program evaluation...
 
Developing Verbal Talent by Michael Thompson
Verbal talent is developed by new verbal experience. It will not develop on its own, and it will not develop if the only experiences a child has are within the child’s existing range of verbal experience. Verbal talent will develop when a child is thrown into verbal situations that he or she can’t do, doesn’t understand, hasn’t seen before — forcing the child to stop, think, listen, pay attention, reread, study, change...
 
Differentiate, Don't Standardize by Nel Noddings, EdWeek
It is unlikely that national standards will have a substantial effect on academic achievement. Standardization has also been supported by the growth in AP courses. But increased participation in AP courses has not produced a greater proportion of students passing the AP tests. Failure rates have risen. Simply stating what students must know and be able to do is not enough to ensure the desired outcomes...
 
Differentiating Curriculum for Gifted Students (ERIC Digest #510) by Sandra L. Berger
No matter where gifted children are educated, they need an appropriately differentiated curriculum designed to address their individual characteristics, needs, abilities, and interests
 
Differentiating Instruction With Centers in the Gifted Classroom by Julia L. Roberts and Julia Roberts Boggess (grades K-8) (or from Amazon)
Provides ideas and guidance for creating classroom centers to challenge gifted learners and encourage high-level, independent thinking. Develop in-depth learning on a variety of topics. Discusses using centers in each content area, with suggestions from experts in the content areas and easy-to-implement lessons beyond the core curriculum...
 
Differentiating the Language Arts for High Ability Learners (ERIC Digest #640) by Joyce VanTassel-Baska
Gifted children often achieve language competency at an earlier age than their chronological age-mates. High-ability learners may excel in many language arts areas from reading and literary analysis to creative writing, poetry, and prose. Typically, teaching in the language arts has emphasized reading skills and low-level questions over active learning and inquiry. Such a low-level emphasis fails to challenge high-ability learners...
 
Differentiation: Definition and Description for Gifted and Talented by Susan T. Dinnocenti
Educational terms often become buzzwords... and misconception replaces the intended meaning that results in confusion or lack of implementation...
 
Differentiation of Curriculum and Instruction, a Position Paper of the National Association for Gifted Children
To provide appropriate and challenging educational experiences for gifted students, differentiation may include:
acceleration of instruction; in-depth study; a high degree of complexity; advanced content; and/or variety in content and form.  Problems occur when teachers attempt to meet the needs of gifted students by ...

Differentiation tips for Teachers: Practical Strategies for the Classroom by J. Kirchner & T. Inman
In order for differentiation to be effective, assessment must be an ongoing part of teaching and learning.  Planning, preassessment [sic] and differentiation...
 
Differentiation with Dr. Carol Ann Tomlinson, Part 2 and Part 3 a podcast interview
Listen and watch discussion of issues of implementation as related to differentiated instruction with Dr. Carol Ann Tomlinson...
 
Does Accelerated Reader Work? The (Lack of ) Experimental Evidence Supporting the Use of Accelerated Reader by Stephen D Krashen, Journal of Children's Literature
The results strongly suggest that of the four aspects of AR, access to books, time devoted to reading, tests, and rewards, only the first two are supported by research. There is considerable evidence that providing access to books results in more reading and better reading and considerable evidence that providing time to read results in better reading. There is suggestive evidence that incentives do not promote additional reading in the long term...
 
Effective Techniques for Teaching Highly Gifted Visual-Spatial Learners by Linda Kreger Silverman
Great teaching strategies for your highly gifted visual-spatial learner... (requires Adobe)
 
A Fable? printed in The Instructor, April. 1968
One time the animals had a school. The curriculum consisted of running, climbing, flying and swimming, and all the animals took all the subjects...
 
Fostering Academic Creativity in Gifted Students (ERIC Digest #484) by Paul E. Torrance and Kathy Goff
Some things caring adults can do to foster and nurture creativity in gifted students...
 
From feds on down, AP students are being neglected by Walt Gardner
Until recently, the one program for gifted students in public schools that seemed immune to criticism was AP...  But AP is now facing a backlash that worries parents and students. A series of questions about the caliber of instruction have surfaced... With mounting criticism from so many sides, another college-level offering known as the dual enrollment course is slowly gaining traction. These courses are taken either at college or at high school, with instruction paid or supervised by the college...

Gifted all day long: implementing new state standards that require gifted and talented education services to be an integral part of the core curriculum will result in improved teaching and learning for everyone by Margaret Gosfield
Recognizing that gifted students are gifted every day, all day--not just on Tuesday afternoon--the new legislation specifies that services in GATE (California's gifted and talented education) programs must be an integral part of the school day, and include modification and extensions of core curriculum appropriate for gifted learners.  Yeah!
 
Gifted Kids, Gifted Characters, and Great Books by Bertie Kingore
The annotated bibliography in this article focuses on the following three criteria: the books are written by authors of merit; each book contains well-developed characters who display gifted behaviors; and the stories include thought-provoking problem situations, issues, or personal needs with which gifted students can identify...
 
Gifted readers: Who are they, and how can they be served in the classroom? by Andrea Vosslamber, in Gifted Child Today ($)
Who is a gifted reader? There are two main ways that gifted readers' needs are addressed in the classroom--enrichment or acceleration...  How can gifted readers be served in the classroom?  Teachers who meet the needs of their students are also concerned in the need to identify gifted abilities so as to provide suitable programs...
 
Guidance on teaching the gifted + talented Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA)
From general guidance including identification, policies, matching learners needs, and case studies of gifted 14-19 year-olds, to subject specific guidance on curriculum modifications for the gifted, in English, Math, Science and lots more...
 
Guiding the Gifted Reader (ERIC Digest #481) by Judith Wynn Halsted
How to offer challenging reading to gifted students, how to guide their reading, and how to know what books to recommend to them or their parents.... How to develop programs that use literature in ways that are the most helpful to gifted students and make the most effective use of their abilities...
 
Harry Potter: enchantment for all seasons by Sharon Black
Next to the influence of the parents, the most potent force for this search for meaning is one's cultural heritage and that, "when children are young, it is literature that carries such information best."  Harry Potter is a story that can meet such needs, particularly for the gifted, with their vivid imaginations, their need to understand themselves as individuals who often stand apart, and their drive to make sense of a universe that can be a complicated mix of good and evil, ethical and unethical, humane and cruel...
 
Helping students learn only what they don't already know by Julian Stanley
Well-known, well validated principles of individual-difference psychology and education should lead to major changes in classroom instruction. Students need to be helped to learn what they do not already know, instead of being marched through course materials in lock step, largely regardless of what they knew at the start of the course. That especially hurts the intellectually talented, who tend to be far ahead of grade level... (a chapter from Talent Development IV: Proceedings from the 1998 Henry B. and Jocelyn Wallace National Research Symposium on Talent Development)
 
Highly Gifted Children in Full Inclusion Classrooms by Kathi Kearney
With intellect developing at one-and-one-half, one-and-three-quarters, or even double the usual rate, an age-graded curriculum poses enormous academic problems, which, unaddressed, sometimes spill over into the social arena
 
How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms by Carol Ann Tomlinson
Dispelling the myths about the nature of giftedness with credible research, Sousa provides a greater understanding of the idiosyncrasies of gifted children, and the implications for teaching and parenting them...  
 
If Dr. Seuss had a gifted child.... by Mary Beth Northrup
A terrific poem about our gifted kids, written in traditional Seuss-ian style
 
Inclusion a PAGE Bulletin
Too often the reality for gifted students is that their needs are not met in the regular classroom...
 
An Independent Study Model for Secondary Students by Del Siegle
One option for serving gifted and talented students at the secondary level is an independent study model based on student developed courses
 
Individual Instruction Plan Menu for the Gifted Child by Center for Gifted Education College of William and Mary
Subject by subject possibilities for individualized student instructional modifications, from Language Arts to Math to Creativity and far more.  "Recommendations are intended for consideration by those who know the child well and can make informed decisions about the relevance and practical application of a recommendation to an individual child's aptitude, interest, and needs."
 
In search of reality: unraveling the myths about tracking, ability grouping, and the gifted by Susan Winebrenner, Roeper Review (available for a fee from Highbeam.com)
The antitracking movement has suddenly become anti-ability grouping, resulting in serious side-effects for gifted students who currently are being served effectively in ability-grouped programs that consistently meet their needs. Closer scrutiny of the research frequently cited reveals commonly-held misinterpretations and misconceptions...
 
Integrating the Arts into the Curriculum for Gifted Students (ERIC Digest #631) by Joan Franklin Smutny
Studies have shown that the arts can significantly advance gifted students' academic and creative abilities and cognitive functioning. This is a strong rationale for making the arts an essential feature of gifted education...
 
Integrating an affective component in the curriculum for gifted and talented students by Karen Johnson, in Gifted Child Today ($)
Affective education is an important aspect in today's schools, and it can be accomplished with little effort. Gifted children face emotional issues, as do other children; however, they may have a heightened self-awareness. In addition, gifted students may be perfectionistic or excessively critical of what they can do and achieve. Therefore, these same students may have a low self-esteem or a low perception of their abilities...
 
Introversion: The Often Forgotten Factor Impacting the Gifted by Jill D. Burruss and Lisa Kaenzig
"Introversion is simply a personality trait found in a small percentage of the total population. Introverts are different from extraverts and this difference is very difficult for the extravert to understand because they do not operate in that fashion. And because they do not understand it, many continually try to help the introvert become more social, more gregarious, more outgoing, and have more fun from the extravert perspective. Such is the situation of the introvert, a minority in the regular population but a majority in the gifted population."
 
Is Gifted Education Still Viable? by Jonathan A. Plucker
It is hard to imagine standing up at a school board meeting and saying, "Why are we wasting all of this time and money on helping students develop their talents?" Yet as ludicrous as that sounds, it happens all the time during debates over the appropriateness of gifted education programs...
 
'Mathematics for All' Must Include High-Ability and Highly Motivated Students by Glenda Lappan, president NCTM
All too often, we cope with [gifted math] students by giving them more of the same. If the less able students do 10 problems, the more able students do 25. This does little to encourage deeper mathematical thinking and might even turn capable students against mathematics
 
Meeting the Needs of Able Learners through Flexible Pacing (ERIC Digest #464)
With flexible pacing all students can progress through school at a pace that provides a steady challenge without crippling frustration or unreasonable pressure
 
Meeting the Needs of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse and Special-Needs Students in Rural Communities: A Report on McREL's Diversity Roundtable IV from McREL
Implementing differentiated instruction.  How can the teacher meet the needs of one or two [GT] learners in the  classroom? [GT students] do not know how to put themselves in the zone of proximal development.  It is the teacher's job to do that.  One approach is...  (requires Adobe Reader)
 
Methods And Materials For Teaching The Gifted by Frances A. Karnes & Suzanne M. Bean
Comprehensive textbook introduction to gifted education curriculum planning, instructional unit design, evaluation, and teaching methods. Chapters include differentiated curricular design, process skills development, instructional practices.  Expands upon earlier editions with new chapters and fully updated information and research...
 
The Miseducation of Our Gifted Children by Ellen Winner
Gifted children are usually bored and unengaged in school; they tend to be highly critical of their teachers, who they feel know less than they do, and they are often underachievers...
 
Modifying Regular Classroom Curriculum for High Ability Students by Laura E. McGrail
Students previously served in part-time, pull-out programs must also [emphasis added] receive appropriate instruction within the context of their regular classrooms, towards the objectives of meeting the learning capacity of the students, meeting the students' rapid rate of learning in all or some areas of study, and providing time and resources so the students can pursue areas of special interest...
 
The Myth About Homework: Think hours of slogging are helping your child make the grade? Think again by Claudia Wallis, Time Magazine
[Two new] books cite studies, surveys, statistics, along with some hair-raising anecdotes, on how a rising tide of dull, useless assignments is oppressing families and making kids hate learning.  Why don't more parents in homework-heavy districts take such actions? Do too many of us think it's just our child who is struggling, so who are we to lead a revolt? More on the research Duke Study: Homework Helps Students Succeed in School, As Long as There Isn't Too Much
 
Nation Twice Exceptional/Twice Successful: Back to School Strategies that Work Recommended by Linda Collins
Twice-exceptional students also need intentional support that personalizes a strategic educational plan in each class. This is not coincidental, accidental, or unintentional support. The IEP/504 fulfills legal obligations for special education services, but teachers may need a more detailed intentional approach to helping a 2-e student in a particular content area, a more focused, delineated, plan, especially if the student is attempting an Honors or Advanced Placement class...
 
The New RtI: Response to Intelligence by Penny Choice and Sally Walker
Will the RtI movement leave Gifted students behind . . . again?  The New RtI provides academic challenge and social/emotional support to children of high potential. The authors turn the original RtI model on its side, create a mirror image, and place Tier 2 and Tier 3 students on a continuum, finally providing for ALL students in the classroom including gifted students...
 
NRC/GT Looks at Self-Reflection of Classroom Practices by E. Jean Gubbons
...teachers could make adjustments in their instructional and curricular practices in the following ways: ...grouping, accelerated work, higher level thinking skills, enrichment, (more)...
 
An Observational Study of Instructional and Curricular Practices Used With Gifted and Talented Students in Regular Classrooms by Karen L. Westberg, Francis X. Archambault, Jr., Sally M. Dobyns, and Thomas J. Salvin
Despite several years of advocacy and efforts to meet the needs of gifted and talented students in this country, little
differentiation in the instructional and curricular practices is provided to gifted and talented students in the regular classroom.  Teachers and administrators need more preservice and inservice training programs... (requires Adobe Reader)

On EPGY... by Draper Kauffman, Kit Finn and Trindel Maine
Four gifted children's experience with EPGY K-8 and Pre-Calc math programs...
 
One size fits all? by Mike Robison
Age based tracking versus ability grouping in elementary school mathematics...
 
Online learning: A smart way to nurture gifted kids by Laura Vanderkam
With online learning, the newest wave of education, gifted students can take classes local schools can't offer and learn at their own frenetic pace.  Framework already exists...
 
On the Wrong Track? by Debra Viadero, in EdWeek
A handful of researchers, pointing to some newer studies and rehashing old ones, are reopening the debate on Tracking
 
Planning Science Programs for High-Ability Learners (ERIC Digest #546) by Joyce VanTassel-Baska
What subject most intrigues young high ability learners? What subject is still rated highly by middle school academically talented learners? Interestingly, the answer is science...
 
Problem solving and gifted education: a differentiated fifth-grade fantasy unit by Kenneth Smith and Michele Weitz, in Gifted Child Today ($)
All students are capable of manifesting higher levels of performance if they can learn and apply content in a way that matches their strengths.  The gifted literature provided guidelines for offering students a variety of opportunities to work together according to commonality in ability, interests, learning style, and preference for various modes of expression...
 
Profiles of Successful Practices for High Ability Students in Elementary Classrooms by Karen L. Westberg and Francis X. Archambault, Jr., Editors, with contributions from The University of Georgia, The University of Virginia, and Yale University, and The University of Connecticut
Using a multisite case study method, researchers conducted observations in classrooms and interviewed teachers, administrators, and students at 10 school sites to describe both the specific ways that teachers make accommodations for individual students and the factors that influence these practices. (requires Adobe Reader)
 
Providing Curriculum Alternatives To Motivate Gifted Students (ERIC Digest #524) by Susan Winebrenner and Sandra Berger
Gifted students may never achieve their potential because they have not had complex tasks and have never learned to really work
 
Quo Vadis*, Gifted Education (Quo Vadis*, Gifted Education in pdf format) by Joyce VanTassel-Baska
...the future state of gifted education is likely to remain chaotic, defensive, and peripheral to public education unless we change the way we do business as a field.  So what will it take to "break the mold," to move the field to higher ground where connection, coherence, and centrality to the world of public education become the mantra? (requires Adobe Reader)
 
Reading Instruction for the Primary Gifted Learner by Bertie Kingore
Gifted readers have the ability to read beyond grade level, and thus, they risk receiving less instructional attention.  Conventional wisdom has been that these students plateau and read at grade level by third or fourth grade. Indeed, advanced readers who are limited to a grade-level reading program can regress in their pace of progress...
 
Research Should Inform Practice by E. Jean Gubbins
... examined the effectiveness of various service delivery models on students' cognitive and affective outcomes and concluded...
 
Rethinking Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment in Gifted Education at the End of the Millennium by James Borland
School personnel need to look at the regular curriculum and at the needs of their gifted students and determine where the former is failing the latter. And then curricular goals need to be formulated that address the deficiencies in the core curriculum for gifted learners, and a scope and sequence of objectives, skills, and content needs to be formulated ...
 
Research Synthesis by Karen B. Rogers
Rogers updates (1999) her 1991 research synthesis regarding gifted education provisions...
bulletGifted students are significantly more likely to retain science and mathematics content accurately when taught 2-3 times faster than "normal" class pace.
bulletGifted students are significantly more likely to forget or mislearn science and mathematics content when they must drill and review it more than 2-3 times
bulletGifted students perform significantly more highly when the majority of their time is spent in true peer interactions (academic core areas only)
 
The Results of the Replication of the Classroom Practices Survey Replication in Two States by Karen L. Westberg and Megan E. Daoust
Have teachers' classroom practices changed in the 10 years since the Classroom Practices Study was conducted by The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented (NRC/GT)?  ...teachers' differentiation practices in third and fourth grade classrooms have not changed in the last 10 years...
 
Self-Regulated Learning and Academically Talented Students by Sally Reis
The development of good self-regulation usually involves self-observation; self-judgment; self-reaction with goal-setting, self-administered praise or criticism, and asking for help.  Guiding students in acquiring these strategies can successfully increase their self-regulation and enhance academic achievement...
 
Social-Emotional Curriculum With Gifted and Talented Students by Joyce VanTassel-Baska, Tracy Cross and F. Richard Olenchak
A thorough introduction to methods for developing social-emotional curricula for use with gifted and talented learners in the school setting, including strategies that work for implementing social-emotional needs in the everyday curricula... A handy guide to developing social-emotional curricula for gifted students
 
Special Programs Found To Benefit Gifted Students by Debra Viadero, in EdWeek
Gifted students achieve more in special programs, regardless of whether they get that extra help in the regular classroom or in special classes and schools
 
Stay out of the way and let them learn... by Del Siegle
One teacher's perspective... (PodCast)
 
Successful Strategies for Teaching Gifted Learners by Marie Capurro
Tip #1: Familiarize Yourself with the Characteristics of Intellectually Gifted Students.  Tip #2: Let Go of "Normal".  Tip #3: Conduct Informal Assessments...
 
TAGFAM MonTAGe E-Journal: Back to School Issues, Vol. 1, No. 8 editor, Valorie J. King
Includes articles "Strategy, Assessment, and Tactics" and "Problem Solving 103: The Roles of the School Principal"
 
Talent Development for Everyone by Bruce N. Berube
A Review of Developing the Gifts and Talents of All Students in the Regular Classroom
 
Teaching Beyond the Test: Differentiated Project-Based Learning in a Standards-Based Age, Grades 6 & Up by Phil and Dori Schlemmer
To thrive in their uncertain future, students must know more than how to take tests. Transforming students into confident, self-directed, lifelong learners requires differentiated instruction and project-based learning. This practical classroom resource presents dozens of strategies for differentiation among learners, and a range of fully developed content-focused projects, each modeling one or more differentiation strategies...
 
Teaching Young Gifted Children in the Regular Classroom: Identifying, Nurturing, and Challenging Ages 4-9 by Joan Smutny, Sally Walker, Elizabeth Meckstroth
A new guide for our youngest gifted students... or Amazon.co.uk
 
Technology empowers differentiated instruction by , eSchool News
"Above all, DI [Differentiated Instruction] should be used to promote 21st-century skills, [including] digital-age literacy, inventive thinking, effective communication, and high productivity. A mastery of these skills will lead to student achievement."  Technology is a great choice to consider for DI, because it helps to personalize instruction, enhances learning with multimedia components, can help students construct new knowledge, and motivates students with their work...
 
They're Not Bringing My Brain Out by Rosemary Cathcart
Have you ever wondered how to cope with a very bright child when you've got 25 other children in the class?  What to do now you're in charge of the gifted programme?  How to help the teacher understand your gifted child?  This book is written for everyone who lives or works with a gifted child... (published in New Zealand)
 
Through the looking glass: one school's reflections on differentiation by Carol Tieso, in Gifted Child Today ($)
There has been one innovation introduced that has demonstrated initial and lasting change: peer or technical coaching, combined with strategies and techniques for enhancing and differentiating curricula for high-ability students.  Chronicles a year of implementing technical and peer coaching models to help teachers modify, differentiate, and enrich the curriculum for diverse learners...
 
Tiered lessons: one way to differentiate mathematics instruction by Cheryll M. Adams, in Gifted Child Today ($)
A tiered lesson is a differentiation strategy that addresses a particular standard, key concept, and generalization, but allows several pathways for students to arrive at an understanding of these components based on their interests, readiness, or learning profiles. Take a closer look at the anatomy of a tiered lesson...
 
To My Teacher by Shaun
I didn't ask for it. This mind that seems to so repulse you.
It's not my fault I'm different in a way you cannot stand.
I cannot understand why a man like you could fear me.
But fear is what I see in you - it's either that or hate.
 
The Tracking and Ability Grouping Debate by Tom Loveless, Thomas B. Fordham Foundation
Tracking and ability grouping remain among the most hotly debated topics in American education today, as they have been for nearly a century. After all this time and attention, what have we actually learned about these issues?
 
Using Gifted Education Strategies With All Students by E. Jean Gubbins & NRC/GT Research Team
Our research team investigated not only what happens if you try to extend the pedagogy of gifted education to regular classrooms, but also, what happens when you attempt to upscale an innovation?
 
Using the literary masters to inspire written expression in gifted students by Deidra M. Gammill
Throughout history, gifted writers have enriched the human experience with the power and beauty of words. These literary masters enlighten us to universal truths, expand our minds to new ideas and visions, and challenge us to advance civilization. Exposing gifted students to the vast realm of important literature can inspire them to find their own voices and attain personal growth while making contributions to their culture...
 
What can happen to bored gifted students by Tara Malone
The rule of thumb tends to be the more gifted a child, the greater the disparity between a student's ability and age and the greater the risk for emotional and social problems.  Depression.  Delinquency.  Dropping out.  And even suicide.  Gifted children, who some say are smart enough to know better, are not immune to such dangers.  In fact, gifted children might be more at risk than ever...
 
What Do Gifted Children Need? by Betsy Van Dorn
Family Education Network emphasizes "There is no unique characteristic or single factor that identifies giftedness."
 
Why teachers need to be readers by Penny Britton Kolloff, in Gifted Child Today ($)
These findings suggest a circular pattern: Many teachers do not read for pleasure, And thus, do not excite children about reading. They do not immerse their students in literature in the classroom, and, as a result, these young people do not develop a love or habit of reading--many grow up to be teachers who do not share the enjoyment of reading with their students...
 
William & Mary's Center for Gifted Education Curriculum Units
Science, Language Arts, and more curriculum units for gifted students, including "Acid, Acid Everywhere" and "Electricity City"
 
William and Mary Teaching Models
Complete details on the Literature Web, Hamburger Model for Persuasive Writing, Vocabulary Web, Paul's Elements of Reasoning, Analyzing Primary Sources, and Research Model...
 
A Writers' Workshop for Highly Verbal Students by Cecile P. Frey, in Gifted Child Today ($)
Help understand how far gifted students can go if they are given the opportunity to do so. Their depth, perception, motivation, and ability to make connections were far greater than I had expected. They represented to me the best in intrinsic learning, as they wanted to read and discuss for its own sake, rather than for the grade...
 
Writing Like Writers: Guiding Elementary Children Through a Writer's Workshop Recommended by Kathryn L. Johnson & Pamela V. Westkott
Guided Writer's Workshop for elementary (and even secondary!) students. An excellent resource for teachers, homeschoolers, and students.  Also available from Amazon.co.uk and Amazon.ca

Last updated February 15, 2014
 

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